rna binding protein ews


Summary: A ubiquitous hnRNP protein that contains an RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF and C-terminal ranBP2-type zinc finger. It localizes to the CELL NUCLEUS and CYTOPLASM and is expressed as different isoforms in various tissues, interacting with CALMODULIN and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 to negatively regulate cell growth. Translocations that result in the formation of fusion proteins containing parts of RNA-binding protein EWS are associated with EWING SARCOMA.

Top Publications

  1. Stolow D, Haynes S. Cabeza, a Drosophila gene encoding a novel RNA binding protein, shares homology with EWS and TLS, two genes involved in human sarcoma formation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:835-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it appears that these genes constitute a new sub-family of RNA binding proteins. ..
  2. Law W, Cann K, Hicks G. TLS, EWS and TAF15: a model for transcriptional integration of gene expression. Brief Funct Genomic Proteomic. 2006;5:8-14 pubmed
  3. Guipaud O, Guillonneau F, Labas V, Praseuth D, Rossier J, Lopez B, et al. An in vitro enzymatic assay coupled to proteomics analysis reveals a new DNA processing activity for Ewing sarcoma and TAF(II)68 proteins. Proteomics. 2006;6:5962-72 pubmed
    ..This common activity suggests a role for TET proteins and PSF in genome plasticity control. ..
  4. Li H, Watford W, Li C, Parmelee A, Bryant M, Deng C, et al. Ewing sarcoma gene EWS is essential for meiosis and B lymphocyte development. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1314-23 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate a novel role of EWS in cellular senescence, possibly through its interaction and modulation of lamin A/C. ..
  5. Ohkura N, Yaguchi H, Tsukada T, Yamaguchi K. The EWS/NOR1 fusion gene product gains a novel activity affecting pre-mRNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:535-43 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our findings reveal that EWS/NOR1 gains a novel activity affecting pre-mRNA splicing. ..
  6. Arvand A, Denny C. Biology of EWS/ETS fusions in Ewing's family tumors. Oncogene. 2001;20:5747-54 pubmed
    ..Elucidation of EWS/ETS target gene networks in the context of other signaling pathways will hopefully lead to biology based therapeutic strategies for EFT. ..
  7. Rossow K, Janknecht R. The Ewing's sarcoma gene product functions as a transcriptional activator. Cancer Res. 2001;61:2690-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the nuclear EWS proto-oncoprotein can function as a transcriptional cofactor in conjunction with CBP/p300. ..
  8. Makino H, Toyoda M, Matsumoto K, Saito H, Nishino K, Fukawatase Y, et al. Mesenchymal to embryonic incomplete transition of human cells by chimeric OCT4/3 (POU5F1) with physiological co-activator EWS. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2727-40 pubmed publisher
  9. Morohoshi F, Ootsuka Y, Arai K, Ichikawa H, Mitani S, Munakata N, et al. Genomic structure of the human RBP56/hTAFII68 and FUS/TLS genes. Gene. 1998;221:191-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Gerald W, Ladanyi M, de Alava E, Cuatrecasas M, Kushner B, LaQuaglia M, et al. Clinical, pathologic, and molecular spectrum of tumors associated with t(11;22)(p13;q12): desmoplastic small round-cell tumor and its variants. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:3028-36 pubmed
    ..Translocation and functional fusion of the EWS and WT1 genes appears to be a consistent feature of this unique tumor. ..
  2. Tanaka K, Iwakuma T, Harimaya K, Sato H, Iwamoto Y. EWS-Fli1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits proliferation of human Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells. J Clin Invest. 1997;99:239-47 pubmed
  3. Felsch J, Lane W, Peralta E. Tyrosine kinase Pyk2 mediates G-protein-coupled receptor regulation of the Ewing sarcoma RNA-binding protein EWS. Curr Biol. 1999;9:485-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that extranuclear EWS is a previously unrecognized target of G-protein-coupled receptor regulation. ..
  4. Thompson A, Braun B, Arvand A, Stewart S, May W, Chen E, et al. EAT-2 is a novel SH2 domain containing protein that is up regulated by Ewing's sarcoma EWS/FLI1 fusion gene. Oncogene. 1996;13:2649-58 pubmed
    ..EAT-2's unique structure and correlation with transformation make it a candidate for playing a role in the transformation of NIH3T3 cells and the oncogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma. ..
