hsp72 heat shock proteins


Summary: Stress-inducible members of the heat-shock proteins 70 family. HSP72 heat shock proteins function with other MOLECULAR CHAPERONES to mediate PROTEIN FOLDING and to stabilize pre-existent proteins against aggregation.

Top Publications

  1. Fu Y, Wang P, Liu S, Huang W, Huang H. Warm SPA-induced hyperthermia confers protection to rats against airway inflammation evoked by capsaicin and substance P. Auton Neurosci. 2010;155:49-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Afterwards, the hyperthermia-induced HSP 72 upregulation gradually declined in a time-dependent manner. Thus, SPA hyperthermia may protect rats against neurogenic inflammation through modulation of HSP expression. ..
  2. Giraldo E, Martin Cordero L, Garcia J, Gehrmann M, Gerhmann M, Multhoff G, et al. Exercise-induced extracellular 72 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp72) stimulates neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities via TLR-2. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, TLR-2 is involved at least in part, in the stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic and fungicidal capacities induced by post-exercise physiological concentrations of Hsp72. ..
  3. Gabai V, Meriin A, Mosser D, Caron A, Rits S, Shifrin V, et al. Hsp70 prevents activation of stress kinases. A novel pathway of cellular thermotolerance. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:18033-7 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory effect of an increased level of Hsp70 on JNK appears to be a major contributor to acquired thermotolerance in mammalian cells. ..
  4. Meador B, Huey K. Glutamine preserves skeletal muscle force during an inflammatory insult. Muscle Nerve. 2009;40:1000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that force preservation is not dependent on reductions in serum cytokines or muscle TNF-alpha, or elevated Hsp levels. ..
  5. Carmeli E, Beiker R, Maor M, Kodesh E. Increased iNOS, MMP-2, and HSP-72 in skeletal muscle following high-intensity exercise training. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21:127-46 pubmed
    ..High-intensity exercise training is required to promote the expression of iNOS, MMP-2, and HSP-72 in hind limb muscles regardless their muscle fiber type, whereas in the diaphragm the changes are fiber-type dependent. ..
  6. Kavazis A, Smuder A, Min K, Tumer N, Powers S. Short-term exercise training protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac mitochondrial damage independent of HSP72. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H1515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data are consistent with the concept that increases in cardiac mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes may contribute to exercise-induced cardioprotection. ..
  7. Eisenberg D, Carpenter S, Adusumilli P, Chan M, Hendershott K, Yu Z, et al. Hyperthermia potentiates oncolytic herpes viral killing of pancreatic cancer through a heat shock protein pathway. Surgery. 2010;148:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has potential clinical application in the use of heated perfusion or permissive hyperthermia for delivery of oncolytic viral therapies. ..
  8. Gupte A, Morris J, Zhang H, Bomhoff G, Geiger P, Stanford J. Age-related changes in HSP25 expression in basal ganglia and cortex of F344/BN rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010;472:90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..p38 MAPK, a protein implicated in activating HSP25, did not change with age, nor did HSC70 (the constitutive form of HSP70), or HSP60. These results suggest that HSP25 is especially responsive to age-related stress in the basal ganglia. ..
  9. Kupper N, Gidron Y, Winter J, Denollet J. Association between type D personality, depression, and oxidative stress in patients with chronic heart failure. Psychosom Med. 2009;71:973-80 pubmed publisher
    ..83, p = .03, d = 0.39), independent of etiology class. CHF patients with Type D personality are characterized by an increased oxidative stress burden, apparent in the decreased antioxidant levels and an increased oxidative stress ratio. ..

More Information


  1. Yamashima T, Oikawa S. The role of lysosomal rupture in neuronal death. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;89:343-58 pubmed publisher
    ..As the autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathway is a target of oxidative stress, the implication of autophagy is also discussed. ..
  2. Stacchiotti A, Morandini F, Bettoni F, Schena I, Lavazza A, Grigolato P, et al. Stress proteins and oxidative damage in a renal derived cell line exposed to inorganic mercury and lead. Toxicology. 2009;264:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, different chaperones are involved in the specific nephrotoxic mechanism of these environmental pollutants and work together for cell survival. ..
