non histone chromosomal proteins


Summary: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.

Top Publications

  1. Li Y, Schoeffler A, Berger J, Oakley M. The crystal structure of the hinge domain of the Escherichia coli structural maintenance of chromosomes protein MukB. J Mol Biol. 2010;395:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This model also contains approximately 20% of the coiled-coil domain, including an unusual coiled-coil deviation. These results will facilitate studies to clarify the roles of both the hinge and the coiled-coil domains in MukB function. ..
  2. Schaaf C, Misulovin Z, Sahota G, Siddiqui A, Schwartz Y, Kahn T, et al. Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes by sister chromatid cohesion proteins. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6202 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that cohesin helps restrain transcription of these gene complexes, and that deregulation of similarly cohesin-hypersensitive genes may underlie developmental deficits in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. ..
  3. Liang Y, Gao H, Lin S, Peng G, Huang X, Zhang P, et al. BRIT1/MCPH1 is essential for mitotic and meiotic recombination DNA repair and maintaining genomic stability in mice. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000826 pubmed publisher
  4. Wood A, Severson A, Meyer B. Condensin and cohesin complexity: the expanding repertoire of functions. Nat Rev Genet. 2010;11:391-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Emerging data are expanding the range of processes in which condensin and cohesin are known to participate and are enhancing our knowledge of how chromosome architecture is regulated to influence numerous cellular functions. ..
  5. Kogut I, Wang J, Guacci V, Mistry R, Megee P. The Scc2/Scc4 cohesin loader determines the distribution of cohesin on budding yeast chromosomes. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather, our findings suggest that budding yeast cohesins are targeted to CARs largely by Scc2/Scc4 loader association at these locations. ..
  6. Camahort R, Shivaraju M, Mattingly M, Li B, Nakanishi S, Zhu D, et al. Cse4 is part of an octameric nucleosome in budding yeast. Mol Cell. 2009;35:794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4 nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4. ..
  7. Remus D, Beuron F, Tolun G, Griffith J, Morris E, Diffley J. Concerted loading of Mcm2-7 double hexamers around DNA during DNA replication origin licensing. Cell. 2009;139:719-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work has significant implications for understanding how eukaryotic DNA replication origins are chosen and licensed, how replisomes assemble during initiation, and how unwinding occurs during DNA replication. ..
  8. Nativio R, Wendt K, Ito Y, Huddleston J, Uribe Lewis S, Woodfine K, et al. Cohesin is required for higher-order chromatin conformation at the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000739 pubmed publisher
  9. Milks K, Moree B, Straight A. Dissection of CENP-C-directed centromere and kinetochore assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the amino terminus of CENP-C promotes kinetochore assembly by ensuring proper targeting of the Mis12/MIND complex and CENP-K. ..

More Information


  1. Hou C, Dale R, Dean A. Cell type specificity of chromatin organization mediated by CTCF and cohesin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a genome-wide role for CTCF/cohesin sites through loop formation that both influences transcription and contributes to cell-type-specific chromatin organization and function. ..
  2. Shuaib M, Ouararhni K, Dimitrov S, Hamiche A. HJURP binds CENP-A via a highly conserved N-terminal domain and mediates its deposition at centromeres. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data identified HJURP as a vertebrate CENP-A chaperone and dissected its mode of interactions with CENP-A. ..
  3. Amano M, Suzuki A, Hori T, Backer C, Okawa K, Cheeseman I, et al. The CENP-S complex is essential for the stable assembly of outer kinetochore structure. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:173-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found that intrakinetochore distance was increased in CENP-S- and CENP-X-deficient cells. These results suggest that the CENP-S complex is essential for the stable assembly of the outer kinetochore. ..
  4. Dawson M, Bannister A, Göttgens B, Foster S, Bartke T, Green A, et al. JAK2 phosphorylates histone H3Y41 and excludes HP1alpha from chromatin. Nature. 2009;461:819-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Tauhese results identify a previously unrecognized nuclear role for JAK2 in the phosphorylation of H3Y41 and reveal a direct mechanistic link between two genes, jak2 and lmo2, involved in normal haematopoiesis and leukaemia. ..