  5. Palmer R, Lee S, Wong J, Reynolds P, Zhang H, Truong V, et al. Induction of BAIAP3 by the EWS-WT1 chimeric fusion implicates regulated exocytosis in tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:497-505 pubmed
    ..BAIAP3 therefore encodes a transcriptional target of an oncogenic fusion protein that implicates the regulated exocytotic pathway in cancer cell proliferation. ..
  6. Young P, Francis J, Lince D, Coon K, Androphy E, Lorson C. The Ewing's sarcoma protein interacts with the Tudor domain of the survival motor neuron protein. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;119:37-49 pubmed
    ..Anti-sense RNA experiments, however, demonstrate that EWS does not mediate the nuclear distribution of SMN or other Cajal body components. ..
  7. Knoop L, Baker S. EWS/FLI alters 5'-splice site selection. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22317-22 pubmed
    ..Mutational analysis of EWS/FLI revealed that the ability to affect pre-mRNA splicing coincided with transforming activity. Therefore, EWS/FLI has the ability to influence splicing as well as transcription. ..
  8. Olsen R, Hinrichs S. Phosphorylation of the EWS IQ domain regulates transcriptional activity of the EWS/ATF1 and EWS/FLI1 fusion proteins. Oncogene. 2001;20:1756-64 pubmed
    ..Since the IQ domain is incorporated into only a subset of fusion transcripts, these findings may provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying clinical heterogeneity observed in Ewing's sarcoma. ..
  9. Chansky H, Hu M, Hickstein D, Yang L. Oncogenic TLS/ERG and EWS/Fli-1 fusion proteins inhibit RNA splicing mediated by YB-1 protein. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3586-90 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that TLS and EWS fusion proteins may contribute to malignant transformation through disruption of RNA splicing mediated by TLS- and EWS-binding proteins such as YB-1. ..
  10. Melot T, Dauphinot L, Sevenet N, Radvanyi F, Delattre O. Characterization of a new brain-specific isoform of the EWS oncoprotein. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:3483-9 pubmed
    ..The phylogenetic conservation and relationship to neural differentiation strongly suggests an important functional role for this exon. ..
  11. Araya N, Hirota K, Shimamoto Y, Miyagishi M, Yoshida E, Ishida J, et al. Cooperative interaction of EWS with CREB-binding protein selectively activates hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5427-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that EWS as a co-activator requires CBP for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-mediated transcriptional activation. ..
  12. Fuchs B, Inwards C, Janknecht R. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression is up-regulated by EWS-ETS oncoproteins and Sp1 and may represent an independent predictor of survival in Ewing's sarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1344-53 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that VEGF may serve as a prognostic marker in Ewing's sarcoma patients and provide a molecular mechanism by which VEGF and cyclin D1 expression is up-regulated in approximately half of all Ewing's sarcomas. ..
  13. Lee J, Kim J, Kang I, Kim H, Han Y, Kim J. The EWS-Oct-4 fusion gene encodes a transforming gene. Biochem J. 2007;406:519-26 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(6;22) translocation is due to the EWS-Oct-4 chimaeric protein and that fusion of the EWS NTD to the Oct-4 DNA-binding domain produces a transforming chimaeric product. ..
  14. Crozat A, Aman P, Mandahl N, Ron D. Fusion of CHOP to a novel RNA-binding protein in human myxoid liposarcoma. Nature. 1993;363:640-4 pubmed
    ..In TLS-CHOP the RNA-binding domain of TLS is replaced by the DNA-binding and leucine zipper dimerization domain of CHOP. Targeting of a conserved effector domain of RNA-binding proteins to DNA may play a role in tumour formation. ..
  15. Belyanskaya L, Delattre O, Gehring H. Expression and subcellular localization of Ewing sarcoma (EWS) protein is affected by the methylation process. Exp Cell Res. 2003;288:374-81 pubmed
    ..The present findings indicate that expression of EWS protein in the various subcellular compartments is affected by the methylation process, in particular by the availability of intracellular AdoMet. ..
  16. Bertolotti A, Lutz Y, Heard D, Chambon P, Tora L. hTAF(II)68, a novel RNA/ssDNA-binding protein with homology to the pro-oncoproteins TLS/FUS and EWS is associated with both TFIID and RNA polymerase II. EMBO J. 1996;15:5022-31 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that hTAF(II)68 co-purifies also with the human RNA polymerase II and can enter the preinitiation complex together with Pol II. ..
  17. Aman P, Panagopoulos I, Lassen C, Fioretos T, Mencinger M, Toresson H, et al. Expression patterns of the human sarcoma-associated genes FUS and EWS and the genomic structure of FUS. Genomics. 1996;37:1-8 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that FUS and EWS belong to the housekeeping type of genes. This view is supported by the presence of the housekeeping gene type of promoter region in both genes. ..
