high mobility group proteins


Summary: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.

Top Publications

  1. Mendoza Mendoza A, Eskova A, Weise C, Czajkowski R, Kahmann R. Hap2 regulates the pheromone response transcription factor prf1 in Ustilago maydis. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:683-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In a solopathogenic strain hap2 deletion affected filamentation and the mutants showed reduced pathogenicity symptoms. These data suggest that Hap2 is a novel regulator of prf1 with additional functions after cell fusion. ..
  2. Heo K, Kim H, Choi S, Choi J, Kim K, Gu J, et al. FACT-mediated exchange of histone variant H2AX regulated by phosphorylation of H2AX and ADP-ribosylation of Spt16. Mol Cell. 2008;30:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data establish FACT as the major regulator involved in H2AX exchange process that is modulated by H2AX phosphorylation and Spt16 ADP-ribosylation. ..
  3. Sinner D, Kordich J, Spence J, Opoka R, Rankin S, Lin S, et al. Sox17 and Sox4 differentially regulate beta-catenin/T-cell factor activity and proliferation of colon carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7802-15 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Sox proteins can act as both antagonists and agonists of beta-catenin/TCF activity, and this mechanism may regulate Wnt signaling responses in many developmental and disease contexts. ..
  4. Castro Prego R, Lamas Maceiras M, Soengas P, Carneiro I, González Siso I, Cerdán M. Regulatory factors controlling transcription of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IXR1 by oxygen levels: a model of transcriptional adaptation from aerobiosis to hypoxia implicating ROX1 and IXR1 cross-regulation. Biochem J. 2009;425:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A model of IXR1 regulation as a relay for sensing different signals related to change in oxygen availability is proposed. In this model, transcriptional adaptation from aerobiosis to hypoxia depends on ROX1 and IXR1 cross-regulation. ..
  5. Bastide P, Darido C, Pannequin J, Kist R, Robine S, Marty Double C, et al. Sox9 regulates cell proliferation and is required for Paneth cell differentiation in the intestinal epithelium. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:635-48 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the central position of Sox9 as both a transcriptional target and a regulator of the Wnt pathway in the regulation of intestinal epithelium homeostasis...
  6. Berger A, Decourty L, Badis G, Nehrbass U, Jacquier A, Gadal O. Hmo1 is required for TOR-dependent regulation of ribosomal protein gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:8015-26 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we show here that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hmo1 is directly involved in coordinating rDNA transcription by Pol I and RP gene expression by Pol II under the control of the TOR pathway. ..
  7. Dowell N, Sperling A, Mason M, Johnson R. Chromatin-dependent binding of the S. cerevisiae HMGB protein Nhp6A affects nucleosome dynamics and transcription. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2031-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the chromatin environment, not DNA sequence recognition, localizes Nhp6A binding, and that Nhp6A stabilizes chromatin structure and coregulates transcription. ..
  8. Dyer P. Evolutionary biology: genomic clues to original sex in fungi. Curr Biol. 2008;18:R207-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of a Zygomycota genome, representing a basal branch within the fungi, indicates that HMG-domain proteins were present as ancestral sex determinants and suggests a mechanism for the evolution of eukaryotic sex chromosomes. ..
  9. Lemieux K, Larochelle M, Gaudreau L. Variant histone H2A.Z, but not the HMG proteins Nhp6a/b, is essential for the recruitment of Swi/Snf, Mediator, and SAGA to the yeast GAL1 UAS(G). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Z, but not the HMG proteins Nhp6a/b, in promoter regions creates a specialized chromatin domain that is required for pre-initiation complex assembly at the GAL1 locus. ..

More Information


  1. Zhou W, Zhu P, Wang J, Pascual G, Ohgi K, Lozach J, et al. Histone H2A monoubiquitination represses transcription by inhibiting RNA polymerase II transcriptional elongation. Mol Cell. 2008;29:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that distinct H2A ubiquitinases, each recruited based on interactions with different corepressor complexes, contribute to distinct transcriptional repression programs. ..