  3. Lin L, Chen Y, Lee W, Chen H, Yang R. Heat shock pretreatment attenuates sepsis-associated encephalopathy in LPS-induced septic rats. Brain Dev. 2010;32:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we found that heat shock could attenuate the electro-cortical dysfunction in rats with LPS-induced septic response, suggesting that heat shock response might potentially be used to prevent SAE in sepsis. ..
  4. Aunpad R, Somsri S, Na Bangchang K, Udomsangpetch R, Mungthin M, Adisakwattana P, et al. The effect of mimicking febrile temperature and drug stress on malarial development. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2009;8:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Heat shock protein 70 (pfHSP70) of strain K1 under heat shock with chloroquine might involved in many pathways in order to sustain the parasite. ..
  5. Oikawa S, Yamada T, Minohata T, Kobayashi H, Furukawa A, Tada Oikawa S, et al. Proteomic identification of carbonylated proteins in the monkey hippocampus after ischemia-reperfusion. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:1472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage to these proteins in the CA1 may lead to loss of the neuroprotective function, which contributes to neuronal death. ..
  6. Konings A, Van Laer L, Michel S, Pawelczyk M, Carlsson P, Bondeson M, et al. Variations in HSP70 genes associated with noise-induced hearing loss in two independent populations. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009;17:329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study replicated the association of HSP70 genes with NIHL in a second and third independent noise-exposed sample set, hereby adding to the evidence that HSP70 genes may be NIHL susceptibility genes. ..
  7. Tulapurkar M, Asiegbu B, Singh I, Hasday J. Hyperthermia in the febrile range induces HSP72 expression proportional to exposure temperature but not to HSF-1 DNA-binding activity in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2009;14:499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, HSF-1-mediated HSP expression following hyperthermia and heat shock appears to be mediated, in addition to HSF-1 activation, by posttranslational modifications of HSF-1 protein. ..
  8. Fortes M, Whitham M. No endogenous circadian rhythm in resting plasma Hsp72 concentration in humans. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2009;14:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..8-7.7% (mean 5.4%). Mean Hsp72 concentration across all subjects and time points was 1.49 +/- 0.08 ngml(-1). These data show that in a rested state, plasma eHsp72 concentration shows no apparent endogenous circadian rhythm. ..
  9. Huey K, Meador B. Contribution of IL-6 to the Hsp72, Hsp25, and alphaB-crystallin [corrected] responses to inflammation and exercise training in mouse skeletal and cardiac muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:1830-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Hurwitz M, Kaur P, Nagaraja G, Bausero M, Manola J, Asea A. Radiation therapy induces circulating serum Hsp72 in patients with prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2010;95:350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, if validated, may lead to new treatment paradigms for common human malignancies. ..
  11. Zhou Y, Mao H, Li S, Cao S, Li Z, Zhuang S, et al. HSP72 inhibits Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation in renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:598-609 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, HSP72 inhibits EMT in renal epithelial cells primarily by exerting domain-specific effects on Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation. ..
  12. Paduch R, Jakubowicz Gil J, Kandefer Szerszen M. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11. J Biosci. 2009;34:927-40 pubmed
  13. Placinta M, Shen M, Achermann M, Karlstrom R. A laser pointer driven microheater for precise local heating and conditional gene regulation in vivo. Microheater driven gene regulation in zebrafish. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:73 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond these uses for the study of gene function, this device has wide-ranging utility in materials science and could easily be adapted for therapeutic purposes in humans. ..
  14. Kim K, Kim W, Rhee J, Jo Y, Lee J, Kim K, et al. Induced hypothermia attenuates the acute lung injury in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2010;68:373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The activated p65 NF-kappaB levels in lung nuclear extract were significantly lower in the NT group (p = 0.03). HT attenuates HS-induced ALI in rats by the modulation of GSK, HSP 72, iNOS, and NF-kappaB. ..
  15. Dehbi M, Baturcam E, Eldali A, Ahmed M, Kwaasi A, Chishti M, et al. Hsp-72, a candidate prognostic indicator of heatstroke. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that extracellular Hsp-72 is a marker of multiple organs tissue damage. Whether extracellular Hsp-72 plays a role in the host immune response to heat stress merits further studies. ..