  18. Deloulme J, Prichard L, Delattre O, Storm D. The prooncoprotein EWS binds calmodulin and is phosphorylated by protein kinase C through an IQ domain. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27369-77 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PKC may regulate interactions of EWS and other RNA-binding proteins with their RNA targets and that IQ domains may provide a regulatory link between Ca2+ signal transduction pathways and RNA processing. ..
  19. Kim S, Lee J, Kim J, Lim B, Shin E, Han Y, et al. Mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the EWS-Oct-4 oncogene results in dominant negative activity that interferes with EWS-Oct-4-mediated transactivation. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2312-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this mutation in the POU DNA-binding domain results in a dominant negative protein. These findings suggest that the biological functions of the EWS-Oct-4 oncogene can be modulated by the dominant negative mutant EWS-Oct-4 (V351P). ..
  20. Zakaryan R, Gehring H. Identification and characterization of the nuclear localization/retention signal in the EWS proto-oncoprotein. J Mol Biol. 2006;363:27-38 pubmed
    ..Regions in EAD guide the subnuclear partition of EWS protein and contain another but different NLS that allows nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the N-terminal domain. ..
  21. Immanuel D, Zinszner H, Ron D. Association of SARFH (sarcoma-associated RNA-binding fly homolog) with regions of chromatin transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4562-71 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SARFH and, by homology, EWS and TLS participate in a function common to the expression of most genes transcribed by RNA Pol II. ..
  22. Gascoyne D, Thomas G, Latchman D. The effects of Brn-3a on neuronal differentiation and apoptosis are differentially modulated by EWS and its oncogenic derivative EWS/Fli-1. Oncogene. 2004;23:3830-40 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that oncogenic rearrangement of EWS to produce EWS/Fli-1 may enhance the antiapoptotic effect of Brn-3a and inhibit its ability to promote neuronal differentiation. ..
  23. Gerald W, Haber D. The EWS-WT1 gene fusion in desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Semin Cancer Biol. 2005;15:197-205 pubmed
  24. Lee J, Rhee B, Bae G, Han Y, Kim J. Stimulation of Oct-4 activity by Ewing's sarcoma protein. Stem Cells. 2005;23:738-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that Oct-4-mediated transactivation is stimulated by EWS. ..
  25. Fujimura Y, Ohno T, Siddique H, Lee L, Rao V, Reddy E. The EWS-ATF-1 gene involved in malignant melanoma of soft parts with t(12;22) chromosome translocation, encodes a constitutive transcriptional activator. Oncogene. 1996;12:159-67 pubmed
    ..Targeting the transcriptional cofactors (CBP, etc) by EWS-fusion proteins could be one of the mechanisms of activation of EWS-fusion proteins in human neoplasia. ..
  26. Lee K. Ewings family oncoproteins: drunk, disorderly and in search of partners. Cell Res. 2007;17:286-8 pubmed
  27. Azuma M, Embree L, Sabaawy H, Hickstein D. Ewing sarcoma protein ewsr1 maintains mitotic integrity and proneural cell survival in the zebrafish embryo. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e979 pubmed
    ..Ewsr1 maintains mitotic integrity and proneural cell survival in early zebrafish development. ..
  28. Belyanskaya L, Gehrig P, Gehring H. Exposure on cell surface and extensive arginine methylation of ewing sarcoma (EWS) protein. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18681-7 pubmed
    ..The present findings imply that RNA-binding EWS protein shuttles from the nucleus to the cell surface in a methylated form, the role of which is discussed. ..
  29. Castillero Trejo Y, Eliazer S, Xiang L, Richardson J, Ilaria R. Expression of the EWS/FLI-1 oncogene in murine primary bone-derived cells Results in EWS/FLI-1-dependent, ewing sarcoma-like tumors. Cancer Res. 2005;65:8698-705 pubmed
    ..This Ewing sarcoma animal model will be a useful tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma and provides rationale for the broader use of organ-specific progenitor cell populations for the study of human sarcoma. ..
  30. Martinez Ramirez A, Rodriguez Perales S, Melendez B, Martinez Delgado B, Urioste M, Cigudosa J, et al. Characterization of the A673 cell line (Ewing tumor) by molecular cytogenetic techniques. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2003;141:138-42 pubmed
    ..Neither cytogenetics nor molecular alterations specific to RMS were found. ..
