hmgn proteins



Top Publications

  1. Czapla L, Peters J, Rueter E, Olson W, Maher L. Understanding apparent DNA flexibility enhancement by HU and HMGB architectural proteins. J Mol Biol. 2011;409:278-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination of experiment and simulation provides a powerful new approach to resolve a long-standing problem in the biophysics of protein/DNA interactions. ..
  2. Ueda T, Furusawa T, Kurahashi T, Tessarollo L, Bustin M. The nucleosome binding protein HMGN3 modulates the transcription profile of pancreatic beta cells and affects insulin secretion. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a new regulator of glucose homeostasis and demonstrate a link between the activity of a nucleosome binding structural protein and the regulation of insulin secretion. ..
  3. Ruone S, Rhoades A, Formosa T. Multiple Nhp6 molecules are required to recruit Spt16-Pob3 to form yFACT complexes and to reorganize nucleosomes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45288-95 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Nhp6 and the related high mobility group B proteins may have a general role in promoting rearrangements of chromatin by initiating the destabilization of core nucleosomal structure. ..
  4. Formosa T, Eriksson P, Wittmeyer J, Ginn J, Yu Y, Stillman D. Spt16-Pob3 and the HMG protein Nhp6 combine to form the nucleosome-binding factor SPN. EMBO J. 2001;20:3506-17 pubmed
    ..These complexes have altered electrophoretic mobility and a distinct pattern of enhanced sensitivity to DNase I. These results suggest that Spt16-Pob3 and Nhp6 cooperate to function as a novel nucleosome reorganizing factor. ..
  5. Rhoades A, Ruone S, Formosa T. Structural features of nucleosomes reorganized by yeast FACT and its HMG box component, Nhp6. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3907-17 pubmed
  6. Postnikov Y, Bustin M. Regulation of chromatin structure and function by HMGN proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of HMGN proteins with nucleosomes is dynamic and the proteins compete with the linker histone H1 chromatin-binding sites...
  7. Lopez S, Livingstone Zatchej M, Jourdain S, Thoma F, Sentenac A, Marsolier M. High-mobility-group proteins NHP6A and NHP6B participate in activation of the RNA polymerase III SNR6 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3096-104 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that besides the general transcription factors TFIIIB and TFIIIC, additional auxillary factors are required for the optimal transcription of at least some specific Pol III genes. ..
  8. Tang W, Newbold R, Mardilovich K, Jefferson W, Cheng R, Medvedovic M, et al. Persistent hypomethylation in the promoter of nucleosomal binding protein 1 (Nsbp1) correlates with overexpression of Nsbp1 in mouse uteri neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol or genistein. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5922-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the life reprogramming of uterine Nsbp1 expression by neonatal DES/GEN exposure appears to be mediated by an epigenetic mechanism that interacts with ovarian hormones in adulthood. ..
  9. Szerlong H, Saha A, Cairns B. The nuclear actin-related proteins Arp7 and Arp9: a dimeric module that cooperates with architectural proteins for chromatin remodeling. EMBO J. 2003;22:3175-87 pubmed
    ..We propose that Arp7/9 dimers function with DNA bending proteins to facilitate proper chromatin architecture and complex- complex interactions. ..

More Information


  1. Dowell N, Sperling A, Mason M, Johnson R. Chromatin-dependent binding of the S. cerevisiae HMGB protein Nhp6A affects nucleosome dynamics and transcription. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2031-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the chromatin environment, not DNA sequence recognition, localizes Nhp6A binding, and that Nhp6A stabilizes chromatin structure and coregulates transcription. ..
  2. Catez F, Lim J, Hock R, Postnikov Y, Bustin M. HMGN dynamics and chromatin function. Biochem Cell Biol. 2003;81:113-22 pubmed
    ..Here we discuss how the dynamic behavior of the nucleosome binding HMGN proteins affects the structure and function of chromatin...