  2. Viader A, Golden J, Baloh R, Schmidt R, Hunter D, Milbrandt J. Schwann cell mitochondrial metabolism supports long-term axonal survival and peripheral nerve function. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10128-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial function in SCs is therefore essential for maintenance of axonal survival and normal peripheral nerve function, suggesting that SC mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to human peripheral neuropathies. ..
  3. Xiao L, Williams A, Grove A. The C-terminal domain of yeast high mobility group protein HMO1 mediates lateral protein accretion and in-phase DNA bending. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4051-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This mode of binding is reminiscent of that proposed for the mammalian RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF. ..
  4. Pelechano V, Jimeno González S, Rodriguez Gil A, García Martínez J, Pérez Ortín J, Chávez S. Regulon-specific control of transcription elongation across the yeast genome. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000614 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates that the regulation of transcription elongation is a widespread, gene class-dependent phenomenon that also affects housekeeping genes. ..
  5. Xin H, Takahata S, Blanksma M, McCullough L, Stillman D, Formosa T. yFACT induces global accessibility of nucleosomal DNA without H2A-H2B displacement. Mol Cell. 2009;35:365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that yFACT promotes a reversible transition between two nucleosomal forms, and that this activity contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the chromatin barrier as well as to overcoming it. ..
  6. Aliahmad P, de la Torre B, Kaye J. Shared dependence on the DNA-binding factor TOX for the development of lymphoid tissue-inducer cell and NK cell lineages. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:945-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, many cell lineages of the immune system share a TOX-dependent step for development...
  7. Zhang W, Glöckner S, Guo M, Machida E, Wang D, Easwaran H, et al. Epigenetic inactivation of the canonical Wnt antagonist SRY-box containing gene 17 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2764-72 pubmed publisher
  8. Kasahara K, Ohtsuki K, Ki S, Aoyama K, Takahashi H, Kobayashi T, et al. Assembly of regulatory factors on rRNA and ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6686-705 pubmed
    ..Reporter gene assays indicate that these functional properties are determined by the promoter sequence. ..
  9. Merz K, Hondele M, Goetze H, Gmelch K, Stoeckl U, Griesenbeck J. Actively transcribed rRNA genes in S. cerevisiae are organized in a specialized chromatin associated with the high-mobility group protein Hmo1 and are largely devoid of histone molecules. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1190-204 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that actively transcribed rRNA genes are largely devoid of histone molecules, but instead associate with the high-mobility group protein Hmo1. ..
  10. Ransom M, Williams S, Dechassa M, Das C, Linger J, Adkins M, et al. FACT and the proteasome promote promoter chromatin disassembly and transcriptional initiation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we rule out the possibility that the proteasome or ATPase cap is driving chromatin disassembly via a potential ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity. ..
  11. Tsunaka Y, Toga J, Yamaguchi H, Tate S, Hirose S, Morikawa K. Phosphorylated intrinsically disordered region of FACT masks its nucleosomal DNA binding elements. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24610-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, this control mechanism appears to support rapid chromatin transactions during early embryogenesis through the dephosphorylation of some sites in the maternally transmitted dSSRP1. ..
  12. Kumari A, Mazina O, Shinde U, Mazin A, Lu H. A role for SSRP1 in recombination-mediated DNA damage response. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:508-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest a functional role for SSRP1 in spontaneous and replication-associated DNA damage response by suppressing avoidable HR repair events. ..
  13. Wetzel J, Burmester A, Kolbe M, Wöstemeyer J. The mating-related loci sexM and sexP of the zygomycetous fungus Mucor mucedo and their transcriptional regulation by trisporoid pheromones. Microbiology. 2012;158:1016-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The SexM protein is indeed transported to nuclei. This was shown by means of a GFP fusion construct that was used to study the localization of SexM in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fusion protein is highly enriched in nuclei. ..
  14. McCullough L, Rawlins R, Olsen A, Xin H, Stillman D, Formosa T. Insight into the mechanism of nucleosome reorganization from histone mutants that suppress defects in the FACT histone chaperone. Genetics. 2011;188:835-46 pubmed publisher
  15. Zeng S, Li Y, Jin Y, Zhang Q, Keller D, McQuaw C, et al. Structure-specific recognition protein 1 facilitates microtubule growth and bundling required for mitosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:935-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that SSRP1 is crucial for MT growth and spindle assembly during mitosis. ..
