Summary: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Sippl M, Wiederstein M. Detection of spatial correlations in protein structures and molecular complexes. Structure. 2012;20:718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The examples cover the cell-puncturing device of bacteriophage T4, the secretion system of P. aeruginosa, members of the dehydrogenase family, DNA clamps, ferredoxin iron-storage cages, and virus capsids. ..
  2. Krishna S, Sadreyev R, Grishin N. A tale of two ferredoxins: sequence similarity and structural differences. BMC Struct Biol. 2006;6:8 pubmed
    ..Although overall folds of these ferredoxins bear no obvious similarity, the regions of sequence similarity display a remarkable local structural similarity...
  3. Welte C, Kallnik V, Grapp M, Bender G, Ragsdale S, Deppenmeier U. Function of Ech hydrogenase in ferredoxin-dependent, membrane-bound electron transport in Methanosarcina mazei. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:674-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence is presented that a second protein whose identity is unknown oxidizes reduced ferredoxin, indicating an involvement in methanogenesis from methylated C(1) compounds. ..
  4. Schallmey A, den Besten G, Teune I, Kembaren R, Janssen D. Characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP154H1 from the thermophilic soil bacterium Thermobifida fusca. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:1475-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme is moderately thermostable with an apparent melting temperature of 67°C and exhibited still 90% of initial activity after incubation at 50°C. ..
  5. Yu H, Kim K. Ferredoxin is involved in secretion of cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 across the cytoplasmic membrane in Escherichia coli K1. Infect Immun. 2010;78:838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate for the first time that ferredoxin is involved in secretion of CNF1 across the inner membrane in meningitis-causing E. coli K1. ..
  6. Herrmann G, Jayamani E, Mai G, Buckel W. Energy conservation via electron-transferring flavoprotein in anaerobic bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:784-91 pubmed
  7. Welte C, Krätzer C, Deppenmeier U. Involvement of Ech hydrogenase in energy conservation of Methanosarcina mazei. FEBS J. 2010;277:3396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that Ech hydrogenase acts as primary proton pump in a ferredoxin-dependent electron transport system. ..
  8. Tognetti V, Palatnik J, Fillat M, Melzer M, Hajirezaei M, Valle E, et al. Functional replacement of ferredoxin by a cyanobacterial flavodoxin in tobacco confers broad-range stress tolerance. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2035-50 pubmed
  9. Chandramouli K, Johnson M. HscA and HscB stimulate [2Fe-2S] cluster transfer from IscU to apoferredoxin in an ATP-dependent reaction. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11087-95 pubmed
    ..J., Tapley, T. L., Hoff, K. G., and Vickery, L. E. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 53924-53931], and mechanistic proposals for coupling of the HscA ATPase cycle with cluster transfer from [2Fe-2S]IscU to apo-IscFdx are discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Biegel E, Muller V. Bacterial Na+-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18138-42 pubmed publisher
  2. Schut G, Adams M. The iron-hydrogenase of Thermotoga maritima utilizes ferredoxin and NADH synergistically: a new perspective on anaerobic hydrogen production. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of the bifurcating hydrogenase gives a new perspective on our understanding of the bioenergetics and mechanism of H(2) production and of anaerobic metabolism in general. ..
  3. Akhtar M, Jones P. Deletion of iscR stimulates recombinant clostridial Fe-Fe hydrogenase activity and H2-accumulation in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;78:853-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of iscR is, therefore, a useful strategy to stimulate H2-production, particularly if the hydrogenase catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction. ..
  4. Ptushenko V, Cherepanov D, Krishtalik L, Semenov A. Semi-continuum electrostatic calculations of redox potentials in photosystem I. Photosynth Res. 2008;97:55-74 pubmed publisher
    ..in photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus as well as of the iron-sulfur (Fe(4)S(4)) clusters in two soluble ferredoxins from Azotobacter vinelandii and Clostridium acidiurici were calculated within the framework of a semi-continuum ..
  5. Ferraro D, Brown E, Yu C, Parales R, Gibson D, Ramaswamy S. Structural investigations of the ferredoxin and terminal oxygenase components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1. BMC Struct Biol. 2007;7:10 pubmed
    ..One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-OB1), is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene...
