sensory rhodopsins


Summary: Photosensory rhodopsins found in microorganisms such as HALOBACTERIA. They convert light signals into biochemical information that regulates certain cellular functions such as flagellar motor activity.

Top Publications

  1. Spudich J, Luecke H. Sensory rhodopsin II: functional insights from structure. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2002;12:540-6 pubmed
  2. Gushchin I, Gordeliy V, Grudinin S. Role of the HAMP domain region of sensory rhodopsin transducers in signal transduction. Biochemistry. 2011;50:574-80 pubmed publisher
    Archaea are able to sense light via the complexes of sensory rhodopsins I and II and their corresponding chemoreceptor-like transducers HtrI and HtrII...
  3. Hayashi K, Sudo Y, Jee J, Mishima M, Hara H, Kamo N, et al. Structural analysis of the phototactic transducer protein HtrII linker region from Natronomonas pharaonis. Biochemistry. 2007;46:14380-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The alpha-helix determined here presumably works as a mechanical joint between two HAMP domains in the linker region to transfer the photoactivated conformational change downstream...
  4. Kawamura I, Ikeda Y, Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Yamaguchi S, et al. Participation of the surface structure of Pharaonis phoborhodopsin, ppR and its A149S and A149V mutants, consisting of the C-terminal alpha-helix and E-F loop, in the complex-formation with the cognate transducer pHtrII, as revealed by site-directed . Photochem Photobiol. 2007;83:339-45 pubmed
    ..It is, therefore, concluded that the surface structure of ppR including the C-terminal alpha-helix and the E-F loops is directly involved in the stabilization of the complex through conformational stability of the helix E. ..
  5. Jung K, Trivedi V, Spudich J. Demonstration of a sensory rhodopsin in eubacteria. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:1513-22 pubmed
    ..Therefore, unlike the archaeal sensory rhodopsins, which transmit signals by transmembrane helix-helix interactions with membrane-embedded transducers, the ..
  6. Mironova O, Efremov R, Person B, Heberle J, Budyak I, Buldt G, et al. Functional characterization of sensory rhodopsin II from Halobacterium salinarum expressed in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3147-51 pubmed
    ..salinarum provides the basis for studies with its cognate transducer HtrII to investigate the molecular processes involved in phototransduction as well as in chemotransduction. ..
  7. Jung K. The distinct signaling mechanisms of microbial sensory rhodopsins in Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukarya. Photochem Photobiol. 2007;83:63-9 pubmed
    ..salinarum and sensory rhodopsin II (NpSRII) in Natronomonas pharaonis, we now know that several microbial sensory rhodopsins in the other major domain of life relay information on light intensity and quality to the cell...
  8. Ikeura Y, Shimono K, Iwamoto M, Sudo Y, Kamo N. Arg-72 of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II) is important for the maintenance of the protein structure in the solubilized states. Photochem Photobiol. 2003;77:96-100 pubmed
    ..1% n-dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside. The order of instability was R72S > R72A > R72K > R72Q > the wild type. The rates of denaturation were reduced in a solution of high concentrations of monovalent anions. ..
  9. Sineshchekov O, Sasaki J, Phillips B, Spudich J. A Schiff base connectivity switch in sensory rhodopsin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the effects of mutations in the HtrI subunit of the complex on SRI Schiff base connectivity indicate that the two proteins are tightly coupled to form a single unit that undergoes a concerted conformational transition. ..

More Information


  1. Furutani Y, Kamada K, Sudo Y, Shimono K, Kamo N, Kandori H. Structural changes of the complex between pharaonis phoborhodopsin and its cognate transducer upon formation of the M photointermediate. Biochemistry. 2005;44:2909-15 pubmed
  2. Gautier A, Kirkpatrick J, Nietlispach D. Solution-state NMR spectroscopy of a seven-helix transmembrane protein receptor: backbone assignment, secondary structure, and dynamics. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2008;47:7297-300 pubmed publisher
  3. Bergo V, Spudich E, Spudich J, Rothschild K. Conformational changes detected in a sensory rhodopsin II-transducer complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36556-62 pubmed
    b>Sensory rhodopsins (SRs) are light receptors that belong to the growing family of microbial rhodopsins. SRs have now been found in all three major domains of life including archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes...