  16. Henstridge D, Forbes J, Penfold S, Formosa M, Dougherty S, Gasser A, et al. The relationship between heat shock protein 72 expression in skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity is dependent on adiposity. Metabolism. 2010;59:1556-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with rodent data suggesting that HSP72 stimulates fat oxidation with consequent reduction in fat storage and adiposity. ..
  17. Ribas V, Nguyen M, Henstridge D, Nguyen A, Beaven S, Watt M, et al. Impaired oxidative metabolism and inflammation are associated with insulin resistance in ERalpha-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E304-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that ERalpha is critical for the maintenance of whole body insulin action and protection against tissue inflammation during both normal chow and high-fat feeding. ..
  18. Taylor L, Midgley A, Chrismas B, Madden L, Vince R, McNaughton L. Daily quadratic trend in basal monocyte expressed HSP72 in healthy human subjects. Amino Acids. 2010;38:1483-8 pubmed publisher
  19. Tang Z, Weng S, Peng S, Liu Y, Chen X, Yang J, et al. Influence of exercise at high temperature on blood biochemical indexes and HSP72 expression in adult males. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008;28:504-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention should be paid to health supervision to avoid obvious body injuries at high temperature. ..
  20. Evdonin A, Kinev A, Tsupkina N, Guerriero V, Raynes D, Medvedeva N. Extracellular HspBP1 and Hsp72 synergistically activate epidermal growth factor receptor. Biol Cell. 2009;101:351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the magnitude of EGFR activation depends on the e-HspBP1/e-Hsp72 ratio in the medium. Extracellular chaperone-mediated activation of EGFR can provide a survival advantage to cells under heat shock and other stresses. ..
  21. Stegemann J, Minor T. Energy charge restoration, mitochondrial protection and reversal of preservation induced liver injury by hypothermic oxygenation prior to reperfusion. Cryobiology. 2009;58:331-6 pubmed publisher
  22. Loeffler Ragg J, Mueller D, Gamerith G, Auer T, Skvortsov S, Sarg B, et al. Proteomic identification of aldo-keto reductase AKR1B10 induction after treatment of colorectal cancer cells with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..2% of 125 tumor specimens. These findings indicate that AKR1B10 might be a target for combination therapy with bortezomib. ..
  23. Takeda I, Fujino H, Murakami S, Kondo H, Nagatomo F, Ishihara A. Thermal preconditioning prevents fiber type transformation of the unloading induced-atrophied muscle in rats. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2009;30:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, thermal preconditioning provides a new approach to prevent disuse-induced fiber type transformation of skeletal muscle. ..
  24. Song L, Xu Z, Zhang C, Qiao X, Huang C. Up-regulation of the HSP72 by Foxa1 in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386:30-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Luciferase reporter showed that Foxa1 also increased the transcription activity of HSP72 promoter. These results indicate an important role for Foxa1 as a novel regulator of expression of HSP72. ..
  25. Bellia F, Calabrese V, Guarino F, Cavallaro M, Cornelius C, De Pinto V, et al. Carnosinase levels in aging brain: redox state induction and cellular stress response. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2009;11:2759-75 pubmed publisher
  26. Augustin M, Salmenperä P, Harjula A, Kankuri E. Heat shock enhances troponin expression and decreases differentiation-associated caspase-3 dependence in myoblasts under hypoxia. J Surg Res. 2010;161:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..HS preconditioning enhances expression of myoblast differentiation-associated troponin and may reduce dependence of differentiation on caspase-3. ..
  27. He S, Yang L, Lv Z, Hu W, Cao J, Wei J, et al. Molecular and functional characterization of a mortalin-like protein from Schistosoma japonicum (SjMLP/hsp70) as a member of the HSP70 family. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:955-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that SjMLP/hsp70 has a potential adjuvant function and might be a vaccine candidate for schistosomiaisis, which is the first report of the expression and preliminary characterization analysis of this molecule. ..
  28. Niinistö K, Korolainen R, Raekallio M, Mykkänen A, Koho N, Ruohoniemi M, et al. Plasma levels of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and beta-endorphin as indicators of stress, pain and prognosis in horses with colic. Vet J. 2010;184:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..High plasma HSP72 concentration may indicate circulatory deficits, but was not associated with clinical signs of colic. Plasma lactate still seemed to be the most useful single prognostic parameter in horses with colic. ..