  6. Gou P, Hanke G, Kimata Ariga Y, Standley D, Kubo A, Taniguchi I, et al. Higher order structure contributes to specific differences in redox potential and electron transfer efficiency of root and leaf ferredoxins. Biochemistry. 2006;45:14389-96 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the experimental and computational studies support a model in which higher order structure contributes to iso-protein specific interaction and electron-transfer properties. ..
  7. Chandramouli K, Unciuleac M, Naik S, Dean D, Huynh B, Johnson M. Formation and properties of [4Fe-4S] clusters on the IscU scaffold protein. Biochemistry. 2007;46:6804-11 pubmed
  8. Terauchi A, Lu S, Zaffagnini M, Tappa S, Hirasawa M, Tripathy J, et al. Pattern of expression and substrate specificity of chloroplast ferredoxins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25867-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome encodes six plant type [Fe2S2] ferredoxins, products of PETF, FDX2-FDX6...
  9. Li F, Hinderberger J, Seedorf H, Zhang J, Buckel W, Thauer R. Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:843-50 pubmed
    ..The implications of this finding for the energy metabolism of butyrate-forming anaerobes are discussed in the accompanying paper...
  10. Wang S, Huang H, Moll J, Thauer R. NADP+ reduction with reduced ferredoxin and NADP+ reduction with NADH are coupled via an electron-bifurcating enzyme complex in Clostridium kluyveri. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of this energy-converting enzyme complex in the ethanol-acetate fermentation of C. kluyveri is discussed...
  11. Winkler M, Hemschemeier A, Jacobs J, Stripp S, Happe T. Multiple ferredoxin isoforms in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - their role under stress conditions and biotechnological implications. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:998-1004 pubmed publisher
    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has at least six plant-type ferredoxins (FDX). Besides the long-known photosynthetic ferredoxin PetF the isoforms Fdx2-Fdx6 have been identified...
  12. Yacoby I, Pochekailov S, Toporik H, Ghirardi M, King P, Zhang S. Photosynthetic electron partitioning between [FeFe]-hydrogenase and ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9396-401 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a new direction for improvement of biohydrogen production and a means to further resolve the mechanisms that control partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport...
  13. Voss I, Koelmann M, Wojtera J, Holtgrefe S, Kitzmann C, Backhausen J, et al. Knockout of major leaf ferredoxin reveals new redox-regulatory adaptations in Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol Plant. 2008;133:584-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Ferredoxins are the major distributors for electrons to the various acceptor systems in plastids...
  14. Dey A, Jenney F, Adams M, Babini E, Takahashi Y, Fukuyama K, et al. Solvent tuning of electrochemical potentials in the active sites of HiPIP versus ferredoxin. Science. 2007;318:1464-8 pubmed
  15. Guerrini O, Burlat B, L ger C, Guigliarelli B, Soucaille P, Girbal L. Characterization of two 2[4Fe4S] ferredoxins from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Curr Microbiol. 2008;56:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Five C. acetobutylicum open reading frames were annotated as coding for putative ferredoxins. We focused our biophysical and biochemical investigations on CAC0303 and CAC3527, which possess the sequence ..
  16. Hanke G, Hase T. Variable photosynthetic roles of two leaf-type ferredoxins in arabidopsis, as revealed by RNA interference. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:1302-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are evidences for at least partially differentiated roles of Fd1 and Fd2 in photosynthetic electron transfer, possibly in the partition of electrons into linear and cyclic electron flow. ..
  17. Ashikawa Y, Fujimoto Z, Noguchi H, Habe H, Omori T, Yamane H, et al. Electron transfer complex formation between oxygenase and ferredoxin components in Rieske nonheme iron oxygenase system. Structure. 2006;14:1779-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, conformational changes upon binding carbazole resulted in the closure of a lid over the substrate-binding pocket, thereby seemingly trapping carbazole at the substrate-binding site...
  18. Jouanneau Y, Meyer C, Jakoncic J, Stojanoff V, Gaillard J. Characterization of a naphthalene dioxygenase endowed with an exceptionally broad substrate specificity toward polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biochemistry. 2006;45:12380-91 pubmed
    ..This is the first characterization of a dioxygenase able to dihydroxylate PAHs made up of four and five rings. ..
