bcl 2 associated x protein


Summary: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.

Top Publications

  1. Kim H, Tu H, Ren D, Takeuchi O, Jeffers J, Zambetti G, et al. Stepwise activation of BAX and BAK by tBID, BIM, and PUMA initiates mitochondrial apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2009;36:487-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, deficiency of Bim/Puma impedes ER stress-induced BAX/BAK activation and apoptosis. Our study provides mechanistic insights regarding the spatiotemporal execution of BAX/BAK-governed cell death. ..
  2. Dussmann H, Rehm M, Concannon C, Anguissola S, Würstle M, Kacmar S, et al. Single-cell quantification of Bax activation and mathematical modelling suggest pore formation on minimal mitochondrial Bax accumulation. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:278-90 pubmed publisher
  3. Owens T, Valentijn A, Upton J, Keeble J, Zhang L, Lindsay J, et al. Apoptosis commitment and activation of mitochondrial Bax during anoikis is regulated by p38MAPK. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1551-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Artificially targeting p38MAPK to the OMM increased the kinetics of anoikis, supporting a requirement for its mitochondrial localisation to regulate Bax activation and drive commitment to apoptosis. ..
  4. Ren D, Kim H, Tu H, Westergard T, Fisher J, Rubens J, et al. The VDAC2-BAK rheostat controls thymocyte survival. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra48 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the VDAC2-BAK axis provides a mechanism that governs the homeostasis of thymocytes. Our study reveals a sophisticated built-in rheostat that likely fine-tunes immune competence to balance autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. ..
  5. Li H, Liu L, Xing D, Chen W. Inhibition of the JNK/Bim pathway by Hsp70 prevents Bax activation in UV-induced apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results for the first time demonstrate that Hsp70 prevents Bax activation both by inhibiting the JNK/Bim pathway and by interacting with Bax in UV-induced apoptosis. ..
  6. Shishkina G, Kalinina T, Berezova I, Bulygina V, Dygalo N. Resistance to the development of stress-induced behavioral despair in the forced swim test associated with elevated hippocampal Bcl-xl expression. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that naturally occurring variations in the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio in the hippocampus may contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to stress-induced depression-like behaviors. ..
  7. Liu W, Sun S, Zhang G. [Expression of apoptosis-related proteins in gastric mucosa of children with Helicobacter pylori infection]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;12:110-2 pubmed
    ..pylori positive group were significantly higher than those in the H. pylori negative group (p<0.05). H. pylori infection is associated with the over-expression of p53 and Bax proteins in gastric mucosa in children. ..
  8. Sharifi A, Mousavi S, Jorjani M. Effect of chronic lead exposure on pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression in rat hippocampus in vivo. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:769-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data suggest that neurotoxicity of chronic lead exposure in hippocampus in vivo may partly be due to facilitation of apoptosis. ..
  9. Zhang Z, Yu B, Tao G. Apelin protects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:2360-5 pubmed
    ..The endogenous apelin-APJ system is compensatorily up-regulated and ultimately down-regulated following sustained myocardial ischemia. Apelin protects against ischemic cardiomyocyte apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. ..

More Information


  1. Lee S, Kim Y, Song S, Kim Y. Stabilization and translocation of p53 to mitochondria is linked to Bax translocation to mitochondria in simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these all indicate that stabilization and translocation of p53 to mitochondria is involved in Bax translocation to mitochondria in simvastatin-induced apoptosis. ..
  2. Crisafulli C, Di Paola R, Mazzon E, Paterniti I, Galuppo M, Genovese T, et al. Liver X receptor agonist treatment reduced splanchnic ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:309-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that LXR agonists may be useful in the therapy of inflammation. ..
  3. Sjöström Mattson J, von Boguslawski K, Bengtsson N, Mjaaland I, Salmenkivi K, Blomqvist C. The expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, fas and fasL in the primary tumour and lymph node metastases of breast cancer. Acta Oncol. 2009;48:1137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Large studies comparing the expression of relevant tumour biology factors in primary tumours and parallel lymph node metastases and their impact on therapy outcome, especially in the adjuvant setting, are warranted. ..