  4. Shimono K, Furutani Y, Kamo N, Kandori H. Vibrational modes of the protonated Schiff base in pharaonis phoborhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2003;42:7801-6 pubmed
    ..These frequencies are close to those of BR, suggesting the interaction of Thr79 and Asp75 in ppR is similar to that of Thr89 and Asp85 in BR...
  5. Furutani Y, Sudo Y, Kamo N, Kandori H. FTIR spectroscopy of the complex between pharaonis phoborhodopsin and its transducer protein. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4837-42 pubmed
    ..In addition, we observed D(2)O-insensitive bands at 3479 (-)/3369 (+) cm(-1) only in the presence of pHtrII, which presumably originate from an X-H stretch of an amino acid side chain inside the protein. ..
  6. Furutani Y, Sudo Y, Wada A, Ito M, Shimono K, Kamo N, et al. Assignment of the hydrogen-out-of-plane and -in-plane vibrations of the retinal chromophore in the K intermediate of pharaonis phoborhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11836-43 pubmed
    ..These results imply that the light energy was stored mainly in the distortions around the Schiff base region while some part of the energy was transferred to the distal part of the retinal. ..
  7. Sudo Y, Furutani Y, Kandori H, Spudich J. Functional importance of the interhelical hydrogen bond between Thr204 and Tyr174 of sensory rhodopsin II and its alteration during the signaling process. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34239-45 pubmed
    ..The results argue for a critical process in signal relay occurring at this membrane interfacial region of the complex...
  8. Sudo Y, Okada A, Suzuki D, Inoue K, Irieda H, Sakai M, et al. Characterization of a signaling complex composed of sensory rhodopsin I and its cognate transducer protein from the eubacterium Salinibacter ruber. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..10 mg/L of culture). In addition, we report here the photochemical properties of the SrSRI-SrHtrI complex using time-resolved laser flash spectroscopy and other spectroscopic techniques and compare them to SrSRI without SrHtrI...
  9. Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N. Role of charged residues of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II) in its interaction with the transducer protein. Biochemistry. 2004;43:13748-54 pubmed
    ..In addition, we discuss the importance of Arg-162(p)()(pR) with respect to the binding activity...
  10. Kriegsmann J, Brehs M, Klare J, Engelhard M, Fitter J. Sensory rhodopsin II/transducer complex formation in detergent and in lipid bilayers studied with FRET. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1788:522-31 pubmed publisher
  11. Suzuki D, Sudo Y, Furutani Y, Takahashi H, Homma M, Kandori H. Structural changes of Salinibacter sensory rhodopsin I upon formation of the K and M photointermediates. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure and structural changes of SrSRI are discussed on the basis of the present infrared spectral comparisons with other rhodopsins. ..
  12. Spudich J. The multitalented microbial sensory rhodopsins. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:480-7 pubmed
    b>Sensory rhodopsins are photoactive, membrane-embedded seven-transmembrane helix receptors that use retinal as a chromophore. They are widespread in the microbial world in each of the three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya...
  13. Klare J, Schmies G, Chizhov I, Shimono K, Kamo N, Engelhard M. Probing the proton channel and the retinal binding site of Natronobacterium pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II. Biophys J. 2002;82:2156-64 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that mutations affecting conformational changes of the protein might be of decisive importance for the creation of BR-like functional properties...
  14. Sudo Y, Furutani Y, Iwamoto M, Kamo N, Kandori H. Structural changes in the O-decay accelerated mutants of pharaonis phoborhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the lifetime of the O intermediate in ppR is regulated by the distorted alpha-helix and strengthened hydrogen bond of Cys204...
  15. Bordignon E, Klare J, Doebber M, Wegener A, Martell S, Engelhard M, et al. Structural analysis of a HAMP domain: the linker region of the phototransducer in complex with sensory rhodopsin II. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, transducer-transducer and transducer-receptor proximity relations revealed the overall architecture of the AS-1 sequences in the 2:2 complex, which are suggested to form a molten globular type of a coiled-coil bundle...
  16. Zadok U, Klare J, Engelhard M, Sheves M. The hydroxylamine reaction of sensory rhodopsin II: light-induced conformational alterations with C13=C14 nonisomerizable pigment. Biophys J. 2005;89:2610-7 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that retinal excited state polarization caused by light absorption of the "locked" pigment polarizes the protein and triggers relatively long-lived protein conformational alterations...