  19. Fish A, Danieli T, Ohad I, Nechushtai R, Livnah O. Structural basis for the thermostability of ferredoxin from the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:599-608 pubmed
    Plant-type ferredoxins (Fds) carry a single [2Fe-2S] cluster and serve as electron acceptors of photosystem I (PSI). The ferredoxin from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus displays optimal activity at 65 degrees C...
  20. Blanco N, Ceccoli R, Segretin M, Poli H, Voss I, Melzer M, et al. Cyanobacterial flavodoxin complements ferredoxin deficiency in knocked-down transgenic tobacco plants. Plant J. 2011;65:922-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Ferredoxins are the main electron shuttles in chloroplasts, accepting electrons from photosystem I and delivering them to essential oxido-reductive pathways in the stroma...
  21. Ceccoli R, Blanco N, Medina M, Carrillo N. Stress response of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a cyanobacterial ferredoxin in chloroplasts. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;76:535-44 pubmed publisher
  22. Hanke G, Mulo P. Plant type ferredoxins and ferredoxin-dependent metabolism. Plant Cell Environ. 2013;36:1071-84 pubmed publisher
  23. Sheftel A, Stehling O, Pierik A, Elsässer H, Muhlenhoff U, Webert H, et al. Humans possess two mitochondrial ferredoxins, Fdx1 and Fdx2, with distinct roles in steroidogenesis, heme, and Fe/S cluster biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that mammals depend on two distinct mitochondrial ferredoxins for the specific production of either steroid hormones or heme A and Fe/S proteins.
  24. Terashima M, Specht M, Hippler M. The chloroplast proteome: a survey from the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii perspective with a focus on distinctive features. Curr Genet. 2011;57:151-68 pubmed publisher
    ..reinhardtii and higher plants. Areas that will be covered are photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, fermentative metabolism, ferredoxins and ferredoxin-interacting proteins.
  25. Mandai T, Fujiwara S, Imaoka S. A novel electron transport system for thermostable CYP175A1 from Thermus thermophilus HB27. FEBS J. 2009;276:2416-29 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 1.6 microM and 18.3 +/- 0.6 nmol beta-cryptoxanthin min(-1) nmol(-1) CYP175A1, respectively. This is the first report of a native electron transport system for CYP175A1. ..
  26. Shi Y, Ghosh M, Kovtunovych G, Crooks D, Rouault T. Both human ferredoxins 1 and 2 and ferredoxin reductase are important for iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:484-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that have been studied for decades because of their role in facilitating the monooxygenase reactions catalyzed by p450 enzymes...
  27. Changmai P, Horakova E, Long S, Černotíková Stříbrná E, McDonald L, Bontempi E, et al. Both human ferredoxins equally efficiently rescue ferredoxin deficiency in Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Microbiol. 2013;89:135-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Ferredoxins are highly conserved proteins that function universally as electron transporters. They not only require Fe-S clusters for their own activity, but are also involved in Fe-S formation itself...
  28. Schürmann P, Buchanan B. The ferredoxin/thioredoxin system of oxygenic photosynthesis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2008;10:1235-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The review highlights the plant as a model system to uncover principles of redox biology that apply to other organisms. ..
  29. Yu C, Liu W, Ferraro D, Brown E, Parales J, Ramaswamy S, et al. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of the components of a biphenyl dioxygenase system from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;34:311-24 pubmed
    ..Crystals of reductase(BPH-B1), ferredoxin(BPH-B1) and oxygenase(BPH-B1 )diffracted to 2.5 A, 2.0 A and 1.75 A, respectively. The structures of the three proteins are currently being determined. ..
  30. Giastas P, Pinotsis N, Efthymiou G, Wilmanns M, Kyritsis P, Moulis J, et al. The structure of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 1.32-A resolution: comparison with other high-resolution structures of ferredoxins and contributing structural features to reduction potential values. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2006;11:445-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The volume of the cavities is introduced in the present work for the first time, and can in part explain the very negative potential of cluster I of Alvin-like Fds...
  31. Dai S, Friemann R, Glauser D, Bourquin F, Manieri W, Schürmann P, et al. Structural snapshots along the reaction pathway of ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. Nature. 2007;448:92-6 pubmed
    ..These results provide a structural framework for understanding the mechanism of disulphide reduction by an iron-sulphur enzyme and describe previously unknown interaction networks for both Fdx and Trx (refs 4-6). ..
