Genomes and Genes
Summary: An AT-hook motif-containing protein (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) that binds to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA. It is a truncated form of HMGA1a protein that is produced by alternative-splicing of the HMGA1 gene. It may function as an architectural chromatin binding protein that is involved in transcriptional regulation.
- Tran J, Zamdborg L, Ahlf D, Lee J, Catherman A, Durbin K, et al. Mapping intact protein isoforms in discovery mode using top-down proteomics. Nature. 2011;480:254-8 pubmed publisher..The technology promises to improve the link between proteomics data and complex phenotypes in basic biology and disease research. ..
- Akhter M, Sharma A, Rajeswari M. Interaction of adriamycin with a promoter region of hmga1 and its inhibitory effect on HMGA1 expression in A431 human squamous carcinoma cell line. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:1336-46 pubmed publisher..Therefore, it appears that hmg a1 is a novel potential chemotherapeutic target in treating carcinomas of epithelial origin like prostate, breast, thyroid etc. ..
- Zou Y, Wang Y. Mass spectrometric analysis of high-mobility group proteins and their post-translational modifications in normal and cancerous human breast tissues. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:2304-14 pubmed..Furthermore, a more complex spectrum of PTMs on HMGA1 proteins was correlated with a more aggressive malignancy in human breast cancer tissues. ..
- Zou Y, Webb K, Perna A, Zhang Q, Clarke S, Wang Y. A mass spectrometric study on the in vitro methylation of HMGA1a and HMGA1b proteins by PRMTs: methylation specificity, the effect of binding to AT-rich duplex DNA, and the effect of C-terminal phosphorylation. Biochemistry. 2007;46:7896-906 pubmed..Our results suggest that PRMT1 might be involved in the previously reported methylation of Arg25 in HMGA1a in vivo. ..
- Cottingham K. Tissues tell the real tale of breast cancer. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:2052 pubmed
- Mustata G, Follis A, Hammoudeh D, Metallo S, Wang H, Prochownik E, et al. Discovery of novel Myc-Max heterodimer disruptors with a three-dimensional pharmacophore model. J Med Chem. 2009;52:1247-50 pubmed publisher..These studies demonstrate the applicability of pharmacophore modeling to the identification of novel and potentially more puissant inhibitors of the c-Myc oncoprotein. ..
- Zhang Q, Zhang K, Zou Y, Perna A, Wang Y. A quantitative study on the in vitro and in vivo acetylation of high mobility group A1 proteins. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2007;18:1569-78 pubmed..Our results showed that all the above five lysine residues were also acetylated in vivo, with Lys-64, Lys-66 and Lys-70 in HMGA1a exhibiting higher levels of acetylation than Lys-14 and Lys-73. ..
- De Martino I, Visone R, Fedele M, Petrocca F, Palmieri D, Martinez Hoyos J, et al. Regulation of microRNA expression by HMGA1 proteins. Oncogene. 2009;28:1432-42 pubmed publisher..Finally, ATXN1 and STC1 gene products have been identified as targets of miR-101b. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that HMGA1 proteins are involved in several functions by regulating miRNA expression. ..
- Cleynen I, Van de Ven W. The HMGA proteins: a myriad of functions (Review). Int J Oncol. 2008;32:289-305 pubmed..To provide clarity in the abundance of articles on this topic, this review gives a general overview of the nuclear functions and regulation of the HMGA genes and corresponding proteins. ..
- Zou Y, Wang Y. Tandem mass spectrometry for the examination of the posttranslational modifications of high-mobility group A1 proteins: symmetric and asymmetric dimethylation of Arg25 in HMGA1a protein. Biochemistry. 2005;44:6293-301 pubmed..We also found that the HMGA1b protein was phosphorylated at the corresponding sites, that is, Ser90, Ser91 and Ser87...
- Cerignoli F, Ambrosi C, Mellone M, Assimi I, Di Marcotullio L, Gulino A, et al. HMGA molecules in neuroblastic tumors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1028:122-32 pubmed..Our studies indicate that HMGA molecules might be biologically and pathologically relevant factors in neuroblastic tumor development and progression. ..
- Chau K, Manfioletti G, Cheung Chau K, Fusco A, Dhomen N, Sowden J, et al. Derepression of HMGA2 gene expression in retinoblastoma is associated with cell proliferation. Mol Med. 2003;9:154-65 pubmed..Our discovery of derepression of HMGA2 gene expression in retinoblastoma provides the 1st evidence that this protein might contribute to neoplastic transformation of retina cells. ..
- Li Y, Lu J, Prochownik E. Dual role for SUMO E2 conjugase Ubc9 in modulating the transforming and growth-promoting properties of the HMGA1b architectural transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13363-71 pubmed..These findings are consistent with the idea that Ubc9 can act as both a positive and negative regulator of proliferation and transformation via its non-SUMO-dependent interaction with HMGA1 proteins. ..
- Sarhadi V, Wikman H, Salmenkivi K, Kuosma E, Sioris T, Salo J, et al. Increased expression of high mobility group A proteins in lung cancer. J Pathol. 2006;209:206-12 pubmed..As HMGA proteins were expressed in about 90% of lung carcinomas and their expression was inversely associated with survival, they may provide useful markers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. ..
- Morikawa T, Manabe T, Ito Y, Yamada S, Yoshimi A, Nagai T, et al. The expression of HMGA1a is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from schizophrenia patients. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:736-9 pubmed publisher..The present study is the first to report a significant upregulation of HMGA1a in schizophrenia, suggesting its potential roles in both transcription and splicing of target genes linked with schizophrenia. ..
- Edberg D, Adkins J, Springer D, Reeves R. Dynamic and differential in vivo modifications of the isoform HMGA1a and HMGA1b chromatin proteins. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8961-73 pubmed
- Beitzel B, Bushman F. Construction and analysis of cells lacking the HMGA gene family. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:5025-32 pubmed..We conclude that HMGA proteins are not strictly required for growth control or retroviral integration in DT40 cells and may well be redundant with other factors. ..