rubredoxins

Summary

Summary: A class of iron-sulfur proteins that contains one iron coordinated to the sulfur atom of four cysteine residues. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Eidsness M, Burden A, Richie K, Kurtz D, Scott R, Smith E, et al. Modulation of the redox potential of the [Fe(SCys)(4)] site in rubredoxin by the orientation of a peptide dipole. Biochemistry. 1999;38:14803-9 pubmed
    b>Rubredoxins (Rds) may be separated into two classes based upon the correlation of their reduction potentials with the identity of residue 44; those with Ala44 have reduction potentials that are approximately 50 mV higher than those with ..
  2. Vondrasek J, Bendová L, Klusák V, Hobza P. Unexpectedly strong energy stabilization inside the hydrophobic core of small protein rubredoxin mediated by aromatic residues: correlated ab initio quantum chemical calculations. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:2615-9 pubmed
    ..This finding may lead to substantial changes in the current view of protein folding. We also point out the inability of the DFT/B3LYP method to describe a strong attraction between studied amino acids. ..
  3. Shen G, Zhao J, Reimer S, Antonkine M, Cai Q, Weiland S, et al. Assembly of photosystem I. I. Inactivation of the rubA gene encoding a membrane-associated rubredoxin in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 causes a loss of photosystem I activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20343-54 pubmed
    ..RubA contains a domain of approximately 50 amino acids with very high similarity to the rubredoxins of anaerobic bacteria and archaea, but it also contains a region of about 50 amino acids that is predicted to ..
  4. Lumppio H, Shenvi N, Summers A, Voordouw G, Kurtz D. Rubrerythrin and rubredoxin oxidoreductase in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: a novel oxidative stress protection system. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A joint role for Rbo and Rbr as a novel cytoplasmic oxidative stress protection system in D. vulgaris and other anaerobic microorganisms is proposed...
  5. Hagelueken G, Wiehlmann L, Adams T, Kolmar H, Heinz D, Tummler B, et al. Crystal structure of the electron transfer complex rubredoxin rubredoxin reductase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12276-81 pubmed
    ..Three chromosomal genes, rubB, rubA1, and rubA2 coding for an NAD(P)H:rubredoxin reductase (RdxR) and two rubredoxins (Rdxs) are indispensable for this ability...
  6. LeMaster D, HERNANDEZ G. Additivity of differential conformational dynamics in hyperthermophile/mesophile rubredoxin chimeras as monitored by hydrogen exchange. Chembiochem. 2006;7:1886-9 pubmed
  7. Lin I, Gebel E, Machonkin T, Westler W, Markley J. Changes in hydrogen-bond strengths explain reduction potentials in 10 rubredoxin variants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14581-6 pubmed
    ..Sequence effects on the reduction potential can be explained fully by their influence on hydrogen-bond strengths. ..
  8. Sztukowska M, Bugno M, Potempa J, Travis J, Kurtz D. Role of rubrerythrin in the oxidative stress response of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Mol Microbiol. 2002;44:479-88 pubmed
    ..Porphyromonas gingivalis contains a superoxide dismutase but lacks catalase and haem peroxidases. We therefore suggest that rubrerythrin provides oxidative stress protection via catalytic reduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide. ..
  9. Lin I, Gebel E, Machonkin T, Westler W, Markley J. Correlation between hydrogen bond lengths and reduction potentials in Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin. J Am Chem Soc. 2003;125:1464-5 pubmed
    ..data were collected for wild-type and site-specific mutant (V44I, V44A, and V44G) Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxins in the oxidized state...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Weinberg M, Jenney F, Cui X, Adams M. Rubrerythrin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a rubredoxin-dependent, iron-containing peroxidase. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7888-95 pubmed
    ..Rubrerythrin is proposed to play a role in the recently defined anaerobic detoxification pathway for reactive oxygen species. ..