  4. Kim W, Lee S, Choi Y, Moon S. Decursin inhibits growth of human bladder and colon cancer cells via apoptosis, G1-phase cell cycle arrest and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Int J Mol Med. 2010;25:635-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, these findings suggest that decursin has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bladder and colon cancer. ..
  5. Perez Alvarez S, Cuenca Lopez M, de Mera R, Puerta E, Karachitos A, Bednarczyk P, et al. Methadone induces necrotic-like cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by an impairment of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:1036-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the effects observed for cells in the presence of supratherapeutic doses of methadone may result from a "bioenergetic crisis." A decreased level of cellular energy may predispose cells to necrotic-like cell death. ..
  6. Samudio I, Harmancey R, Fiegl M, Kantarjian H, Konopleva M, Korchin B, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation sensitizes human leukemia cells to apoptosis induction. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:142-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the concept of FAO inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in hematological malignancies. ..
  7. Ghavami S, Mutawe M, Hauff K, Stelmack G, Schaafsma D, Sharma P, et al. Statin-triggered cell death in primary human lung mesenchymal cells involves p53-PUMA and release of Smac and Omi but not cytochrome c. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:452-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, simvastatin activates novel apoptosis pathways in lung mesenchymal cells involving p53, IAP inhibitor release, and disruption of mitochondrial fission. ..
  8. Tsukano H, Gotoh T, Endo M, Miyata K, Tazume H, Kadomatsu T, et al. The endoplasmic reticulum stress-C/EBP homologous protein pathway-mediated apoptosis in macrophages contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1925-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The ER stress-CHOP-Bax-mediated apoptosis in macrophages contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. ..
  9. Yu J, Piao B, Pei Y, Qi X, HUA B. Protective effects of tetrahydropalmatine against gamma-radiation induced damage to human endothelial cells. Life Sci. 2010;87:55-63 pubmed publisher
  10. Chu J, Wu S, Xing D. Survivin mediates self-protection through ROS/cdc25c/CDK1 signaling pathway during tumor cell apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation. Cancer Lett. 2010;297:207-19 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the present studies, we conclude that survivin can mediate self-protection during tumor cell apoptosis caused by HF-LPLI. ..
  11. de Oliveira D, Pitanga B, Grangeiro M, Lima R, Costa M, Costa S, et al. Catechol cytotoxicity in vitro: induction of glioblastoma cell death by apoptosis. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:199-212 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, catechol depleted reduced glutathione. Hence, catechol induced cell death mainly by apoptosis. ..
  12. Liu S, Song S, Lin L, Liu X. Molecular mechanism of cell apoptosis by paclitaxel and pirarubicin in a human osteosarcoma cell line. Chemotherapy. 2010;56:101-7 pubmed publisher
  13. Jiang G, Liu Y, Wei Z, Pei D, Mao L, Zheng J. Enhanced anti-tumor activity by the combination of a conditionally replicating adenovirus mediated interleukin-24 and dacarbazine against melanoma cells via induction of apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2010;294:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This additive or synergistic effect of ZD55-IL-24 in combination with DTIC in killing human malignant melanoma cells implies a promising novel approach for melanoma therapy. ..
  14. Hsu A, Bray T, Helferich W, Doerge D, Ho E. Differential effects of whole soy extract and soy isoflavones on apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This 'whole-food'-based approach is significant for the development of public health recommendations for prostate cancer prevention. ..
  15. Farabegoli F, Papi A, Bartolini G, Ostan R, Orlandi M. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate downregulates Pg-P and BCRP in a tamoxifen resistant MCF-7 cell line. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction of EGCG and drugs used in the therapy of estrogen sensitive breast carcinoma ought to be subject of studies and the potential use of EGCG in drug-resistant diseases ought to be better considered...