  31. Behdad A, Perry A. Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a clinicopathologic and genetic study of 33 cases. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:441-50 pubmed publisher
  32. Schaefer K, Brachwitz K, Wai D, Braun Y, Diallo R, Korsching E, et al. Expression profiling of t(12;22) positive clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue cell lines reveals characteristic up-regulation of potential new marker genes including ERBB3. Cancer Res. 2004;64:3395-405 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data demonstrate new aspects of the phenotype and the biological behavior of CCSST and reveal ERBB3 to be a useful diagnostic marker...
  33. Lai R, Navid F, Rodriguez Galindo C, Liu T, Fuller C, Ganti R, et al. STAT3 is activated in a subset of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumours. J Pathol. 2006;208:624-32 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, STAT3 activation is present in approximately half of ESFT and correlates with clinical features. The role of STAT3 activation in ESFT pathogenesis seems to be independent of the type of EWS/Ets translocation. ..
  34. Neduva V, Russell R. Proline-rich regions in transcriptional complexes: heading in many directions. Sci STKE. 2007;2007:pe1 pubmed
    ..The results underscore the importance of protein modularity in complex organization, as well as the role of irregular or disordered parts of proteins in crucial biological processes. ..
  35. Alex D, Lee K. RGG-boxes of the EWS oncoprotein repress a range of transcriptional activation domains. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:1323-31 pubmed
  36. Kohashi K, Oda Y, Yamamoto H, Tamiya S, Oshiro Y, Izumi T, et al. SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression in round cell soft tissue sarcomas associated with chromosomal translocations involving EWS: a special reference to SMARCB1/INI1 negative variant extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunohistochemical result of the SMARCB1/INI expression is not an absolute diagnostic criteria for MRT and careful histologic evaluation is required to make a precise diagnosis of MRT...
  37. Cummings T, Bridge J, Fukushima T. Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the jugular foramen. Clin Neuropathol. 2004;23:232-7 pubmed
    ..We report a rare case of EMC arising from the jugular foramen, and the diagnosis of EMC can be supported by confirmation of disruption of the EWS gene locus. ..
  38. Kumagai A, Motoi T, Tsuji K, Imamura T, Fukusato T. Detection of SYT and EWS gene rearrangements by dual-color break-apart CISH in liquid-based cytology samples of synovial sarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:323-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This system has a clear advantage over other methods, enabling simultaneous visualization of the genetic abnormality and well-preserved, nonoverlapping cytomorphologic features with clear background under bright-field microscope. ..
  39. Andersson M, Ståhlberg A, Arvidsson Y, Olofsson A, Semb H, Stenman G, et al. The multifunctional FUS, EWS and TAF15 proto-oncoproteins show cell type-specific expression patterns and involvement in cell spreading and stress response. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Roles in central processes such as stress response, translational control and adhesion may explain the FET proteins frequent involvement in human cancer. ..
  40. Tan S, Burchill S, Brownhill S, Gerrard M, Watmore A, Wagner B, et al. Small round cell tumor with biphenotypic differentiation and variant of t(21;22)(q22;q12). Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:391-6 pubmed
    ..This supports the hypothesis that a class of biphenotypic childhood sarcomas, with features of myogenic and neural differentiation, exists that may be related to the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. ..
  41. Svetoni F, De Paola E, La Rosa P, Mercatelli N, Caporossi D, Sette C, et al. Post-transcriptional regulation of FUS and EWS protein expression by miR-141 during neural differentiation. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:2732-2746 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies uncover a novel link between post-transcriptional regulation of FET proteins expression and neurogenesis. ..
  42. Shingde M, Buckland M, Busam K, McCarthy S, Wilmott J, Thompson J, et al. Primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour: a clinicopathological analysis of seven cases highlighting diagnostic pitfalls and the role of FISH testing in diagnosis. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:915-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The prognosis of primary cutaneous ES/PNET appears to be more favourable than extracutaneous ES/PNET. ..
  43. Chan A, Weber T. A putative link between exocytosis and tumor development. Cancer Cell. 2002;2:427-8 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Cancer Cell, now show that the resulting EWS-WT1 gene-fusion product leads to overexpression of BAIAP3, a protein implicated in regulated exocytosis. ..
  44. Perani M, Antonson P, Hamoudi R, Ingram C, Cooper C, Garrett M, et al. The proto-oncoprotein SYT interacts with SYT-interacting protein/co-activator activator (SIP/CoAA), a human nuclear receptor co-activator with similarity to EWS and TLS/FUS family of proteins. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42863-76 pubmed
    ..This region encompasses the SNF11 binding domain (amino acids 156-211), which interacts specifically with SYT in vivo and in vitro. ..