  5. Terret M, Sherwood R, Rahman S, Qin J, Jallepalli P. Cohesin acetylation speeds the replication fork. Nature. 2009;462:231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of this regulatory mechanism leads to the spontaneous accrual of DNA damage and may contribute to the abnormalities of the Roberts' syndrome cohesinopathy...
  6. Gard S, Light W, Xiong B, Bose T, McNairn A, Harris B, et al. Cohesinopathy mutations disrupt the subnuclear organization of chromatin. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the cohesin network affects gene regulation by facilitating the subnuclear organization of chromatin. ..
  7. Piacentini L, Fanti L, Negri R, Del Vescovo V, Fatica A, Altieri F, et al. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1a) positively regulates euchromatic gene expression through RNA transcript association and interaction with hnRNPs in Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000670 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that, in general, similar epigenetic mechanisms have a significant role on both RNA and heterochromatin metabolisms. ..
  8. Adelfalk C, Janschek J, Revenkova E, Blei C, Liebe B, Göb E, et al. Cohesin SMC1beta protects telomeres in meiocytes. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:185-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that a telomere structure protected from DNA rearrangements depends on SMC1beta. ..
  9. Schmidt D, Schwalie P, Ross Innes C, Hurtado A, Brown G, Carroll J, et al. A CTCF-independent role for cohesin in tissue-specific transcription. Genome Res. 2010;20:578-88 pubmed publisher
  10. Klattenhoff C, Xi H, Li C, Lee S, Xu J, Khurana J, et al. The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual-strand clusters. Cell. 2009;138:1137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. ..
  11. Bassett E, Wood S, Salimian K, Ajith S, Foltz D, Black B. Epigenetic centromere specification directs aurora B accumulation but is insufficient to efficiently correct mitotic errors. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a model wherein the neocentromere represents a primordial inheritance locus that requires subsequent generation of a robust inner centromere compartment to enhance fidelity of chromosome transmission. ..
  12. Li X, Wu L, Corsa C, Kunkel S, Dou Y. Two mammalian MOF complexes regulate transcription activation by distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell. 2009;36:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a model that these two MOF complexes regulate distinct stages of transcription activation in cooperation with other histone modifying activities. ..
  13. Tanaka K, Chang H, Kagami A, Watanabe Y. CENP-C functions as a scaffold for effectors with essential kinetochore functions in mitosis and meiosis. Dev Cell. 2009;17:334-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, therefore, our studies identify effectors of CENP-C in mitosis and meiosis and establish the concept that CENP-C serves as a scaffold for the specific recruitment of essential kinetochore proteins. ..
  14. Vega H, Trainer A, Gordillo M, Crosier M, Kayserili H, Skovby F, et al. Phenotypic variability in 49 cases of ESCO2 mutations, including novel missense and codon deletion in the acetyltransferase domain, correlates with ESCO2 expression and establishes the clinical criteria for Roberts syndrome. J Med Genet. 2010;47:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotype-phenotype analysis has been hampered by limited numbers of patients with clinical information available...
  15. Xu Z, Cetin B, Anger M, Cho U, Helmhart W, Nasmyth K, et al. Structure and function of the PP2A-shugoshin interaction. Mol Cell. 2009;35:426-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that PP2A's recruitment to chromosomes may be sufficient to protect cohesin from separase in mammalian oocytes. ..
  16. Bauerschmidt C, Arrichiello C, Burdak Rothkamm S, Woodcock M, Hill M, Stevens D, et al. Cohesin promotes the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in replicated chromatin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the cohesin complex contributes to cell survival by promoting the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in G2-phase cells in an ATM-dependent pathway. ..