  29. Sun L, Chang J, Kirchhoff S, Knowlton A. Activation of HSF and selective increase in heat-shock proteins by acute dexamethasone treatment. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;278:H1091-7 pubmed
    ..05). HSP27 and HSP60 were unchanged. The selective increase in HSP72 was associated with protection of the cardiac myocytes from hypoxia and reoxygenation. We conclude that dexamethasone is a novel inducer of the heat shock response. ..
  30. Rowlands M, McAndrew C, Prodromou C, Pearl L, Kalusa A, Jones K, et al. Detection of the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperones Hsp90 and Hsp72 using the TranscreenerTM ADP assay kit. J Biomol Screen. 2010;15:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..75). The potency of several small-molecule inhibitors of both Hsp90 and Hsp72 was determined using the Transcreener reagents and compared well to that determined using other assay formats. ..
  31. Volloch V, Mosser D, Massie B, Sherman M. Reduced thermotolerance in aged cells results from a loss of an hsp72-mediated control of JNK signaling pathway. Cell Stress Chaperones. 1998;3:265-71 pubmed
    ..Induction of Hsp72 in aged cells under these conditions leads to suppression of JNK activation by a heat shock and restoration of thermotolerance manifested in a lower rate of apoptosis. ..
  32. Ohno Y, Yamada S, Sugiura T, Ohira Y, Yoshioka T, Goto K. A possible role of NF-kappaB and HSP72 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by heat stress in rats. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2010;29:234-42 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the decrease in NF-kappaB signaling may play a part of a role in heat stress-associated muscle hypertrophy. ..
  33. Adachi H, Kondo T, Ogawa R, Sasaki K, Morino Koga S, Sakakida M, et al. An acylic polyisoprenoid derivative, geranylgeranylacetone protects against visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in high-fat-fed mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E764-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These beneficial effects of GGA could be mediated through HSP72 induction and JNK inactivation in the liver. ..
  34. Abe T, Gotoh S, Higashi K. Higher induction of heat shock protein 72 by heat stress in cisplatin-resistant than in cisplatin-sensitive cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1445:123-33 pubmed
    ..It is likely that the higher GSH concentration in A2780CP cells plays an important role in promoting Hsp72 gene expression induced by the mild heat stress probably through processes downstream of activation of HSF-DNA binding. ..
  35. Kim Y, Song J, Kim Y, Park K, Lee J, Choi J, et al. Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates acute cochlear damage caused by 3-nitropropionic acid. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GGA may protect the cochlea against acute injury resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction. ..
  36. Xu L, Emery J, Ouyang Y, Voloboueva L, Giffard R. Astrocyte targeted overexpression of Hsp72 or SOD2 reduces neuronal vulnerability to forebrain ischemia. Glia. 2010;58:1042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting astrocytes is a promising strategy for neuronal preservation following cardiac arrest and resuscitation. ..
  37. Locke M, Tanguay R. Diminished heat shock response in the aged myocardium. Cell Stress Chaperones. 1996;1:251-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hearts from aged animals exhibit an impaired ability to produce the protective Hsps and thus, may explain, at least in part, the increased susceptibility of aged hearts to stress. ..
  38. Sherman M. Major heat shock protein Hsp72 controls oncogene-induced senescence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1197:152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, Hsp72 is able to suppress both p53-dependent and p53-independent senescence pathways. We propose that targeting Hsp72 may be a promising approach toward development of novel cancer therapies. ..
  39. Chalmin F, Ladoire S, Mignot G, Vincent J, Bruchard M, Remy Martin J, et al. Membrane-associated Hsp72 from tumor-derived exosomes mediates STAT3-dependent immunosuppressive function of mouse and human myeloid-derived suppressor cells. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:457-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings show in both mice and humans that Hsp72 expressed at the surface of TDEs restrains tumor immune surveillance by promoting MDSC suppressive functions. ..
  40. Gabai V, Sherman M, Yaglom J. HSP72 depletion suppresses gammaH2AX activation by genotoxic stresses via p53/p21 signaling. Oncogene. 2010;29:1952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting strong induction of p21 precipitated senescence following exposure to DNA-damaging agents, thus accounting for higher sensitivity of cells to genotoxic stresses. ..