  3. Brewster N, Johnston G, Singer R. A bipartite yeast SSRP1 analog comprised of Pob3 and Nhp6 proteins modulates transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3491-502 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that in yeast cells the Cdc68 partners may be both Pob3 and Nhp6, functioning as a bipartite analog of the vertebrate SSRP1 protein. ..
  4. Hock R, Furusawa T, Ueda T, Bustin M. HMG chromosomal proteins in development and disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2007;17:72-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we focus on the biological function of HMG proteins and highlight their possible roles in cellular differentiation and in the etiology of various diseases. ..
  5. Rochman M, Postnikov Y, Correll S, Malicet C, Wincovitch S, Karpova T, et al. The interaction of NSBP1/HMGN5 with nucleosomes in euchromatin counteracts linker histone-mediated chromatin compaction and modulates transcription. Mol Cell. 2009;35:642-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that mouse NSBP1 is an architectural protein that binds preferentially to euchromatin and modulates the fidelity of the cellular transcription profile by counteracting the chromatin-condensing activity of linker histones. ..
  6. Tang L, Li J, Katz D, Feng J. Determining the DNA bending angle induced by non-specific high mobility group-1 (HMG-1) proteins: a novel method. Biochemistry. 2000;39:3052-60 pubmed
    ..We believe that this experimental design provides an effective vehicle to determine the DNA bending induced by nonspecific HMG-1 proteins. ..
  7. Zhang J, McCauley M, Maher L, Williams M, Israeloff N. Basic N-terminus of yeast Nhp6A regulates the mechanism of its DNA flexibility enhancement. J Mol Biol. 2012;416:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the basic N-terminus of Nhp6A is responsible for its ability to act as a flexible hinge and to form high-order structures. ..
  8. Paull T, Johnson R. DNA looping by Saccharomyces cerevisiae high mobility group proteins NHP6A/B. Consequences for nucleoprotein complex assembly and chromatin condensation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:8744-54 pubmed
    ..From these data we predict diverse architectural roles for NHP6A/B in manipulating chromosome structure and promoting the assembly of multicomponent protein.DNA complexes. ..
  9. Rochman M, Malicet C, Bustin M. HMGN5/NSBP1: a new member of the HMGN protein family that affects chromatin structure and function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HMGN proteins specifically bind to the nucleosome core particle through a highly conserved "nucleosomal binding domain" (NBD)..
  10. Sebastian N, Bystry E, Becker N, Maher L. Enhancement of DNA flexibility in vitro and in vivo by HMGB box A proteins carrying box B residues. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate important roles for cationic leader amino acids in HMGB folding, DNA interaction, and DNA bending. ..
  11. Masse J, Wong B, Yen Y, Allain F, Johnson R, Feigon J. The S. cerevisiae architectural HMGB protein NHP6A complexed with DNA: DNA and protein conformational changes upon binding. J Mol Biol. 2002;323:263-84 pubmed
    ..The resulting correlations can be rationalized by comparison of solved structures of HMGB proteins. ..
  12. Costigan C, Kolodrubetz D, Snyder M. NHP6A and NHP6B, which encode HMG1-like proteins, are candidates for downstream components of the yeast SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:2391-403 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the Slt2p MAPK pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae may mediate its function in cell growth and morphogenesis, at least in part, through high-mobility group proteins. ..
  13. Allain F, Yen Y, Masse J, Schultze P, Dieckmann T, Johnson R, et al. Solution structure of the HMG protein NHP6A and its interaction with DNA reveals the structural determinants for non-sequence-specific binding. EMBO J. 1999;18:2563-79 pubmed
    ..The NHP6A-DNA model structure provides insight into how this class of architectural DNA binding proteins may select preferential binding sites. ..
  14. Shirakawa H, Landsman D, Postnikov Y, Bustin M. NBP-45, a novel nucleosomal binding protein with a tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:6368-74 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the nucleosomal binding domain motif is a protein module that facilitates binding to nucleosomes in chromatin. ..