  17. Shintomi K, Hirano T. Releasing cohesin from chromosome arms in early mitosis: opposing actions of Wapl-Pds5 and Sgo1. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2224-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence is also presented that Sgo1 plays a hitherto underappreciated role in stabilizing cohesin along chromosome arms, which is antagonized by the mitotic kinases polo-like kinsase (Plk1) and aurora B. ..
  18. Bose T, Gerton J. Cohesinopathies, gene expression, and chromatin organization. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cohesin defects compromise the subnuclear position of chromatin. Therefore, defects in the cohesin network that alter gene expression and genome organization may underlie cohesinopathies. ..
  19. Mönnich M, Banks S, Eccles M, Dickinson E, Horsfield J. Expression of cohesin and condensin genes during zebrafish development supports a non-proliferative role for cohesin. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:586-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The distribution of cohesin and condensin mRNAs supports existing evidence for a non-cell cycle role for cohesin in the developing brain. ..
  20. Flueck C, Bartfai R, Volz J, Niederwieser I, Salcedo Amaya A, Alako B, et al. Plasmodium falciparum heterochromatin protein 1 marks genomic loci linked to phenotypic variation of exported virulence factors. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000569 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identify PfHP1 as a major effector of virulence gene silencing and phenotypic variation. Our results are instrumental for our understanding of this widely used survival strategy in unicellular pathogens. ..
  21. Nasmyth K, Haering C. Cohesin: its roles and mechanisms. Annu Rev Genet. 2009;43:525-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence suggests that cohesin acts as a novel topological device that traps chromosomal DNA within a large tripartite ring formed by its core subunits. ..
  22. van der Lelij P, Godthelp B, van Zon W, van Gosliga D, Oostra A, Steltenpool J, et al. The cellular phenotype of Roberts syndrome fibroblasts as revealed by ectopic expression of ESCO2. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6936 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point at an S phase-specific role for ESCO2 in the maintenance of genome stability. ..
  23. Hadjur S, Williams L, Ryan N, Cobb B, Sexton T, Fraser P, et al. Cohesins form chromosomal cis-interactions at the developmentally regulated IFNG locus. Nature. 2009;460:410-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This new aspect of cohesin function is probably important for normal development and disease. ..
  24. Liu J, Zhang Z, Bando M, Itoh T, Deardorff M, Clark D, et al. Transcriptional dysregulation in NIPBL and cohesin mutant human cells. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000119 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the binding sites are enriched within the promoter regions of the dysregulated genes and are significantly decreased in CdLS proband, indicating an alternative role of cohesin as a transcription factor...
  25. Schmidt C, Brookes N, Uhlmann F. Conserved features of cohesin binding along fission yeast chromosomes. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R52 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparent differences between organisms might reflect an emphasis on different aspects, rather than different principles, of cohesin action. ..
  26. Trazzi S, Perini G, Bernardoni R, Zoli M, Reese J, Musacchio A, et al. The C-terminal domain of CENP-C displays multiple and critical functions for mammalian centromere formation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5832 pubmed publisher
  27. Fischer T, Cui B, Dhakshnamoorthy J, Zhou M, Rubin C, Zofall M, et al. Diverse roles of HP1 proteins in heterochromatin assembly and functions in fission yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8998-9003 pubmed publisher
  28. Ito J, Kosugi A, Tanaka T, Kuroda K, Shibasaki S, Ogino C, et al. Regulation of the display ratio of enzymes on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface by the immunoglobulin G and cellulosomal enzyme binding domains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly indicated that the proposed strategy, the simultaneous display of two enzymes on the yeast cell surface, was accomplished by quantitatively controlling the display system using affinity binding. ..
  29. Foltz D, Jansen L, Bailey A, Yates J, Bassett E, Wood S, et al. Centromere-specific assembly of CENP-a nucleosomes is mediated by HJURP. Cell. 2009;137:472-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose HJURP to be a cell-cycle-regulated CENP-A-specific histone chaperone required for centromeric chromatin assembly. ..