  17. Kandori H, Furutani Y, Shimono K, Shichida Y, Kamo N. Internal water molecules of pharaonis phoborhodopsin studied by low-temperature infrared spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2001;40:15693-8 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with the crystallographic structures of ppR and BR. The water structure and structural changes upon photoisomerization of ppR are discussed here on the basis of their infrared spectra. ..
  18. Kamo N, Shimono K, Iwamoto M, Sudo Y. Photochemistry and photoinduced proton-transfer by pharaonis phoborhodopsin. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2001;66:1277-82 pubmed
    ..ppR or pR has absorption maximum at approximately 500 nm, which is blue-shifted from those of other archaeal rhodopsins. The molecular mechanism of this color regulation is not yet solved. ..
  19. Sudo Y, Furutani Y, Shimono K, Kamo N, Kandori H. Hydrogen bonding alteration of Thr-204 in the complex between pharaonis phoborhodopsin and its transducer protein. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14166-72 pubmed
    ..Specific interaction in the complex that involves Thr-204 presumably affects the decay kinetics and binding affinity in the M intermediate...
  20. Yamaguchi S, Shimono K, Sudo Y, Tuzi S, Naito A, Kamo N, et al. Conformation and dynamics of the [3-(13)C]Ala, [1-(13)C]Val-labeled truncated pharaonis transducer, pHtrII(1-159), as revealed by site-directed (13)C solid-state NMR: changes due to association with phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II). Biophys J. 2004;86:3131-40 pubmed
    ..We show that (13)C NMR is a very useful tool for achieving a better understanding of membrane proteins which will serve to clarify the molecular mechanism of signal transduction in this system. ..
  21. Sasaki J, Spudich J. Signal transfer in haloarchaeal sensory rhodopsin- transducer complexes. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:863-8 pubmed publisher
  22. Lin S, Yan B. Three-dimensional model of sensory rhodopsin I reveals important restraints between the protein and the chromophore. Protein Eng. 1997;10:197-206 pubmed
    ..A possibility is also suggested that conformational changes of the protein provide the signal recognized by the transducer...
  23. Inoue K, Sasaki J, Morisaki M, Tokunaga F, Terazima M. Time-resolved detection of sensory rhodopsin II-transducer interaction. Biophys J. 2004;87:2587-97 pubmed
    ..This volume change, which should reflect the conformational change induced by the transducer protein, suggested that this is the signal transduction process of the NpSRII-DeltaNpHtrII. ..
  24. Suzuki D, Furutani Y, Inoue K, Kikukawa T, Sakai M, Fujii M, et al. Effects of chloride ion binding on the photochemical properties of salinibacter sensory rhodopsin I. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:48-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of these results, we discuss the effects of the Cl(-) binding to SRI and the roles of Cl(-) binding in its function. ..
  25. Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N. Association of pharaonis phoborhodopsin with its cognate transducer decreases the photo-dependent reactivity by water-soluble reagents of azide and hydroxylamine. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1558:63-9 pubmed
    ..6-fold slower than free ppR. These findings suggest that the transducer binding decreases the water accessibility around the chromophore at the M-intermediate. Its implication is discussed...
  26. Iwamoto M, Sudo Y, Shimono K, Araiso T, Kamo N. Correlation of the O-intermediate rate with the pKa of Asp-75 in the dark, the counterion of the Schiff base of Pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II). Biophys J. 2005;88:1215-23 pubmed
    ..The implications of these observations are discussed in detail. ..
  27. Royant A, Nollert P, Edman K, Neutze R, Landau E, Pebay Peyroula E, et al. X-ray structure of sensory rhodopsin II at 2.1-A resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:10131-6 pubmed
    b>Sensory rhodopsins (SRs) belong to a subfamily of heptahelical transmembrane proteins containing a retinal chromophore...
  28. Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N. Pharaonis phoborhodopsin binds to its cognate truncated transducer even in the presence of a detergent with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Photochem Photobiol. 2001;74:489-94 pubmed
    ..From these analyses we estimated the dissociation constant (15.2 +/- 1.8 microM) and the number of binding sites (1.2 +/- 0.08)...