  16. Hattori T, Coustry F, Stephens S, Eberspaecher H, Takigawa M, Yasuda H, et al. Transcriptional regulation of chondrogenesis by coactivator Tip60 via chromatin association with Sox9 and Sox5. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:3011-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that Tip60 is a coactivator of Sox9 in chondrocytes. ..
  17. Passeron T, Valencia J, Bertolotto C, Hoashi T, Le Pape E, Takahashi K, et al. SOX9 is a key player in ultraviolet B-induced melanocyte differentiation and pigmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13984-9 pubmed
    ..This role of SOX9 in pigmentation emphasizes the poorly understood impact of SOX proteins in adult tissues. ..
  18. Lefebvre V, Dumitriu B, Penzo Méndez A, Han Y, Pallavi B. Control of cell fate and differentiation by Sry-related high-mobility-group box (Sox) transcription factors. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:2195-214 pubmed
    ..We review their specific molecular properties and in vivo roles, stress recent advances in the field, and suggest directions for future investigations. ..
  19. Zarnack K, Eichhorn H, Kahmann R, Feldbrügge M. Pheromone-regulated target genes respond differentially to MAPK phosphorylation of transcription factor Prf1. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:1041-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicated a novel level of complexity in MAPK signalling suggesting that target genes respond differentially to MAPK phosphorylation of the respective transcription factors. ..
  20. Dufour E, Terzioglu M, Sterky F, Sorensen L, Galter D, Olson L, et al. Age-associated mosaic respiratory chain deficiency causes trans-neuronal degeneration. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of mosaic respiratory chain deficiency in ageing and mitochondrial disease. ..
  21. Sgarra R, Furlan C, Zammitti S, Lo Sardo A, Maurizio E, Di Bernardo J, et al. Interaction proteomics of the HMGA chromatin architectural factors. Proteomics. 2008;8:4721-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach allowed us to enlarge the HMGA molecular network confirming their involvement also in non-transcriptional-related processes such as RNA processing and DNA repair. ..
  22. Mori Akiyama Y, van den Born M, van Es J, Hamilton S, Adams H, Zhang J, et al. SOX9 is required for the differentiation of paneth cells in the intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:539-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SOX9 is required for the differentiation of Paneth cells. Our results elucidate an essential step in the differentiation of gut epithelium. ..
  23. Birch J, Tan B, Panov K, Panova T, Andersen J, Owen Hughes T, et al. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III. EMBO J. 2009;28:854-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also imply that local chromatin dynamics influence transcription of the active rRNA genes by Pol I and of Pol III-transcribed genes. ..
  24. Nissen Meyer L, Jemtland R, Gautvik V, Pedersen M, Paro R, Fortunati D, et al. Osteopenia, decreased bone formation and impaired osteoblast development in Sox4 heterozygous mice. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:2785-95 pubmed
    ..Our results implicate the transcription factor Sox4 in regulation of bone formation, by acting upstream of Osx and independent of Runx2. ..
  25. Kasahara K, Ki S, Aoyama K, Takahashi H, Kokubo T. Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMO1 interacts with TFIID and participates in start site selection by RNA polymerase II. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1343-57 pubmed publisher
  26. Winkler D, Luger K. The histone chaperone FACT: structural insights and mechanisms for nucleosome reorganization. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the structural and biophysical basis for FACT-mediated nucleosome reorganization and discuss up-to-date models for FACT function. ..
  27. Tsaponina O, Barsoum E, Aström S, Chabes A. Ixr1 is required for the expression of the ribonucleotide reductase Rnr1 and maintenance of dNTP pools. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002061 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction of the histone gene dosage in the rad53 mutant restores Ixr1 levels. Our results demonstrate that Ixr1, but not Dun1, is required for the proper RNR1 expression both during an unperturbed cell cycle and after DNA damage. ..