  2. LeGall J, Prickril B, Moura I, Xavier A, Moura J, Huynh B. Isolation and characterization of rubrerythrin, a non-heme iron protein from Desulfovibrio vulgaris that contains rubredoxin centers and a hemerythrin-like binuclear iron cluster. Biochemistry. 1988;27:1636-42 pubmed
    ..types of iron; we named them the Rd-like and the Hr-like iron due to their similarity to the iron centers of rubredoxins (Rds) and hemerythrins (Hrs), respectively...
  3. Bougault C, Eidsness M, Prestegard J. Hydrogen bonds in rubredoxins from mesophilic and hyperthermophilic organisms. Biochemistry. 2003;42:4357-72 pubmed
    The extent and strength of the hydrogen bond networks in rubredoxins from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (PfRd), and its mesophilic analogue Clostridium pasteurianum (CpRd), are examined and compared using NMR spectroscopy...
  4. Blake P, Lee B, Summers M, Adams M, Park J, Zhou Z, et al. Quantitative measurement of small through-hydrogen-bond and 'through-space' 1H-113Cd and 1H-199Hg J couplings in metal-substituted rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus. J Biomol NMR. 1992;2:527-33 pubmed
    ..3 to 1.8 Hz; a 'through-space' coupling between Cd and the protons of an alanine methyl group was measured to be 0.3 Hz. Couplings to 199Hg are significantly larger and fall in the 0.4-4 Hz range...
  5. Day M, Hsu B, Joshua Tor L, Park J, Zhou Z, Adams M, et al. X-ray crystal structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the rubredoxin from the marine hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus. Protein Sci. 1992;1:1494-507 pubmed
    ..95 degrees. The overall structure of P. furiosus rubredoxin is similar to the structures of mesophilic rubredoxins, with the exception of a more extensive hydrogen-bonding network in the beta-sheet region and multiple ..
  6. Yoon K, Hille R, Hemann C, Tabita F. Rubredoxin from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum functions as an electron acceptor for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:29772-8 pubmed
    ..The midpoint reduction potential of C. tepidum Rd was determined to be -87 mV, which is the most electronegative value reported for Rd from any source...
  7. van Beilen J, Neuenschwander M, Smits T, Roth C, Balada S, Witholt B. Rubredoxins involved in alkane oxidation. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1722-32 pubmed
    b>Rubredoxins (Rds) are essential electron transfer components of bacterial membrane-bound alkane hydroxylase systems...
  8. Grottesi A, Ceruso M, Colosimo A, Di Nola A. Molecular dynamics study of a hyperthermophilic and a mesophilic rubredoxin. Proteins. 2002;46:287-94 pubmed
    ..To study the origin of thermostability, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of two rubredoxins, from the mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum and from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus...
  9. Bonomi F, Fessas D, Iametti S, Kurtz D, Mazzini S. Thermal stability of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: deconvoluting the contributions of the metal site and the protein. Protein Sci. 2000;9:2413-26 pubmed
    To provide a framework for understanding the hyperthermostability of some rubredoxins, a comprehensive analysis of the thermally induced denaturation of rubredoxin (Rd) from the mesophile, Clostridium pasteurianum was undertaken...
  10. LeMaster D, Tang J, Paredes D, HERNANDEZ G. Enhanced thermal stability achieved without increased conformational rigidity at physiological temperatures: spatial propagation of differential flexibility in rubredoxin hybrids. Proteins. 2005;61:608-16 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that differential temperature dependence of flexibility can underlie variations in thermostability observed for mesophile versus hyperthermophile homologs. ..
  11. Lin I, Xia B, King D, Machonkin T, Westler W, Markley J. Hyperfine-shifted (13)C and (15)N NMR signals from Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: extensive assignments and quantum chemical verification. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:15555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The methods developed here should be applicable to other proteins that contain a paramagnetic center with high spin and slow electron exchange. ..