  29. Yang C, Spudich J. Light-induced structural changes occur in the transmembrane helices of the Natronobacterium pharaonis HtrII transducer. Biochemistry. 2001;40:14207-14 pubmed
    ..The data also establish that one residue in TM2, Gly83, is critical for maintaining the proper conformation of NpHtrII for signal relay from the photoactivated receptor to the kinase-binding region of the transducer...
  30. Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N. Association between a photo-intermediate of a M-lacking mutant D75N of pharaonis phoborhodopsin and its cognate transducer. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2002;67:171-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this value should be the K(D) value for the interaction between M of the wild-type and t-Htr. ..
  31. Gordeliy V, Labahn J, Moukhametzianov R, Efremov R, Granzin J, Schlesinger R, et al. Molecular basis of transmembrane signalling by sensory rhodopsin II-transducer complex. Nature. 2002;419:484-7 pubmed
    ..94 A resolution, which provides an atomic picture of the first signal transduction step. Our results provide evidence for a common mechanism for this process in phototaxis and chemotaxis...
  32. Shimono K, Hayashi T, Ikeura Y, Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Kamo N. Importance of the broad regional interaction for spectral tuning in Natronobacterium pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23882-9 pubmed
  33. Sudo Y, Okuda H, Yamabi M, Fukuzaki Y, Mishima M, Kamo N, et al. Linker region of a halobacterial transducer protein interacts directly with its sensor retinal protein. Biochemistry. 2005;44:6144-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the NMR, CD, and photochemical data, we discuss the structural changes and role of the linker region of pHtrII in relation to photosignal transduction...
  34. Kamada K, Furutani Y, Sudo Y, Kamo N, Kandori H. Temperature-dependent interactions between photoactivated pharaonis phoborhodopsin and its transducer. Biochemistry. 2006;45:4859-66 pubmed
    ..A molecular mechanism of protein structural changes in the ppR/pHtrII complex is discussed on the basis of the present FTIR results. ..
  35. Arakawa T, Shimono K, Yamaguchi S, Tuzi S, Sudo Y, Kamo N, et al. Dynamic structure of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II) and complex with a cognate truncated transducer as revealed by site-directed 13C solid-state NMR. FEBS Lett. 2003;536:237-40 pubmed
    ..In particular, the C-terminal alpha-helix protruding from the membrane surface is involved in the complex formation and subsequent fluctuation frequency is reduced by one order of magnitude. ..
  36. Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N. Tyr-199 and charged residues of pharaonis Phoborhodopsin are important for the interaction with its transducer. Biophys J. 2002;83:427-32 pubmed
    ..86 +/- 0.02. This suggests that certain deprotonated carboxyls at the surface of the transducer (possibly Asp-102, Asp-104, and Asp-106) are needed for the binding. ..
  37. Shimono K, Furutani Y, Kandori H, Kamo N. A pharaonis phoborhodopsin mutant with the same retinal binding site residues as in bacteriorhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2002;41:6504-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the principal factor of the smaller than expected opsin shift in BR/ppR is the strong association of the Schiff base with the surrounding counterion complex. ..
  38. Furutani Y, Kawanabe A, Jung K, Kandori H. FTIR spectroscopy of the all-trans form of Anabaena sensory rhodopsin at 77 K: hydrogen bond of a water between the Schiff base and Asp75. Biochemistry. 2005;44:12287-96 pubmed
    ..Since ASR does not pump protons, our result supports the working hypothesis that the existence of strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules is essential for proton pumping activity in archaeal rhodopsins. ..
  39. Taniguchi Y, Ikehara T, Kamo N, Yamasaki H, Toyoshima Y. Dynamics of light-induced conformational changes of the phoborhodopsin/transducer complex formed in the n-dodecyl beta-D-maltoside micelle. Biochemistry. 2007;46:5349-57 pubmed publisher
  40. Doebber M, Bordignon E, Klare J, Holterhues J, Martell S, Mennes N, et al. Salt-driven equilibrium between two conformations in the HAMP domain from Natronomonas pharaonis: the language of signal transfer?. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:28691-701 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural properties of the cHAMP as proven by mobility, accessibility, and intra-transducer-dimer distance data are in agreement with the four helical bundle NMR model of the HAMP domain from Archaeoglobus fulgidus...