  16. Maranesi M, Zerani M, Lilli L, Dall Aglio C, Brecchia G, Gobbetti A, et al. Expression of luteal estrogen receptor, interleukin-1, and apoptosis-associated genes after PGF2alpha administration in rabbits at different stages of pseudopregnancy. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2010;39:116-30 pubmed publisher
    ..01) following PGF(2alpha). These findings suggest that PGF(2alpha) regulates luteolysis by ESR1 mRNA down-regulation and modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways in CL that have acquired a luteolytic capacity...
  17. Li L, Walker T, Zhang Y, Mackay E, Bartlett P. Endogenous interferon gamma directly regulates neural precursors in the non-inflammatory brain. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9038-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings provide the first direct evidence that IFNgamma acts as a regulator of the active NP pool in the non-inflammatory brain. ..
  18. Du X, Youle R, FitzGerald D, Pastan I. Pseudomonas exotoxin A-mediated apoptosis is Bak dependent and preceded by the degradation of Mcl-1. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:3444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-x(L) inhibited PE-induced MEF death. Our data suggest that Bak is the preferential mediator of PE-mediated apoptosis and that the rapid degradation of Mcl-1 unleashes Bak to activate apoptosis. ..
  19. Laezza C, Malfitano A, Di Matola T, Ricchi P, Bifulco M. Involvement of Akt/NF-?B pathway in N6-isopentenyladenosine-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2010;49:892-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study indicate that i6A decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells, possibly by decreasing signal transduction through the Akt/NF-?B cell survival pathway. ..
  20. Wincewicz A, Koda M, Sulkowska M, Kanczuga Koda L, Wincewicz D, Sulkowski S. STAT3 and hypoxia induced proteins--HIF-1alpha, EPO and EPOR in relation with Bax and Bcl-xL in nodal metastases of ductal breast cancers. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Strong Bax and Bcl-xL labeling reflects accelerated cell turnover in nodal metastases. By means of association with Bcl-xL, HIF-1alpha, EPO and EPOR could favor growth of nodal metastases and survival of breast cancers cells. ..
  21. Thippegowda P, Singh V, Sundivakkam P, Xue J, Malik A, Tiruppathi C. Ca2+ influx via TRPC channels induces NF-kappaB-dependent A20 expression to prevent thrombin-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C656-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ca(2+) influx via TRPC channels plays a critical role in the mechanism of cell survival signaling through A20 expression in ECs. ..
  22. Zarch A, Toroudi H, Soleimani M, Bakhtiarian A, Katebi M, Djahanguiri B. Neuroprotective effects of diazoxide and its antagonism by glibenclamide in pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus subjected to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119:1346-61 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results show that diazoxide can exhibit neuroprotective effects against IR/II in hippocampal regions, possibly through the opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. ..
  23. Machado N, Baldeiras I, Pereira G, Pereira S, Oliveira P. Sub-chronic administration of doxorubicin to Wistar rats results in oxidative stress and unaltered apoptotic signaling in the lung. Chem Biol Interact. 2010;188:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained indicate for the first time that lungs from DOX-treated rats appear to be susceptible to increased lipid peroxidation, which can explain some cases of DOX-induced lung toxicity. ..
  24. Zhang A, Xue H, Ling X, Gao Y, Yang F, Cheng L, et al. Anti-HER-2 engineering antibody ChA21 inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of SK-OV-3 cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ChA21 inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis of SK-OV-3 via regulating the balance between Bax and Bcl-2. ..
  25. Li X, Pabla N, Wei Q, Dong G, Messing R, Wang C, et al. PKC-delta promotes renal tubular cell apoptosis associated with proteinuria. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that activation of PKC-delta promotes tubular cell injury and death during albuminuria, broadening our understanding of the pathogenesis of progressive proteinuric kidney diseases. ..
  26. Modesitt S, Parsons S. In vitro and in vivo histone deacetylase inhibitor therapy with vorinostat and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer models: does timing matter?. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;119:351-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of the combination and sequence of vorinostat and paclitaxel administration was cell line dependent and suggests that responses vary based on tumor specific characteristics. ..