  12. Thorgersen M, Stirrett K, Scott R, Adams M. Mechanism of oxygen detoxification by the surprisingly oxygen-tolerant hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, electrons from sugar oxidation normally used to produce H(2) are diverted to O(2) detoxification by SOR and putative flavodiiron protein A, but the electron flow pathway from ferredoxin does not necessarily involve rubredoxin.| ..
  13. LeMaster D, Tang J, HERNANDEZ G. Absence of kinetic thermal stabilization in a hyperthermophile rubredoxin indicated by 40 microsecond folding in the presence of irreversible denaturation. Proteins. 2004;57:118-27 pubmed
  14. Park I, Eidsness M, Lin I, Gebel E, Youn B, Harley J, et al. Crystallographic studies of V44 mutants of Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin: effects of side-chain size on reduction potential. Proteins. 2004;57:618-25 pubmed
    ..Along with the electric dipole moment of the 43-44 peptide bond and the 44-42 NH--S type hydrogen bond, a modulation mechanism for solvent accessibility through residue 41 might regulate the redox reaction of the Rds. ..
  15. Stenkamp R, Sieker L, Jensen L. The structure of rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain 27774 at 1.5 A resolution. Proteins. 1990;8:352-64 pubmed
    ..5 A resolution. The hairpin loop containing seven residues in other rubredoxins is missing in this 45 residue molecule, and once that fact was determined by amino acid sequencing studies, ..
  16. LeMaster D, HERNANDEZ G. Additivity in both thermodynamic stability and thermal transition temperature for rubredoxin chimeras via hybrid native partitioning. Structure. 2005;13:1153-63 pubmed
    ..Both conformational stability and thermal transition temperature measurements demonstrate that 39% of the differential stability arises from these seven residues. ..
  17. Coulter E, Shenvi N, Kurtz D. NADH peroxidase activity of rubrerythrin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;255:317-23 pubmed
    ..Rubrerythrins could, thus, function as the terminal components of NADH peroxidases in air-sensitive bacteria and archaea. ..
  18. Fourmy D, Dardel F, Blanquet S. Methionyl-tRNA synthetase zinc binding domain. Three-dimensional structure and homology with rubredoxin and gag retroviral proteins. J Mol Biol. 1993;231:1078-89 pubmed
    ..The solution structure of the zinc binding peptide shows significant discrepancies with the crystal structure of methionyl-tRNA synthetase. ..
  19. Wang X, Lee H, Sugar F, Jenney F, Adams M, Prestegard J. PF0610, a novel winged helix-turn-helix variant possessing a rubredoxin-like Zn ribbon motif from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. Biochemistry. 2007;46:752-61 pubmed publisher
    ..furiosus. The discovery of this novel structure represents the addition of another branch to the winged HTH protein family and could contribute to our understanding of transcription regulatory processes in P. furiosus...
  20. Bonomi F, Eidsness M, Iametti S, Kurtz D, Mazzini S, Morleo A. Contribution of the [FeII(SCys)4] site to the thermostability of rubredoxins. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2004;9:297-306 pubmed
    The thermostabilities of Fe(2+) ligation in rubredoxins (Rds) from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf) and the mesophiles Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp) and Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) were compared. Residue 44 forms an NH...
  21. Maher M, Cross M, Wilce M, Guss J, Wedd A. Metal-substituted derivatives of the rubredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:298-303 pubmed
    ..A knowledge of these structures contributes to a molecular understanding of the function of this simple iron-sulfur electron-transport protein. ..
  22. Kawasaki S, Ishikura J, Watamura Y, Niimura Y. Identification of O2-induced peptides in an obligatory anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum. FEBS Lett. 2004;571:21-5 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis indicated that the expressions of these peptide transcripts were upregulated within 10 min after flushing with 5% O(2)/95% N(2). ..