  41. Gong J, Zhang Y, Durfee J, Weng D, Liu C, Koido S, et al. A heat shock protein 70-based vaccine with enhanced immunogenicity for clinical use. J Immunol. 2010;184:488-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study has therefore provided an alternative approach to preparation of HSP-based vaccines using DC/tumor fusion technology and gentle and rapid isolation of HSP peptide complexes. ..
  42. Ortega E, Hinchado M, Martin Cordero L, Asea A. The effect of stress-inducible extracellular Hsp72 on human neutrophil chemotaxis: a role during acute intense exercise. Stress. 2009;12:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Hsp72 seems to participate in the stimulation of chemotaxis induced by a single bout of intense exercise performed by sedentary women. ..
  43. Oba M, Suico M, Morino S, Yano S, Matsuno T, Koga T, et al. Modified mild heat shock modality attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Surg Res. 2010;162:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, HS+MES up-regulated the expression of Hsp72 in mice liver. HS+MES preconditioning ameliorated hepatic I/R injury possibly through Hsp72 induction, and suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mice liver. ..
  44. Chen G, Neilan T, Chen H, Condron C, Kelly C, Hill A, et al. Attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated left ventricular dysfunction by glutamine preconditioning. J Surg Res. 2010;160:282-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that cardioprotection with glutamine is associated with induction of HSP72 and may be an approach to activating the preconditioning response in the heart in clinical practise. ..
  45. Windisch B, LeVatte T, Archibald M, Chauhan B. Induction of heat shock proteins 27 and 72 in retinal ganglion cells after acute pressure-induced ischaemia. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;37:299-307 pubmed
    ..05). These results demonstrate an enhanced induction of HSP 27 and HSP 72 after 90 min acute IOP-induced ischaemia. In contrast to 30 min ischaemia, we showed time-dependent loss of RGCs after 90 min of ischaemia after 1 week or 2 weeks. ..
  46. Medina Navarro R, Guerrero Linares I. Whole body hyperthermia reduces oxidative stress in the striatum of rats in an animal model of mitochondrial toxicity with 3-nitropropionic acid. Int J Hyperthermia. 2009;25:280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data contribute to a better understanding of the potential for thermal stress to modulate the type of oxidative stress usually present in neurodegenerative disorders associated with metabolic defects. ..
  47. Wheeler D, Chase M, Senft A, Poynter S, Wong H, Page K. Extracellular Hsp72, an endogenous DAMP, is released by virally infected airway epithelial cells and activates neutrophils via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. Respir Res. 2009;10:31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data suggest that extracellular Hsp72 is released from virally infected airway epithelial cells resulting in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. ..
  48. Reuter S, Bangen P, Edemir B, Hillebrand U, Pavenstadt H, Heidenreich S, et al. The HSP72 stress response of monocytes from patients on haemodialysis is impaired. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:2838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Stress impairment is not restricted to uraemia but is already present in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. ..
  49. Carsillo T, Carsillo M, Traylor Z, Rajala Schultz P, Popovich P, Niewiesk S, et al. Major histocompatibility complex haplotype determines hsp70-dependent protection against measles virus neurovirulence. J Virol. 2009;83:5544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..g., fever), and that the H-2 haplotype determines the effectiveness of this response. ..
  50. Sontag W, Kruglikov I. Expression of heat shock proteins after ultrasound exposure in HL-60 cells. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009;35:1032-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Hsp27 showed no effect but Hsp32, Hsp40 and Hsp72 were induced. Taken together, these results suggest a synergistic interaction between heat and US. ..
  51. Locke M. Heat shock protein accumulation and heat shock transcription factor activation in rat skeletal muscle during compensatory hypertrophy. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;192:403-11 pubmed
    ..The inability of HSF1- and HSF2-specific antibodies to cause supershifts suggests the HSF detected during overload may not be HSF1 or HSF2. ..
  52. Marzec L, Zdrojewski Z, Liberek T, Bryl E, Chmielewski M, Witkowski J, et al. Expression of Hsp72 protein in chronic kidney disease patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43:400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that uraemic toxicity decreases expression of Hsp72. Attenuation of Hsp 72 expression in uraemia, found in the present study, could contribute to the inflammatory state, a common complication in CKD patients. ..
  53. Nakka V, Gusain A, Raghubir R. Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays critical role in brain damage after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Neurotox Res. 2010;17:189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, inhibition of ER stress following I/R injury may be used as key therapeutic target for neuroprotection. ..