  27. Saito C, Lemasters J, Jaeschke H. c-Jun N-terminal kinase modulates oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation independent of inducible nitric oxide synthase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;246:8-17 pubmed publisher
  28. Busser B, Sancey L, Josserand V, Niang C, Favrot M, Coll J, et al. Amphiregulin promotes BAX inhibition and resistance to gefitinib in non-small-cell lung cancers. Mol Ther. 2010;18:528-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate the need for inhibition of Areg to enhance the efficiency of the EGFR inhibitors in patients suffering NSCLC. ..
  29. Chen Z, Cai L, Bie P, Wang S, Jiang Y, Dong J, et al. Roles of Fyn in pancreatic cancer metastasis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which Fyn activity regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis that exerts an effect on pancreatic cancer metastasis. ..
  30. Ji B, Hsu W, Yang J, Hsia T, Lu C, Chiang J, et al. Gallic acid induces apoptosis via caspase-3 and mitochondrion-dependent pathways in vitro and suppresses lung xenograft tumor growth in vivo. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7596-604 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that GA induced apoptosis in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells via a caspase-3 and mitochondrion-dependent pathway and inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of NCI-H460 cells in xenograft models. ..
  31. Hu L, Sun Y, Hu J. Catalpol inhibits apoptosis in hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelium by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and modulating expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;628:155-63 pubmed publisher
  32. Chen Y, Liu W, Kao P, Wang J, Chang L. Involvement of p38 MAPK- and JNK-modulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in Naja nigricollis CMS-9-induced apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells. Toxicon. 2010;55:1306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that CMS-9-induced apoptosis of K562 cells is catalytic activity-dependent and is mediated through mitochondria-mediated death pathway triggered by Ca2+/ROS-evoked p38 MAPK and JNK activation. ..
  33. Huang X, Zhang X, Qin F, Wang X, Ren P, Liu Z, et al. Pretreatment with a traditional Chinese formula, guanxin II, reduces cardiac apoptosis via the Akt survival pathway in rats with myocardial ischemia. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010;220:157-63 pubmed
    ..5 g/kg ensures the survival of myocardium by enhancing the Akt-mediated antiapoptosis pathway. The findings provide new evidence of the effective and safe therapy with GXII for patients with chronic coronary heart disease. ..
  34. Fan L, Sun G, Wei W, Wang Z, Ge L, Fu W, et al. Melatonin and doxorubicin synergistically induce cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:1473-81 pubmed
    ..The synergism of melatonin and doxorubicin inhibits hepatoma cell growth and induces cell apoptosis. ..
  35. Krishnamoorthy J, Yu V, Mok Y. Auto-FACE: an NMR based binding site mapping program for fast chemical exchange protein-ligand systems. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8943 pubmed publisher
    ..The methodology is automated and implemented in a program called "Auto-FACE", which also allowed quantitative information of each interaction site and elucidation of binding mechanism. ..
  36. Kim H, Okubo T, Juneja L, Yokozawa T. The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and 10.2 % at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. These findings suggest that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is attenuated by the polyphenol-rich fraction of amla...
  37. Ota K, Matsumiya T, Sakuraba H, Imaizumi T, Yoshida H, Kawaguchi S, et al. Interferon-alpha2b induces p21cip1/waf1 degradation and cell proliferation in HeLa cells. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:131-9 pubmed
    ..These results provide a novel role of Type I IFNs in cell cycle regulation and may define an importance of individualized IFN-based therapy against specific types of cancer. ..
  38. Kurosu T, Wu N, Oshikawa G, Kagechika H, Miura O. Enhancement of imatinib-induced apoptosis of BCR/ABL-expressing cells by nutlin-3 through synergistic activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis. 2010;15:608-20 pubmed publisher
  39. Ronco M, Frances D, Ingaramo P, Quiroga A, Alvarez M, Pisani G, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induced by Trypanosoma cruzi infection mediates inflammation and cell death in the liver of infected mice. Cytokine. 2010;49:64-72 pubmed publisher
  40. Leung T, Ngan H. Interaction of TAp73 and breast cancer-associated gene 3 enhances the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells in response to irradiation-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:6486-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings suggested that BCA3 is a novel protein partner of TAp73, and they cooperate with each other to exert tumor-suppressive functions and sensitize the response of cervical cancer cells to radiotherapy. ..