  23. Lu T, Chiou S, Chen C, Liaw W. Mononitrosyl tris(thiolate) iron complex [Fe(NO)(SPh)3]- and dinitrosyl iron complex [(EtS)2Fe(NO)2]-: formation pathway of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) from nitrosylation of biomimetic rubredoxin [Fe(SR)4]2-/1- (R = Ph, Et). Inorg Chem. 2006;45:8799-806 pubmed
    ..178(3)-1.160(6) A for the anionic {Fe(NO)2}9 DNICs, while the mean FeN(O) distances of 1.674(6) A (or 1.679(6) A) exactly fall in the range of 1.695(3)-1.661(4) A for the anionic {Fe(NO)2}9 DNICs. ..
  24. Rodrigues J, Saraiva L, Abreu I, Teixeira M, Cabelli D. Superoxide reduction by Archaeoglobus fulgidus desulfoferrodoxin: comparison with neelaredoxin. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2007;12:248-56 pubmed
    ..The electron donation to the SOR from its redox partner, rubredoxin, is also presented here...
  25. Dorovska Taran V, van Hoek A, Link T, Visser A, Hagen W. A comparative picosecond-resolved fluorescence study of tryptophan residues in iron-sulfur proteins. FEBS Lett. 1994;348:305-10 pubmed
    ..Such an energy transfer mechanism can be accounted for by referring to the three-dimensional structures of rubredoxin and ferredoxin in calculating the transfer efficiency of the single tryptophan-iron-sulfur couple. ..
  26. Geissdörfer W, Frosch S, Haspel G, Ehrt S, Hillen W. Two genes encoding proteins with similarities to rubredoxin and rubredoxin reductase are required for conversion of dodecane to lauric acid in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ADP1. Microbiology. 1995;141 ( Pt 6):1425-32 pubmed
    ..The complementing DNA mapped in a gene encoding a polypeptide with homology to rubredoxins. The deduced putative rubredoxin amino acid sequence is more similar to related proteins from Gram-positive ..
  27. Anderson J, HERNANDEZ G, LeMaster D. Assessing the chemical accuracy of protein structures via peptide acidity. Biophys Chem. 2013;171:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the more recent RECOORD refinement study of CI2 yielded predictions comparable to the X-ray and homology model-based analyses. ..
  28. Blake P, Park J, Bryant F, Aono S, Magnuson J, Eccleston E, et al. Determinants of protein hyperthermostability: purification and amino acid sequence of rubredoxin from the hyperthermophilic archaebacterium Pyrococcus furiosus and secondary structure of the zinc adduct by NMR. Biochemistry. 1991;30:10885-95 pubmed
    ..These interactions, which are not present in rubredoxins from mesophilic organisms, may prevent the beta-sheet from "unzipping" at elevated temperatures.
  29. Blake P, Day M, Hsu B, Joshua Tor L, Park J, Hare D, et al. Comparison of the X-ray structure of native rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus with the NMR structure of the zinc-substituted protein. Protein Sci. 1992;1:1522-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The NMR and X-ray structures, which were determined independently, are very similar and lead to similar conclusions regarding the interactions that confer hyperthermostability...
  30. Victor B, Vicente J, Rodrigues R, Oliveira S, Rodrigues Pousada C, Frazao C, et al. Docking and electron transfer studies between rubredoxin and rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2003;8:475-88 pubmed
    ..The experimental bell-shaped dependence of kinetics on ionic strength is analysed in view of the molecular modelling results, and hypotheses for the molecular basis of this phenomenon are discussed. ..
  31. Sulpizi M, Raugei S, VandeVondele J, Carloni P, Sprik M. Calculation of redox properties: understanding short- and long-range effects in rubredoxin. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:3969-76 pubmed
    ..These results underline the importance of a molecular description of the solvent and of a correct inclusion of the polarization effects. ..
  32. LeMaster D, Anderson J, HERNANDEZ G. Spatial distribution of dielectric shielding in the interior of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin as sampled in the subnanosecond timeframe by hydrogen exchange. Biophys Chem. 2007;129:43-8 pubmed
    ..The differential amide kinetic acidities for a series of metal-substituted rubredoxins are shown to be consistent with Poisson-Boltzmann predictions of dielectric shielding that is relatively ..