  15. Graham J, Johnson R, Marko J. Concentration-dependent exchange accelerates turnover of proteins bound to double-stranded DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2249-59 pubmed publisher
  16. Skoko D, Wong B, Johnson R, Marko J. Micromechanical analysis of the binding of DNA-bending proteins HMGB1, NHP6A, and HU reveals their ability to form highly stable DNA-protein complexes. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13867-74 pubmed
    ..We therefore observe that protein transport along DNA by direct transfers occurs even for proteins such as NHP6A and HU that have only one DNA-binding domain. ..
  17. West K. HMGN proteins play roles in DNA repair and gene expression in mammalian cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2004;32:918-9 pubmed
    ..paper summarizes recent advances from studies of Hmgn1 knockout mice and genetically engineered cell lines that are beginning to reveal the diverse roles that HMGN proteins play in DNA repair and transcription within mammalian cells.
  18. Furusawa T, Cherukuri S. Developmental function of HMGN proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that HMGN proteins are involved in epigenetic regulation by modulating chromatin structure and levels of posttranslational ..
  19. Yen Y, Roberts P, Johnson R. Nuclear localization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMG protein NHP6A occurs by a Ran-independent nonclassical pathway. Traffic. 2001;2:449-64 pubmed
    ..These unusual properties lead us to suggest that NHP6A entry into the nucleus proceeds by a nonclassical Ran-independent pathway. ..
  20. Stillman D. Nhp6: a small but powerful effector of chromatin structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The FACT complex may provide a paradigm for how Nhp6 functions with chromatin factors, as Nhp6 allows Spt16-Pob3 to bind to and reorganize nucleosomes in vitro. ..
  21. Wong B, Masse J, Yen Y, Giannikopoulos P, Feigon J, Johnson R, et al. Binding to cisplatin-modified DNA by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMGB protein Nhp6A. Biochemistry. 2002;41:5404-14 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Deltanhp6a/b mutants are slightly more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, Nhp6A/Bp appears to directly or indirectly function in yeast to enhance cellular resistance to cisplatin. ..
  22. Catez F, Brown D, Misteli T, Bustin M. Competition between histone H1 and HMGN proteins for chromatin binding sites. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:760-6 pubmed
    ..We tested whether HMGN proteins affect the interaction of histone H1 with chromatin...
  23. Kolodrubetz D, Kruppa M, Burgum A. Gene dosage affects the expression of the duplicated NHP6 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. 2001;272:93-101 pubmed
    ..Instead, Nhp6p appears to interact with or through another protein in regulating transcription from the NHP6 genes. ..
  24. Jiang N, Zhou L, Zhang X. Downregulation of the nucleosome-binding protein 1 (NSBP1) gene can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Asian J Androl. 2010;12:709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data provide the evidence that the NSBP1 knockdown-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis may result from negative regulation of cyclin B1 and Bcl-2 by NSBP1, with the resulting reduced expression of these proteins. ..
  25. Kruppa M, Moir R, Kolodrubetz D, Willis I. Nhp6, an HMG1 protein, functions in SNR6 transcription by RNA polymerase III in S. cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2001;7:309-18 pubmed
    ..Nhp6A protein specifically enhanced TFIIIC-dependent, but not TATA box-dependent, SNR6 transcription in vitro by facilitating TFIIIC binding to the SNR6 promoter. Thus, Nhp6 has a direct role in transcription complex assembly at SNR6. ..
  26. Körner U, Bustin M, Scheer U, Hock R. Developmental role of HMGN proteins in Xenopus laevis. Mech Dev. 2003;120:1177-92 pubmed
    b>HMGN proteins are architectural chromatin proteins that reduce the compaction of the chromatin fiber, facilitate access to nucleosomes and modulate replication and transcription processes...
  27. Kassavetis G, Steiner D. Nhp6 is a transcriptional initiation fidelity factor for RNA polymerase III transcription in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7445-51 pubmed
    ..Analyses of unprocessed tRNAs from yeast lacking Nhp6a and its closely related paralogue Nhp6b demonstrate that Nhp6 is required for transcriptional initiation fidelity of some but not all tRNA genes, in vivo. ..