  28. Dejmek J, Iglehart J, Lazaro J. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-dependent cisplatin-induced loss of nucleolar facilitator of chromatin transcription (FACT) and regulation of cisplatin sensitivity by DNA-PK and FACT. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RNA silencing of DNA-PKcs blocked the cisplatin-induced exit of nucleolar SSRP1. Finally, silencing of DNA-PKcs or SSRP1 by short hairpin RNA significantly increased the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin. ..
  29. Kaufman B, Durisic N, Mativetsky J, Costantino S, Hancock M, Grutter P, et al. The mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM coordinates the assembly of multiple DNA molecules into nucleoid-like structures. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3225-36 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TFAM alone is sufficient to organize mitochondrial chromatin and provide a mechanism for nucleoid formation. ..
  30. Garcia Roves P, Osler M, Holmström M, Zierath J. Gain-of-function R225Q mutation in AMP-activated protein kinase gamma3 subunit increases mitochondrial biogenesis in glycolytic skeletal muscle. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35724-34 pubmed publisher
  31. Stanlie A, Aida M, Muramatsu M, Honjo T, Begum N. Histone3 lysine4 trimethylation regulated by the facilitates chromatin transcription complex is critical for DNA cleavage in class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings revealed an unexpected evolutionary conservation between CSR and meiotic recombination. ..
  32. Wang W, Pan K, Chen Y, Huang C, Zhang X. The acetylation of transcription factor HBP1 by p300/CBP enhances p16INK4A expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:981-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, HDAC4 repressed HBP1-induced premature senescence through permanently deacetylating HBP1. We conclude that our data suggest that HBP1 acetylation at K419 plays an important role in HBP1-induced p16(INK4A) expression. ..
  33. Tavazoie S, Alarcon C, Oskarsson T, Padua D, Wang Q, Bos P, et al. Endogenous human microRNAs that suppress breast cancer metastasis. Nature. 2008;451:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-335 and miR-126 are thus identified as metastasis suppressor microRNAs in human breast cancer. ..
  34. Takahata S, Yu Y, Stillman D. FACT and Asf1 regulate nucleosome dynamics and coactivator binding at the HO promoter. Mol Cell. 2009;34:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The Swi/Snf, SAGA, and Mediator coactivators bind first to the far upstream promoter region and subsequently to a promoter proximal region, and FACT and Asf1 are both required for this coactivator re-recruitment. ..
  35. Ray S, Grove A. The yeast high mobility group protein HMO2, a subunit of the chromatin-remodeling complex INO80, binds DNA ends. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The remarkable ability of HMO2 to protect DNA from exonucleolytic cleavage, combined with reports that HMO2 arrives early at DNA DSBs, suggests that HMO2 may play a role in DSB repair beyond INO80 recruitment. ..
  36. Li H, Wang W, Liu X, Paulson K, Yee A, Zhang X. Transcriptional factor HBP1 targets P16(INK4A), upregulating its expression and consequently is involved in Ras-induced premature senescence. Oncogene. 2010;29:5083-94 pubmed publisher
    ..All the data indicate that the mechanism of HBP1-mediated transcriptional regulation is important for not only premature senescence but also tumorigenesis. ..
  37. Penzo Méndez A, Dy P, Pallavi B, Lefebvre V. Generation of mice harboring a Sox4 conditional null allele. Genesis. 2007;45:776-80 pubmed
    ..This Sox4 conditional null allele will thus be a valuable tool to further uncovering Sox4 functions in various processes in vivo. ..
  38. Escamilla Powers J, Daniel C, Farrell A, Taylor K, Zhang X, Byers S, et al. The tumor suppressor protein HBP1 is a novel c-myc-binding protein that negatively regulates c-myc transcriptional activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This work adds to our understanding of c-Myc regulation and mechanisms of tumor suppression by HBP1. ..
  39. Idnurm A, Walton F, Floyd A, Heitman J. Identification of the sex genes in an early diverged fungus. Nature. 2008;451:193-6 pubmed publisher
  40. Wittner M, Hamperl S, Stöckl U, Seufert W, Tschochner H, Milkereit P, et al. Establishment and maintenance of alternative chromatin states at a multicopy gene locus. Cell. 2011;145:543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings indicate that the opposing effects of replication and transcription lead to a de novo establishment of chromatin states for rRNA genes during each cell cycle. ..