  30. Dunleavy E, Roche D, Tagami H, Lacoste N, Ray Gallet D, Nakamura Y, et al. HJURP is a cell-cycle-dependent maintenance and deposition factor of CENP-A at centromeres. Cell. 2009;137:485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that HJURP is a key factor for CENP-A deposition and maintenance at centromeres. ..
  31. Heidinger Pauli J, Unal E, Koshland D. Distinct targets of the Eco1 acetyltransferase modulate cohesion in S phase and in response to DNA damage. Mol Cell. 2009;34:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Mcd1p and Smc3p acetylation antagonize Wpl1p only in their proper context. Thus, Eco1p antagonizes Wpl1p in distinct ways to modulate cohesion generation during the cell cycle and after DNA damage. ..
  32. Luijsterburg M, Dinant C, Lans H, Stap J, Wiernasz E, Lagerwerf S, et al. Heterochromatin protein 1 is recruited to various types of DNA damage. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:577-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that HP1 proteins are important for DNA repair and may function to reorganize chromatin in response to damage. ..
  33. Liao W, Yu C, Wu D, Zhang L, Xu L, Weng G, et al. Upregulation of CENP-H in tongue cancer correlates with poor prognosis and progression. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009;28:74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that CENP-H involves in the development and progression of tongue cancer. CENP-H might be a valuable prognostic indicator for tongue cancer patients within early stage. ..
  34. Peng G, Yim E, Dai H, Jackson A, Burgt I, Pan M, et al. BRIT1/MCPH1 links chromatin remodelling to DNA damage response. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:865-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore identify BRIT1 as a key molecule that links chromatin remodelling with response to DNA damage in the control of DNA repair, and its dysfunction contributes to human disease. ..
  35. Stead B, Sorbara C, Brandl C, Davey M. ATP binding and hydrolysis by Mcm2 regulate DNA binding by Mcm complexes. J Mol Biol. 2009;391:301-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, together with the finding that Mcm2(K549A) does not support yeast viability, these results indicate that the nucleotide-bound state of Mcm2 is critical in regulating the activities of Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2-7 complexes. ..
  36. Carroll C, Silva M, Godek K, Jansen L, Straight A. Centromere assembly requires the direct recognition of CENP-A nucleosomes by CENP-N. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:896-902 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that CENP-N interprets the information encoded within CENP-A nucleosomes and recruits other proteins to centromeric chromatin that are required for centromere function and propagation. ..
  37. Buccoliero A, Castiglione F, Rossi Degl Innocenti D, Franchi A, Paglierani M, Sanzo M, et al. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes: morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular study of a case showing features of medulloepithelioma and areas of mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation. Neuropathology. 2010;30:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to the rarity of embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes, each new case should be recorded to produce a better clinical, pathological and molecular characterization of this lesion. ..
  38. Neumann H, Hancock S, Buning R, Routh A, Chapman L, Somers J, et al. A method for genetically installing site-specific acetylation in recombinant histones defines the effects of H3 K56 acetylation. Mol Cell. 2009;36:153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Single-molecule FRET experiments reveal that H3 K56 acetylation increases DNA breathing 7-fold. Our results provide a molecular and mechanistic underpinning for cellular phenomena that have been linked with K56 acetylation. ..
  39. Piras F, Nergadze S, Magnani E, Bertoni L, Attolini C, Khoriauli L, et al. Uncoupling of satellite DNA and centromeric function in the genus Equus. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000845 pubmed publisher
    ..The rapidly evolving Equus species gave us the opportunity to identify different intermediate steps along the full maturation of ENCs...
  40. Kowenz Leutz E, Pless O, Dittmar G, Knoblich M, Leutz A. Crosstalk between C/EBPbeta phosphorylation, arginine methylation, and SWI/SNF/Mediator implies an indexing transcription factor code. EMBO J. 2010;29:1105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of the transcription factor C/EBPbeta couples ras signalling to arginine methylation and regulates the interaction of C/EBPbeta with epigenetic gene regulatory protein complexes during cell differentiation. ..