  28. Moreira J, Holmberg S. Chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation by the yeast architectural factors NHP6A and NHP6B. EMBO J. 2000;19:6804-13 pubmed
  29. Laser H, Bongards C, Schuller J, Heck S, Johnsson N, Lehming N. A new screen for protein interactions reveals that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high mobility group proteins Nhp6A/B are involved in the regulation of the GAL1 promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13732-7 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis revealed that Nhp6B, a member of the HMG1 family of DNA-binding proteins, can influence transcriptional activation as well as repression at a specific locus in the chromosome of the yeast S. cerevisiae. ..
  30. Giavara S, Kosmidou E, Hande M, Bianchi M, Morgan A, d Adda di Fagagna F, et al. Yeast Nhp6A/B and mammalian Hmgb1 facilitate the maintenance of genome stability. Curr Biol. 2005;15:68-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that Nhp6A/B and Hmgb1 protect DNA from damaging agents and thus guard against the generation of genomic aberrations. ..
  31. Yen Y, Wong B, Johnson R. Determinants of DNA binding and bending by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high mobility group protein NHP6A that are important for its biological activities. Role of the unique N terminus and putative intercalating methionine. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4424-35 pubmed
    ..Methionine 29, which may intercalate into DNA, is essential for NHP6A-induced microcircle formation of 75-bp but not 98-bp fragments in vitro, and for full growth complementation of Deltanhp6a/b mutants in vivo. ..
  32. Lim J, Catez F, Birger Y, Postnikov Y, Bustin M. Preparation and functional analysis of HMGN proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2004;375:323-42 pubmed
  33. Ramirez T, Brocher J, Stopper H, Hock R. Sodium arsenite modulates histone acetylation, histone deacetylase activity and HMGN protein dynamics in human cells. Chromosoma. 2008;117:147-57 pubmed
    ..As the chromatin compaction is crucial for the regulation of gene expression as well as for genome stability, we propose that chromatin opening by NaAsO(2) may play a significant role to impart its genotoxic effects. ..
  34. Zhang S, Schones D, Malicet C, Rochman M, Zhou M, Foisner R, et al. High mobility group protein N5 (HMGN5) and lamina-associated polypeptide 2? (LAP2?) interact and reciprocally affect their genome-wide chromatin organization. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a new functional link between chromatin-binding and lamin-binding proteins. ..
  35. Koutouzov S, Cabrespines A, Amoura Z, Chabre H, Lotton C, Bach J. Binding of nucleosomes to a cell surface receptor: redistribution and endocytosis in the presence of lupus antibodies. Eur J Immunol. 1996;26:472-86 pubmed
    ..We also show that anti-ds DNA and anti-histone antibodies can form nucleosome-anti-nucleosome immune complexes in situ at the cell surface, and thus dramatically enhance the kinetics of nucleosome endocytosis. ..
  36. Martinez de Paz A, Ausio J. HMGNs: The enhancer charmers. Bioessays. 2016;38:226-31 pubmed publisher
  37. Furusawa T, Bustin M. Visualization of the expression of HMGN nucleosomal binding proteins in the developing mouse embryo and in adult mouse tissues. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;523:67-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter describes the protocols we utilized to visualize Hmgn transcripts and HMGN proteins in mouse tissues...
  38. Ji S, Yao L, Zhang X, Li X, Zhou L. Knockdown of the nucleosome binding protein 1 inhibits the growth and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012;31:22 pubmed publisher
    ..NSBP1 plays oncogenic role in ccRCCs by promoting cell proliferation and invasion, and could be exploited as a target for ccRCC treatment. ..
  39. Green H, Stal O, Bachmeier K, Bäcklund L, Carlsson L, Hansen J, et al. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as first-line monotherapy in elderly women with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer: novel treatment predictive factors identified. Cancer Lett. 2011;313:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..PLD is a safe and effective treatment for elderly breast cancer patients. Also potential predictive markers were identified. ..
  40. Eriksson P, Biswas D, Yu Y, Stewart J, Stillman D. TATA-binding protein mutants that are lethal in the absence of the Nhp6 high-mobility-group protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6419-29 pubmed
    ..These results challenge the widely held belief that 6-AU sensitivity results from a defect in transcriptional elongation. ..