  33. Bönisch H, Schmidt C, Bianco P, Ladenstein R. Ultrahigh-resolution study on Pyrococcus abyssi rubredoxin: II. Introduction of an O-H...Sgamma-Fe hydrogen bond increased the reduction potential by 65 mV. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2007;12:1163-71 pubmed
    ..The structural analysis was based on ultrahigh-resolution structures of oxidized P. abyssi rubredoxin W4L/R5S and W4L/R5S/A44S refined to 0.69 and 0.86 A, respectively. ..
  34. Vicente J, Teixeira M. Redox and spectroscopic properties of the Escherichia coli nitric oxide-detoxifying system involving flavorubredoxin and its NADH-oxidizing redox partner. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:34599-608 pubmed
    ..It is further shown that the redox properties of this complex electron transfer system are fine-tuned upon interaction of the two enzymes. ..
  35. Kurihara K, Tanaka I, Chatake T, Adams M, Jenney F, Moiseeva N, et al. Neutron crystallographic study on rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus by BIX-3, a single-crystal diffractometer for biomacromolecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11215-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The neutron Fourier maps clearly showed the details of an extensive set of H bonds involving the ND3+ terminus that may contribute to the unusual thermostability of this molecule...
  36. Chen C, Liu M, Chen Y, Legall J. Preparation and X-ray crystallographic analysis of rubredoxin crystals from Desulfovibrio gigas to beyond ultra-high 0.68 A resolution. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;308:684-8 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure at this ultra-high resolution will reveal the details of its biological function. The crystal character and data collection strategy for ultra-high resolution will also be discussed. ..
  37. Lamosa P, Brennan L, Vis H, Turner D, Santos H. NMR structure of Desulfovibrio gigas rubredoxin: a model for studying protein stabilization by compatible solutes. Extremophiles. 2001;5:303-11 pubmed
    b>Rubredoxins are small, soluble proteins that display a wide variation in thermostability, despite having a high degree of sequence similarity They also vary in the extent to which they are stabilized by solutes such as diglycerol ..
  38. Guedon E, Petitdemange H. Identification of the gene encoding NADH-rubredoxin oxidoreductase in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:496-502 pubmed
  39. Kitamura M, Koshino Y, Kamikawa Y, Kohno K, Kojima S, Miura K, et al. Cloning and expression of the rubredoxin gene from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Miyazaki F)--comparison of the primary structure of desulfoferrodoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997;1351:239-47 pubmed
    ..vulgaris rubredoxin. In vitro NADH reduction analysis indicated that recombinant rubredoxin was active, and its redox potential was determined as -5 mV...
  40. Jenney F, Verhagen M, Cui X, Adams M. Anaerobic microbes: oxygen detoxification without superoxide dismutase. Science. 1999;286:306-9 pubmed
    ..Superoxide reductase and associated proteins are catalytically active 80 degrees C below the optimum growth temperature (100 degrees C) of P. furiosus, conditions under which the organism is likely to be exposed to oxygen...
  41. Sieker L, Turley S, Prickril B, LeGall J. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of a protein with a high potential rubredoxin center and a hemerythrin-type Fe center. Proteins. 1988;3:184-6 pubmed
    ..This protein has iron centers with spectrascopic similarities to those in rubredoxins and in hemerythrins. The X-ray diffraction shows symmetry consistent with space group I222 or I212121...
  42. deMaré F, Kurtz D, Nordlund P. The structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris rubrerythrin reveals a unique combination of rubredoxin-like FeS4 and ferritin-like diiron domains. Nat Struct Biol. 1996;3:539-46 pubmed
    ..The four-helix bundle of rubrerythrin closely resembles those of the ferritin and bacterioferritin subunits, suggesting a relationship among these proteins-consistent with the recently demonstrated ferroxidase activity of rubrerythrin. ..