  41. Hawley R, Gilliland W. Homologue pairing: getting it right. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:917-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Families of repeated sequences that are enriched within these regions have now been identified. By recruiting their cognate ZnF-bearing proteins, these regions promote pairing and synapsis. ..
  42. Müller K, Erdel F, Caudron Herger M, Marth C, Fodor B, Richter M, et al. Multiscale analysis of dynamics and interactions of heterochromatin protein 1 by fluorescence fluctuation microscopy. Biophys J. 2009;97:2876-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings impose a number of constraints for the mechanism by which HP1 is able to maintain a heterochromatin state. ..
  43. Bierne H, Tham T, Batsche E, Dumay A, Leguillou M, Kernéis Golsteyn S, et al. Human BAHD1 promotes heterochromatic gene silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13826-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings provide evidence that BAHD1 acts as a silencer by recruiting at specific promoters a set of proteins that coordinate heterochromatin assembly. ..
  44. Crawford N, Yang H, Mattaini K, Hunter K. The metastasis efficiency modifier ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) is a chromatin-associated factor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28660-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that RRP1B, a tumor progression and metastasis susceptibility candidate gene, is potentially a dynamic modulator of transcription and chromatin structure. ..
  45. Humphries J, Byron A, Bass M, Craig S, Pinney J, Knight D, et al. Proteomic analysis of integrin-associated complexes identifies RCC2 as a dual regulator of Rac1 and Arf6. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra51 pubmed publisher
    ..This proteomics workflow now opens the way to further dissection and systems-level analyses of adhesion signaling. ..
  46. Sinha M, Watanabe S, Johnson A, Moazed D, Peterson C. Recombinational repair within heterochromatin requires ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Cell. 2009;138:1109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that recombinational repair in the context of heterochromatin presents additional constraints that can be overcome by ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes. ..
  47. Ishii K. Conservation and divergence of centromere specification in yeast. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:616-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights exciting new findings examining the mechanism of centromere specification in distinct yeast species, which provides insights into CENP-A nucleosome assembly and establishment of centromere identity. ..
  48. Ye K, Jia R, Lin J, Ju M, Peng J, Xu A, et al. Structural organization of box C/D RNA-guided RNA methyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also built a model of a native C/D RNP with substrate and fibrillarin in an active conformation. Our results provide insight into the overall organization and mechanism of action of C/D RNA-guided RNA methyltransferases...
  49. Ge J, Rudnick D, He J, Crimmins D, Ladenson J, Bessler M, et al. Dyskerin ablation in mouse liver inhibits rRNA processing and cell division. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that hepatocytes can survive without dyskerin but that the role of dyskerin in RNA modification is essential for cellular proliferation. ..
  50. Hall L, Byron M, Pageau G, Lawrence J. AURKB-mediated effects on chromatin regulate binding versus release of XIST RNA to the inactive chromosome. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:491-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest a model of multiple distinct anchor points for XIST RNA. This study advances understanding of RNA chromosome binding and the roles of AURKB and demonstrates a novel approach to manipulate and study XIST RNA. ..
  51. Jonsdottir A, Dirks R, Vrolijk J, Ogmundsdottir H, Tanke H, Eyfjord J, et al. Centriole movements in mammalian epithelial cells during cytokinesis. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:34 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that centriole movements are microtubule dependent and that abscission is more dependent on other mechanisms than positioning of centrioles. ..
  52. Cena A, Kurlandzka A. [Sister chromatid cohesion complex in Eukaryota]. Postepy Biochem. 2010;56:41-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we discuss the regulation of sister chromatid cohesion in mitosis and meiosis and, additionally, we describe atypical functions of cohesins. ..
  53. Fernández Miranda G, Pérez de Castro I, Carmena M, Aguirre Portolés C, Ruchaud S, Fant X, et al. SUMOylation modulates the function of Aurora-B kinase. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2823-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that SUMOylation of Aurora B modulates its function, possibly by mediating the extraction of CPC complexes from chromosome arms during prometaphase. ..