  41. Lucey M, Wang Y, Bustin M, Duncan M. Differential expression of the HMGN family of chromatin proteins during ocular development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:433-7 pubmed publisher
    The HMGN proteins are a group of non-histone nuclear proteins that associate with the core nucleosome and alter the structure of the chromatin fiber...
  42. Ito Y, Bustin M. Immunohistochemical localization of the nucleosome-binding protein HMGN3 in mouse brain. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:1273-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that HMGN3 might play a role in astrocyte function. ..
  43. West K, Postnikov Y, Birger Y, Bustin M. Chromatin decompaction method by HMGN proteins. Methods Enzymol. 2003;371:521-36 pubmed
  44. Kruppa M, Kolodrubetz D. Mutations in the yeast Nhp6 protein can differentially affect its in vivo functions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:1292-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that Nhp6 interacts with another protein(s) to carry out some of its biological functions and that this interaction might differ at promoters transcribed by RNA polymerase II versus RNA polymerase III. ..
  45. Formosa T, Ruone S, Adams M, Olsen A, Eriksson P, Yu Y, et al. Defects in SPT16 or POB3 (yFACT) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cause dependence on the Hir/Hpc pathway: polymerase passage may degrade chromatin structure. Genetics. 2002;162:1557-71 pubmed
    ..Mutations that impair the reassembly activity cause chromatin to accumulate in an abnormally disrupted state, imposing a requirement for a nucleosome reassembly function that we propose is provided by Hir/Hpc proteins. ..
  46. Hsu D, Chang S, Liu C, Tzeng C, Wu K, Kao J, et al. Identification of increased NBS1 expression as a prognostic marker of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1029-37 pubmed publisher
    ..It also indicates the practicability of application of NBS1 as a marker in OSCC. ..
  47. Gerlitz G. HMGNs, DNA repair and cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, emerging roles for HMGN5 in cancer progression and for HMGN2 as a potential tool in cancer therapy will be discussed. ..
  48. Luger K, Hansen J. Nucleosome and chromatin fiber dynamics. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2005;15:188-96 pubmed
    ..The emerging picture is that the inherent dynamics of nucleosomal assemblages at all structural levels are a key link between the condensed domains found in eukaryotic genomes and the functions that take place within them. ..
  49. Hanover J, Love D, DeAngelis N, O Kane M, Lima Miranda R, Schulz T, et al. The High Mobility Group Box Transcription Factor Nhp6Ap enters the nucleus by a calmodulin-dependent, Ran-independent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33743-51 pubmed
    ..The finding that Nhp6Ap nuclear entry requires calmodulin but not Ran indicates that Nhp6Ap is a good model for studying this poorly understood but evolutionarily conserved calmodulin-dependent nuclear import pathway. ..
  50. Xue X, Lehming N. Nhp6p and Med3p regulate gene expression by controlling the local subunit composition of RNA polymerase II. J Mol Biol. 2008;379:212-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further suggest that Rpb4p inhibits transcription initiation but stimulates transcription elongation and that Nhp6p and Med3p regulate gene expression by controlling the local subunit composition of RNA polymerase II. ..
  51. Rochman M, Taher L, Kurahashi T, Cherukuri S, Uversky V, Landsman D, et al. Effects of HMGN variants on the cellular transcription profile. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4076-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyze the transcriptional profile of cells in which the expression of various HMGN proteins has been either deleted or doubled...
  52. Zhu N, Hansen U. Transcriptional regulation by HMGN proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the mechanisms for targeting HMGNs to specific genes and for how they subsequently regulate transcription. ..
  53. Zhou L, Song G, He Z, Hao J, Na Y. [Effects of inhibiting nucleosomal binding protein 1 on proliferation of human prostate cancer cells]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;87:404-8 pubmed
    ..05). The suppressed expression of NSBP1 in prostate cancer cells mediated by shRNA inhibits cell proliferation significantly, which indicates that NSBP1 may play an important role in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. ..