  41. Catez F, Hock R. Binding and interplay of HMG proteins on chromatin: lessons from live cell imaging. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:15-27 pubmed publisher
  42. Bermejo R, Capra T, Gonzalez Huici V, Fachinetti D, Cocito A, Natoli G, et al. Genome-organizing factors Top2 and Hmo1 prevent chromosome fragility at sites of S phase transcription. Cell. 2009;138:870-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that an Hmo1-dependent epigenetic signature together with Top2 mediate an S phase architectural pathway to preserve genome integrity...
  43. Chang M, Chang J, Gangopadhyay A, Shearer A, Cadigan K. Activation of wingless targets requires bipartite recognition of DNA by TCF. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1877-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that DNA recognition by fly TCF occurs through a bipartite mechanism, involving both the HMG domain and the C-clamp, which enables TCF to locate and activate WREs in the nucleus. ..
  44. Werner T, Hammer A, Wahlbuhl M, Bösl M, Wegner M. Multiple conserved regulatory elements with overlapping functions determine Sox10 expression in mouse embryogenesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6526-38 pubmed
    ..They furthermore exhibit overlapping activities and share binding sites for Sox, Lef/Tcf, Pax and AP2 transcription factors. This may explain high level and robustness of Sox10 expression during embryonic development. ..
  45. Morales A, Perez Alcala S, Barbas J. Dynamic Sox5 protein expression during cranial ganglia development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2702-7 pubmed
    ..This detailed analysis provides a good base to dissect the possible role of Sox5 in neural cell fate determination by future functional approaches. ..
  46. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Yu R, Huang Y, Su M, Xiao C, et al. Molecular markers of early-stage mycosis fungoides. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1698-706 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the potential of eMF-enriched genes, especially TOX, as molecular markers for histological diagnosis of eMF, which currently is a major diagnostic challenge. ..
  47. Kim H, Livingston D. Suppression of a DNA polymerase delta mutation by the absence of the high mobility group protein Hmo1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet. 2009;55:127-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hmo1Delta suppression of pol3-14 occurs by a mechanism whereby normal controls on DNA integrity are breached and lesions flow into RAD52-mediated repair and error-prone pathways. ..
  48. Li H, Bian C, Liao L, Li J, Zhao R. miR-17-5p promotes human breast cancer cell migration and invasion through suppression of HBP1. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;126:565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that miR-17-5p plays an important role in breast cancer cell invasion and migration by suppressing HBP1 and subsequent activation of Wnt/?-catenin. ..
  49. Reeves R. Nuclear functions of the HMG proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The biological implications of having three architectural transcription factor families with complementary, but partially overlapping, nuclear functions are discussed. ..
  50. Topalova D, Ugrinova I, Pashev I, Pasheva E. HMGB1 protein inhibits DNA replication in vitro: a role of the acetylation and the acidic tail. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant HMGB1, however, fails to inhibit replication but it acquires such a property following in vitro phosphorylation by PKC. ..
  51. Aleman A, Adrien L, Lopez Serra L, Cordon Cardo C, Esteller M, Belbin T, et al. Identification of DNA hypermethylation of SOX9 in association with bladder cancer progression using CpG microarrays. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:466-73 pubmed
    ..The association of SOX9 hypermethylation with tumour progression and clinical outcome suggests its relevant clinical implications at stratifying patients affected with bladder cancer. ..
  52. Kihara T, Kano F, Murata M. Modulation of SRF-dependent gene expression by association of SPT16 with MKL1. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:629-37 pubmed
    ..These results show that the expression of nucleosomal SRF-dependent genes, including the SMC gene, is activated by MKL1 via activation of SRF and recruitment of the FACT complex. ..
  53. Paulson K, Rieger Christ K, McDevitt M, Kuperwasser C, Kim J, Unanue V, et al. Alterations of the HBP1 transcriptional repressor are associated with invasive breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6136-45 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that HBP1 may be a molecularly and clinically relevant regulator of breast cancer transitions that eventually lead to poor prognosis. ..