  32. Inoue K, Ashikawa Y, Umeda T, Abo M, Katsuki J, Usami Y, et al. Specific Interactions between the ferredoxin and terminal oxygenase components of a class IIB Rieske nonheme iron oxygenase, carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:436-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The residues that formed the interacting surface but were not conserved between classes were thought to be necessary to form the appropriate geometry and to determine electron transfer specificity between Fd and Oxy. ..
  33. Meguro M, Ito H, Takabayashi A, Tanaka R, Tanaka A. Identification of the 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase of the chlorophyll cycle in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3442-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The downregulation of pheophorbide a oxygenase activity is discussed in relation to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a accumulation. ..
  34. Saridakis E, Giastas P, Efthymiou G, Thoma V, Moulis J, Kyritsis P, et al. Insight into the protein and solvent contributions to the reduction potentials of [4Fe-4S]2+/+ clusters: crystal structures of the Allochromatium vinosum ferredoxin variants C57A and V13G and the homologous Escherichia coli ferredoxin. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2009;14:783-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the present structures and other previously reported accurate structures of this family of ferredoxins indicate that polar interactions of side chains and water molecules with cluster II sulfur atoms, which are ..
  35. Kaster A, Moll J, Parey K, Thauer R. Coupling of ferredoxin and heterodisulfide reduction via electron bifurcation in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2981-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This stoichiometry of coupling is consistent with an ATP gain per mole methane from 4 H(2) and CO(2) of near 0.5 deduced from an H(2)-threshold concentration of 8 Pa and a growth yield of up to 3 g/mol methane...
  36. Noth J, Krawietz D, Hemschemeier A, Happe T. Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase is coupled to light-independent hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:4368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. Purified recombinant PFR1 is able to transfer electrons from pyruvate to HYDA1, using the ferredoxins PETF and FDX2 as electron carriers...
  37. Ewen K, Kleser M, Bernhardt R. Adrenodoxin: the archetype of vertebrate-type [2Fe-2S] cluster ferredoxins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:111-25 pubmed publisher
    Adrenodoxin is probably the best characterized member of the vertebrate-type [2Fe-2S]-cluster ferredoxins. It has been in the spotlight of scientific interest for many years due to its essential role in mammalian steroid hormone ..
  38. Sakakibara Y, Kimura H, Iwamura A, Saitoh T, Ikegami T, Kurisu G, et al. A new structural insight into differential interaction of cyanobacterial and plant ferredoxins with nitrite reductase as revealed by NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies. J Biochem. 2012;151:483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight that intermolecular force(s) other than electrostatic attraction is(are) also crucial for the molecular interaction between Fd and partner enzyme. ..
  39. Meyer J. Ferredoxins of the third kind. FEBS Lett. 2001;509:1-5 pubmed
    Most low-potential ferredoxins (Fds) are of the well-known [2Fe-2S] plant or [4Fe-4S] bacterial type. Yet, an additional class of [2Fe-2S] Fds has been recognized on the basis of sequence and spectroscopic idiosyncrasies...
  40. Muller A, Muller J, Muller Y, Uhlmann H, Bernhardt R, Heinemann U. New aspects of electron transfer revealed by the crystal structure of a truncated bovine adrenodoxin, Adx(4-108). Structure. 1998;6:269-80 pubmed
    ..The protein displays the compact (alpha + beta) fold typical for [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins. The polypeptide chain is organized into a large core domain and a smaller interaction domain which comprises ..
  41. Cosper N, St lhandske C, Iwasaki H, Oshima T, Scott R, Iwasaki T. Structural conservation of the isolated zinc site in archaeal zinc-containing ferredoxins as revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis and its evolutionary implications. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:23160-8 pubmed
    ..The tightly bound zinc site of zinc-containing ferredoxins from two phylogenetically distantly related Archaea, T. acidophilum HO-62 and Sulfolobus sp...
  42. Boll M, Fuchs G, Tilley G, Armstrong F, Lowe D. Unusual spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin of Thauera aromatica. Biochemistry. 2000;39:4929-38 pubmed
    ..It contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters and belongs to the Chromatium vinosum type of ferredoxins (CvFd) which differ from the "clostridial" type by a six-amino acid insertion between two successive ..