  45. Gardner L, Ayala A, Monforte H, Dunphy C. Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor: adult abdominal tumors with an Ewing sarcoma gene rearrangement demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization in paraffin sections. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2004;12:160-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the usefulness of FISH demonstration of an EWS gene rearrangement with these specific probes in such unusual cases is supported and is demonstrated in paraffin-embedded tissue. ..
  46. Szuhai K, Ijszenga M, Tanke H, Taminiau A, de Schepper A, van Duinen S, et al. Detection and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a novel ring chromosome in a histological variant of Ewing sarcoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007;172:12-22 pubmed
    ..This case adds to the spectrum of both morphology and genetic rearrangements in Ewing sarcoma, and shows the importance of combined molecular cytogenetic approaches in identifying uncommon rearrangements in sarcomas. ..
  47. Mezzelani A, Tornielli S, Minoletti F, Pierotti M, Sozzi G, Pilotti S. Esthesioneuroblastoma is not a member of the primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumour-Ewing's group. Br J Cancer. 1999;81:586-91 pubmed
    ..Moreover, DNA from three cases analysed by Southern blot did not show EWS gene rearrangements. Our results support the evidence that ENB is not a member of the pPNETs-ETs. ..
  48. Pahlich S, Quero L, Roschitzki B, Leemann Zakaryan R, Gehring H. Analysis of Ewing sarcoma (EWS)-binding proteins: interaction with hnRNP M, U, and RNA-helicases p68/72 within protein-RNA complexes. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:4455-65 pubmed publisher
  49. Ng K, Li K, Lee K. In vitro activity of the EWS oncogene transcriptional activation domain. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore suggest that crude soluble extracts do not support bona fide EAD activity in vitro, and we discuss our findings in relation to future assay development and potential mechanisms of EAD action. ..
  50. Leemann Zakaryan R, Pahlich S, Sedda M, Quero L, Grossenbacher D, Gehring H. Dynamic subcellular localization of the Ewing sarcoma proto-oncoprotein and its association with and stabilization of microtubules. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:1-13 pubmed publisher
  51. Guan H, Zhou Z, Cao Y, Duan X, Kleinerman E. VEGF165 promotes the osteolytic bone destruction of ewing's sarcoma tumors by upregulating RANKL. Oncol Res. 2009;18:117-25 pubmed
    ..VEGF165 may, therefore, play an important role in modulating RANKL gene expression in the bone marrow microenvironment during the metastatic process, thereby contribution to tumor induced bone lysis. ..
  52. Riggi N, Suva M, De Vito C, Provero P, Stehle J, Baumer K, et al. EWS-FLI-1 modulates miRNA145 and SOX2 expression to initiate mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming toward Ewing sarcoma cancer stem cells. Genes Dev. 2010;24:916-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide insight for the first time into the mechanisms whereby a single oncogene can reprogram primary cells to display a CSC phenotype. ..
  53. Panagopoulos I, Mertens F, Isaksson M, Domanski H, Brosjo O, Heim S, et al. Molecular genetic characterization of the EWS/CHN and RBP56/CHN fusion genes in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;35:340-52 pubmed
  54. Hume D, Sasmono T, Himes S, Sharma S, Bronisz A, Constantin M, et al. The Ewing sarcoma protein (EWS) binds directly to the proximal elements of the macrophage-specific promoter of the CSF-1 receptor (csf1r) gene. J Immunol. 2008;180:6733-42 pubmed
    ..Transfection assays suggest that EWS does not act as a conventional transcriptional activator or repressor. We hypothesize that EWS contributes to start site recognition in TATA-less mammalian promoters. ..
  55. Maksimenko A, Polard V, Villemeur M, Elhamess H, Couvreur P, Bertrand J, et al. In vivo potentialities of EWS-Fli-1 targeted antisense oligonucleotides-nanospheres complexes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1058:52-61 pubmed
    ..In cell culture the oligonucleotides inhibit cell growth by their antisense activity. Further investigations are needed in vivo to learn the mechanism of action of the complexes. ..
  56. Janknecht R. EWS-ETS oncoproteins: the linchpins of Ewing tumors. Gene. 2005;363:1-14 pubmed
    ..In addition, several potential prognostic markers have been uncovered and novel therapies are suggested that may improve the still dismal survival rate of Ewing tumor patients. ..