  41. Kitade Y, Furutani Y, Kamo N, Kandori H. Proton release group of pharaonis phoborhodopsin revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also shown that structural changes of arginine are involved in these processes by use of [15N]arginine-labeled ppR. We thus conclude that the PRG of ppR includes Asp193, whose pKa changes are controlled by Cl- and Arg72. ..
  42. Yagasaki J, Suzuki D, Ihara K, Inoue K, Kikukawa T, Sakai M, et al. Spectroscopic studies of a sensory rhodopsin I homologue from the archaeon Haloarcula vallismortis. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1183-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HvSRI can become a useful protein model for improving our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the dual photosensing by SRI...
  43. Nishikata K, Ikeguchi M, Kidera A. Comparative simulations of the ground state and the M-intermediate state of the sensory rhodopsin II-transducer complex with a HAMP domain model. Biochemistry. 2012;51:5958-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These simulation results established the structural basis for the various experimental observations explaining the structural differences between the ground state and the M-intermediate state...
  44. Sasaki J, Nara T, Spudich E, Spudich J. Constitutive activity in chimeras and deletions localize sensory rhodopsin II/HtrII signal relay to the membrane-inserted domain. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:1321-30 pubmed
  45. Furutani Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Wada A, Ito M, Kamo N, et al. FTIR spectroscopy of the O photointermediate in pharaonis phoborhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5204-12 pubmed
    ..Furutani, Y., and Kandori, H. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 2300-2306]. In the transition from ppR(M) to ppR(O), a hydrogen-bonding alteration takes place for another water molecule that forms a strong hydrogen bond...
  46. Sudo Y, Yamabi M, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N. Interaction of Natronobacterium pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II) with its cognate transducer probed by increase in the thermal stability. Photochem Photobiol. 2003;78:511-6 pubmed
  47. Iwamoto M, Furutani Y, Kamo N, Kandori H. Proton transfer reactions in the F86D and F86E mutants of pharaonis phoborhodopsin (sensory rhodopsin II). Biochemistry. 2003;42:2790-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is likely that a proton can be conducted in either direction, the Schiff base or the bulk, in the open M-like structure of F86D and F86E...
  48. Furutani Y, Iwamoto M, Shimono K, Kamo N, Kandori H. FTIR spectroscopy of the M photointermediate in pharaonis rhoborhodopsin. Biophys J. 2002;83:3482-9 pubmed
    ..In ppR, such an N-like (M(N)-like) structure was not observed at alkaline pH, suggesting that the protein structure of the M state activates its transducer protein. ..
  49. Furutani Y, Takahashi H, Sasaki J, Sudo Y, Spudich J, Kandori H. Structural changes of sensory rhodopsin I and its transducer protein are dependent on the protonated state of Asp76. Biochemistry. 2008;47:2875-83 pubmed publisher
  50. Moukhametzianov R, Klare J, Efremov R, Baeken C, G ppner A, Labahn J, et al. Development of the signal in sensory rhodopsin and its transfer to the cognate transducer. Nature. 2006;440:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The transducer responds to the activation of the receptor by a clockwise rotation of about 15 degrees of helix TM2 and a displacement of this helix by 0.9 A at the cytoplasmic surface...
  51. Iwamoto M, Sudo Y, Shimono K, Kamo N. Selective reaction of hydroxylamine with chromophore during the photocycle of pharaonis phoborhodopsin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1514:152-8 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal that water-soluble hydroxylamine reacts selectively with the M-intermediate and its implication was discussed...
  52. Kandori H, Shimono K, Sudo Y, Iwamoto M, Shichida Y, Kamo N. Structural changes of pharaonis phoborhodopsin upon photoisomerization of the retinal chromophore: infrared spectral comparison with bacteriorhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2001;40:9238-46 pubmed
    ..protein then leads to functional processes, proton pump in bacteriorhodopsin and transducer activation in sensory rhodopsins. In the present paper, low-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied to phoborhodopsin ..
  53. Spudich J. Variations on a molecular switch: transport and sensory signalling by archaeal rhodopsins. Mol Microbiol. 1998;28:1051-8 pubmed
    ..The other two, sensory rhodopsins I and II (SRI and SRII), are phototaxis receptors that send signals to tightly bound transducer proteins ..