  43. Colbert C, Couture M, Eltis L, Bolin J. A cluster exposed: structure of the Rieske ferredoxin from biphenyl dioxygenase and the redox properties of Rieske Fe-S proteins. Structure. 2000;8:1267-78 pubmed
    ..Many dioxygenase systems include Rieske-type ferredoxins with amino acid sequences and redox properties remarkably different from the Rieske proteins of proton-..
  44. Sevrioukova I, Hazzard J, Tollin G, Poulos T. Laser flash induced electron transfer in P450cam monooxygenase: putidaredoxin reductase-putidaredoxin interaction. Biochemistry. 2001;40:10592-600 pubmed
    ..Transient kinetics as a function of ionic strength suggest that, in contrast to the Pdx-P450cam redox couple where complex formation is predominantly electrostatic, the Pdx-Pdr association is driven by nonelectrostatic interactions. ..
  45. Nixon J, Wang A, Field J, Morrison H, McArthur A, Sogin M, et al. Evidence for lateral transfer of genes encoding ferredoxins, nitroreductases, NADH oxidase, and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 from anaerobic prokaryotes to Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. Eukaryot Cell. 2002;1:181-90 pubmed
    ..Genes encoding fermentation enzymes and related electron transport peptides (e.g., ferredoxins) in giardia organisms and amebae are hypothesized to be derived from either an ancient anaerobic eukaryote (..
  46. Beck B, Xie Q, Ichiye T. Sequence determination of reduction potentials by cysteinyl hydrogen bonds and peptide pipoles in [4Fe-4S] ferredoxins. Biophys J. 2001;81:601-13 pubmed
    A sequence determinant of reduction potentials is reported for bacterial [4Fe-4S]-type ferredoxins. The residue that is four residues C-terminal to the fourth ligand of either cluster is generally an alanine or a cysteine...
  47. Janssen S, Trincao J, Teixeira M, Schafer G, Anemuller S. Ferredoxins from the archaeon Acidianus ambivalens: overexpression and characterization of the non-zinc-containing ferredoxin FdB. Biol Chem. 2001;382:1501-7 pubmed
    ..Using RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, we show that both ferredoxins are expressed by A. ambivalens under either anaerobic or aerobic growth conditions...
  48. Zhou N, Al Dulayymi J, Baird M, Williams P. Salicylate 5-hydroxylase from Ralstonia sp. strain U2: a monooxygenase with close relationships to and shared electron transport proteins with naphthalene dioxygenase. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1547-55 pubmed
  49. Fujishiro T, Ogawa T, Matsuoka M, Nagahama K, Takeshima Y, Hagiwara H. Establishment of a pure culture of the hitherto uncultured unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, and phylogenetic position of the organism. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:3338-45 pubmed
    ..ferredoxin genes whose deduced amino acid sequences were almost identical to previously published sequences of ferredoxins from natural A. sacrum. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and ferredoxin genes revealed that A...
  50. Weinberg M, Jenney F, Cui X, Adams M. Rubrerythrin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is a rubredoxin-dependent, iron-containing peroxidase. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:7888-95 pubmed
    ..Rubrerythrin is proposed to play a role in the recently defined anaerobic detoxification pathway for reactive oxygen species. ..
  51. Nam J, Noguchi H, Fujimoto Z, Mizuno H, Ashikawa Y, Abo M, et al. Crystal structure of the ferredoxin component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10, a novel Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase system. Proteins. 2005;58:779-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Such differences are thought to explain why these ferredoxins can act as electron mediators in respective electron transport chains composed of different-featured components.
  52. Cho O, Choi K, Zylstra G, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee J, et al. Catabolic role of a three-component salicylate oxygenase from Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:656-62 pubmed
    ..Expression of bphA3-bphA2c-bphA1c genes in Escherichia coli demonstrated the ability of salicylate oxygenase to convert salicylate to catechol and 3-, 4-, and 5-methylsalicylate to methylcatechols. ..
  53. Gao Sheridan H, Pershad H, Armstrong F, Burgess B. Discovery of a novel ferredoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii containing two [4Fe-4S] clusters with widely differing and very negative reduction potentials. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5514-9 pubmed
    b>Ferredoxins that contain 2[4Fe-4S]2+/+ clusters can be divided into two classes. The "clostridial-type" ferredoxins have two Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Xaa-Cys-Pro motifs...