  43. Nie Y, Liang J, Fang H, Tang Y, Wu X. Two novel alkane hydroxylase-rubredoxin fusion genes isolated from a Dietzia bacterium and the functions of fused rubredoxin domains in long-chain n-alkane degradation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:7279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the fusion of alkane hydroxylase and rubredoxin genes from both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria can increase the degradation of long-chain n-alkanes (such as C(32)) in the Gram-negative bacterium. ..
  44. Bonomi F, Iametti S, Ferranti P, Kurtz D, Morleo A, Ragg E. "Iron priming" guides folding of denatured aporubredoxins. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2008;13:981-91 pubmed publisher
  45. LeMaster D, Tang J, Paredes D, HERNANDEZ G. Contribution of the multi-turn segment in the reversible thermal stability of hyperthermophile rubredoxin: NMR thermal chemical exchange analysis of sequence hybrids. Biophys Chem. 2005;116:57-65 pubmed
    ..at the thermal transition temperature (T(m)) for hybrids of Pf and the mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp) rubredoxins which interchange residues 14-33, the so-called multi-turn segment...
  46. Das A, Coulter E, Kurtz D, Ljungdahl L. Five-gene cluster in Clostridium thermoaceticum consisting of two divergent operons encoding rubredoxin oxidoreductase- rubredoxin and rubrerythrin-type A flavoprotein- high-molecular-weight rubredoxin. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:1560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Rbr and Rbo have been recently implicated in oxidative stress protection in several anaerobic bacteria and archaea, we suggest a similar function of these proteins in oxygen tolerance of C. thermoaceticum...
  47. Lumppio H, Shenvi N, Garg R, Summers A, Kurtz D. A rubrerythrin operon and nigerythrin gene in Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). J Bacteriol. 1997;179:4607-15 pubmed
    ..rdl, lies just downstream of rbr and encodes a 74-residue protein with significant sequence homology to rubredoxins but with a different number and spacing of cysteine residues...
  48. Riebe O, Fischer R, Wampler D, Kurtz D, Bahl H. Pathway for H2O2 and O2 detoxification in Clostridium acetobutylicum. Microbiology. 2009;155:16-24 pubmed publisher
    ..acetobutylicum showed significantly increased tolerance to H2O2 and O2 exposure. RevRbr thus appears to protect C. acetobutylicum against oxidative stress by functioning as the terminal component of an NADH peroxidase and NADH oxidase. ..
  49. Onufriev A, Case D, Ullmann G. A novel view of pH titration in biomolecules. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3413-9 pubmed
    ..The application of the new framework to the protein rubredoxin demonstrates its usefulness in calculating and interpreting complicated titration curves. ..
  50. Almeida R, Geraldes C, Pauleta S, Moura J. Gd(III) chelates as NMR probes of protein-protein interactions. Case study: rubredoxin and cytochrome c3. Inorg Chem. 2011;50:10600-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Zartler E, Jenney F, Terrell M, Eidsness M, Adams M, Prestegard J. Structural basis for thermostability in aporubredoxins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Clostridium pasteurianum. Biochemistry. 2001;40:7279-90 pubmed
  52. Marín M, Yuste L, Rojo F. Differential expression of the components of the two alkane hydroxylases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3232-7 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa strains PAO1 and RR1 contain genes encoding two alkane hydroxylases (alkB1 and alkB2), two rubredoxins (alkG1 and alkG2), and a rubredoxin reductase (alkT)...
  53. Mishra S, Imlay J. An anaerobic bacterium, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, uses a consortium of enzymes to scavenge hydrogen peroxide. Mol Microbiol. 2013;90:1356-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus aeration is a serious threat for this obligate anaerobe, and to cope it employs a set of defences that includes a repertoire of complementary scavenging enzymes. ..