  57. Ohkura N, Nagamura Y, Tsukada T. Differential transactivation by orphan nuclear receptor NOR1 and its fusion gene product EWS/NOR1: possible involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase I, PARP-1. J Cell Biochem. 2008;105:785-800 pubmed publisher
  58. Kim J, Kako K, Kakiuchi M, Park G, Fukamizu A. EWS is a substrate of type I protein arginine methyltransferase, PRMT8. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:309-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that EWS is a substrate for PRMT8, as efficient as for PRMT1. ..
  59. Thomas G, Latchman D. The pro-oncoprotein EWS (Ewing's Sarcoma protein) interacts with the Brn-3a POU transcription factor and inhibits its ability to activate transcription. Cancer Biol Ther. 2002;1:428-32 pubmed
    ..The significance of this novel interaction is discussed in terms of the manner in which Brn-3a regulates its target promoters and the mechanism of oncogenic transformation by EWS-Fli1. ..
  60. Irifune H, Nishimori H, Watanabe G, Yoshida K, Ikeda T, Matsui C, et al. Aberrant laminin beta3 isoforms downstream of EWS-ETS fusion genes in Ewing family tumors. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005;4:449-55 pubmed
  61. Song J, Choi J, Kim J, Jang S, Cho K. Diagnostic utility of EWS break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization in distinguishing between non-cutaneous melanoma and clear cell sarcoma. Pathol Int. 2010;60:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular detection of EWS gene rearrangement, either by break-apart FISH or RT-PCR, is mandatory in subjects with melanotic tumors of soft tissue...
  62. Kim S, Denny C, Wisdom R. Cooperative DNA binding with AP-1 proteins is required for transformation by EWS-Ets fusion proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2467-78 pubmed
    ..The results have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma. In addition, they may be relevant to the mechanisms of Ras-dependent activation of genes that harbor tandem Ets and AP-1 binding sites. ..
  63. Hede K. RNA-based nanoparticle treatment shows promise in Ewing's sarcoma model. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:627 pubmed
  64. Mazur M, Gururangan S, Bridge J, Cummings T, Mukundan S, Fuchs H, et al. Intracranial Ewing sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;45:850-6 pubmed
    ..Demonstration of t(11;22)(q24;q12) by molecular analysis essentially confirms the diagnosis and enables the oncologist to choose appropriate therapy. ..
  65. Ichikawa H, Shimizu K, Katsu R, Ohki M. Dual transforming activities of the FUS (TLS)-ERG leukemia fusion protein conferred by two N-terminal domains of FUS (TLS). Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7639-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that FUS-ERG may activate two independent oncogenic pathways during the leukemogenic process by modulating the expression of two different groups of genes simultaneously. ..
  66. Kumar R, Rekhi B, Shirazi N, Pais A, Amare P, Gawde D, et al. Spectrum of cytomorphological features, including literature review, of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with t(9;22)(q22;q12) (TEC/EWS) results in one case. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:868-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Three cases revealed presence of "rhabdoid" cells. All cases had histopathologic confirmation. One case displayed t(9;22)(q22;q12) translocation by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), on smears. ..
  67. Berkova A, Dundr P, Povysil C, Melc√°kova S, Tvrdik D. A comparision of RT-PCR and FISH techniques in molecular diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma in paraffin-embedded tissue. Cesk Patol. 2008;44:67-70 pubmed
  68. Maltais A, Filion C, Labelle Y. The AF2 domain of the orphan nuclear receptor TEC is essential for the transcriptional activity of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/TEC. Cancer Lett. 2002;183:87-94 pubmed
  69. Spahn L, Petermann R, Siligan C, Schmid J, Aryee D, Kovar H. Interaction of the EWS NH2 terminus with BARD1 links the Ewing's sarcoma gene to a common tumor suppressor pathway. Cancer Res. 2002;62:4583-7 pubmed
  70. Modena P, Testi M, Facchinetti F, Mezzanzanica D, Radice M, Pilotti S, et al. UQCRH gene encoding mitochondrial Hinge protein is interrupted by a translocation in a soft-tissue sarcoma and epigenetically inactivated in some cancer cell lines. Oncogene. 2003;22:4586-93 pubmed
    ..These data provide preliminary evidence of the inactivation of UQCRH gene in cancer either by structural rearrangements or epigenetic mechanisms. ..
  71. Panagopoulos I, Hoglund M, Mertens F, Mandahl N, Mitelman F, Aman P. Fusion of the EWS and CHOP genes in myxoid liposarcoma. Oncogene. 1996;12:489-94 pubmed