  41. Vedam K, Nishijima Y, Druhan L, Khan M, Moldovan N, Zweier J, et al. Role of heat shock factor-1 activation in the doxorubicin-induced heart failure in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H1832-41 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results we propose a novel mechanism for Dox-induced heart failure: increased expression of Hsp25 because of oxidant-induced activation of HSF-1 transactivates p53 to increase Bax levels, which leads to heart failure. ..
  42. Li J, Xiao X, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Feng L, Wu Y, et al. MicroRNA miR-886-5p inhibits apoptosis by down-regulating Bax expression in human cervical carcinoma cells. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;120:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..MicroRNA miR-886-5p inhibits apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by down-regulating the production of Bax. ..
  43. Hu J, Chu S, Ning N, Yuan Y, Xue W, Chen N, et al. Protective effect of (-)clausenamide against Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Neurosci Lett. 2010;483:78-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that (-)Clau may be a therapeutic agent for AD. ..
  44. Sun K, Hu Q, Zhou C, Xu X, Wang F, Hu B, et al. Cerebralcare Granule, a Chinese herb compound preparation, improves cerebral microcirculatory disorder and hippocampal CA1 neuron injury in gerbils after ischemia-reperfusion. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:398-406 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that CG given after initiation of reperfusion is able to ameliorate cerebral microvascular dysfunction and hippocampal CA1 neuron damage caused by I/R. ..
  45. Menrad H, Werno C, Schmid T, Copanaki E, Deller T, Dehne N, et al. Roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) versus HIF-2alpha in the survival of hepatocellular tumor spheroids. Hepatology. 2010;51:2183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that enhanced expression of one HIF-isoform causes a survival advantage in hepatocellular carcinoma development. ..
  46. Karlberg M, Ekoff M, Huang D, Mustonen P, Harvima I, Nilsson G. The BH3-mimetic ABT-737 induces mast cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo: potential for therapeutics. J Immunol. 2010;185:2555-62 pubmed publisher
  47. Yadav S, Shi Y, Wang F, Wang H. Arsenite induces apoptosis in human mesenchymal stem cells by altering Bcl-2 family proteins and by activating intrinsic pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;244:263-72 pubmed publisher
  48. Wu Y, Fan Q, Lu N, Tao L, Gao Y, Qi Q, et al. Breviscapine-induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was involved in its antitumor activity. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..It is first discovered that breviscapine exhibited potential antitumor activity, induces remarkable apoptosis in HepG2 cells and promises to be a new candidate in future cancer therapy. ..
  49. Yang C, Lin L, Wu M, Chien C, Lai M. Repetitive hypoxic preconditioning attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative injury via upregulating HIF-1 alpha-dependent bcl-2 signaling. Transplantation. 2009;88:1251-60 pubmed publisher
  50. Zhang Y, Qu Y, Zhang J, Wang X. Ardipusilloside I purified from Ardisia pusilla competitively binds VEGFR and induces apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:519-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, all these results demonstrate that Ardipusilloside I has a good docking with VEGFR and has an inhibitory effect on growth of NCI-H460 cell and can induce its apoptosis...
  51. Hanafy S, Shehata O, Farahat N. Expression of apoptotic markers BCL-2 and Bax in chronic hepatitis C virus patients. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:1112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hepatitis C viral infection(HCV) influence the susceptibility to apoptosis. This could lead to insufficient antiviral immune response and persistent viral infection...
  52. Safa M, Kazemi A, Zand H, Azarkeivan A, Zaker F, Hayat P. Inhibitory role of cAMP on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through dephosphorylation of p53 serine residues. Apoptosis. 2010;15:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of cAMP-signaling system may repress p53-dependent apoptosis in malignant cells exposed to doxorubicin. ..
  53. Yang J, Rayalam S, Della Fera M, Ambati S, Baile C. Octanoate and decanoate induce apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Med Food. 2009;12:959-66 pubmed publisher
    ..MCFAs thus decrease adipocyte number by initiating the apoptotic process in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ..