adrenodoxin

Summary

Summary: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.

Top Publications

  1. Schiffler B, Kiefer M, Wilken A, Hannemann F, Adolph H, Bernhardt R. The interaction of bovine adrenodoxin with CYP11A1 (cytochrome P450scc) and CYP11B1 (cytochrome P45011beta ). Acceleration of reduction and substrate conversion by site-directed mutagenesis of adrenodoxin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36225-32 pubmed
    The kinetics of protein-protein interaction and heme reduction between adrenodoxin wild type as well as eight mutants and the cytochromes P450 CYP11A1 and CYP11B1 was studied in detail...
  2. Heinz A, Hannemann F, Müller J, Heinemann U, Bernhardt R. The interaction domain of the redox protein adrenodoxin is mandatory for binding of the electron acceptor CYP11A1, but is not required for binding of the electron donor adrenodoxin reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:491-8 pubmed
    b>Adrenodoxin (Adx) is a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin involved in electron transfer reactions in the steroid hormone biosynthesis of mammals. In this study, we deleted the sequence coding for the complete interaction domain in the Adx cDNA...
  3. Müller E, Lapko A, Otto A, Muller J, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U. Covalently crosslinked complexes of bovine adrenodoxin with adrenodoxin reductase and cytochrome P450scc. Mass spectrometry and Edman degradation of complexes of the steroidogenic hydroxylase system. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:1837-43 pubmed
    NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin and several diverse cytochromes P450 constitute the mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase system of vertebrates...
  4. Napoli E, Morin D, Bernhardt R, Buckpitt A, Cortopassi G. Hemin rescues adrenodoxin, heme a and cytochrome oxidase activity in frataxin-deficient oligodendroglioma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1772:773-80 pubmed
    ..e. in ferrochelatase and adrenodoxin. However, decreases in ferrochelatase activity have not been observed in frataxin-deficient HeLa cells or ..
  5. Faro M, Schiffler B, Heinz A, Nogues I, Medina M, Bernhardt R, et al. Insights into the design of a hybrid system between Anabaena ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase and bovine adrenodoxin. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:726-35 pubmed
    ..Here, it is shown that ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from Anabaena and adrenodoxin from bovine adrenal glands are able to form optimal complexes for thermodynamically favoured electron transfer ..
  6. Hannemann F, Bera A, Fischer B, Lisurek M, Teuchner K, Bernhardt R. Unfolding and conformational studies on bovine adrenodoxin probed by engineered intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Biochemistry. 2002;41:11008-16 pubmed
    An intrinsic steady-state fluorescent system for bovine adrenodoxin has been developed to study the protein structure in solution and the processes involved in protein unfolding...
  7. Schiffler B, Bureik M, Reinle W, Müller E, Hannemann F, Bernhardt R. The adrenodoxin-like ferredoxin of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitochondria. J Inorg Biochem. 2004;98:1229-37 pubmed
    ..The redox potential of this protein was determined to be -353 mV, which is considerably lower than that of adrenodoxin (Adx, -273 mV)...
  8. Usanov S, Graham S, Lepesheva G, Azeva T, Strushkevich N, Gilep A, et al. Probing the interaction of bovine cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) with adrenodoxin: evaluating site-directed mutations by molecular modeling. Biochemistry. 2002;41:8310-20 pubmed
    ..and to determine which residues may be involved in protein-protein interactions with the electron carrier adrenodoxin (Adx)...
  9. Beilke D, Weiss R, Lohr F, Pristovsek P, Hannemann F, Bernhardt R, et al. A new electron transport mechanism in mitochondrial steroid hydroxylase systems based on structural changes upon the reduction of adrenodoxin. Biochemistry. 2002;41:7969-78 pubmed
    The adrenal ferredoxin (adrenodoxin, Adx) is an acidic 14.4-kDa [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin that belongs to the vertebrate ferredoxin family...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kakuta Y, Horio T, Takahashi Y, Fukuyama K. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli Fdx, an adrenodoxin-type ferredoxin involved in the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters. Biochemistry. 2001;40:11007-12 pubmed
    Escherichia coli ferredoxin (Fdx) is an adrenodoxin-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin. Recent genetic analyses show that it has an essential role in the maturation of various iron-sulfur (Fe-S) proteins...
  2. Urushino N, Yamamoto K, Kagawa N, Ikushiro S, Kamakura M, Yamada S, et al. Interaction between mitochondrial CYP27B1 and adrenodoxin: role of arginine 458 of mouse CYP27B1. Biochemistry. 2006;45:4405-12 pubmed
    A molecular modeling study of CYP27B1 suggests that Arg458 of mouse CYP27B1 is involved in interaction with adrenodoxin (ADX). Thus, we generated CYP27B1 mutants R458K and R458Q and revealed their enzymatic properties...
  3. Pechurskaya T, Harnastai I, Grabovec I, Gilep A, Usanov S. Adrenodoxin supports reactions catalyzed by microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:598-604 pubmed
    The interaction of adrenodoxin (Adx) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) with human microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s was studied...
  4. Muller J, Lapko A, Bourenkov G, Ruckpaul K, Heinemann U. Adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin complex structure suggests electron transfer path in steroid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:2786-9 pubmed
    ..The steroid hydroxylating system of adrenal cortex mitochondria consists of the membrane-attached NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin reductase (AR), the soluble one-electron transport protein adrenodoxin (Adx), and a membrane-integrated ..
  5. Sheftel A, Stehling O, Pierik A, Elsässer H, Muhlenhoff U, Webert H, et al. Humans possess two mitochondrial ferredoxins, Fdx1 and Fdx2, with distinct roles in steroidogenesis, heme, and Fe/S cluster biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11775-80 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian adrenodoxin (ferredoxin 1; Fdx1) is essential for the synthesis of various steroid hormones in adrenal glands...
  6. Wada A, Waterman M. Identification by site-directed mutagenesis of two lysine residues in cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450 that are essential for adrenodoxin binding. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22877-82 pubmed
    ..cleavage cytochrome P450, lysine residues at 377 and 381 are found to play crucial roles in binding bovine adrenodoxin, required for transfer of electrons to mitochondrial P450s...
  7. Sparkes R, Klisak I, Miller W. Regional mapping of genes encoding human steroidogenic enzymes: P450scc to 15q23-q24, adrenodoxin to 11q22; adrenodoxin reductase to 17q24-q25; and P450c17 to 10q24-q25. DNA Cell Biol. 1991;10:359-65 pubmed
    ..The gene for adrenodoxin, which receives electrons from adrenodoxin reductase and transfers them to P450scc, is on 11q22 while its ..
  8. Picado Leonard J, Voutilainen R, Kao L, Chung B, Strauss J, Miller W. Human adrenodoxin: cloning of three cDNAs and cycloheximide enhancement in JEG-3 cells. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:3240-4 pubmed
    b>Adrenodoxin is an iron-sulfur protein serving as an electron transport intermediate for two mitochondrial steroidogenic cytochromes P450. We have cloned and sequenced three human adrenal adrenodoxin cDNAs...
  9. Geren L, Millett F. Fluorescence energy transfer studies of the interaction between adrenodoxin and cytochrome c. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:10485-9 pubmed
  10. Ewen K, Kleser M, Bernhardt R. Adrenodoxin: the archetype of vertebrate-type [2Fe-2S] cluster ferredoxins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1814:111-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Adrenodoxin is probably the best characterized member of the vertebrate-type [2Fe-2S]-cluster ferredoxins...
  11. Pierrel F, Hamelin O, Douki T, Kieffer Jaquinod S, Muhlenhoff U, Ozeir M, et al. Involvement of mitochondrial ferredoxin and para-aminobenzoic acid in yeast coenzyme Q biosynthesis. Chem Biol. 2010;17:449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies pABA, Yah1p, and Arh1p as three actors in Q(6) biosynthesis. ..
  12. Sagara Y, Watanabe Y, Kawamura K, Yubisui T. Cloning and sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA of rat adrenodoxin. Biol Pharm Bull. 1996;19:39-41 pubmed
    A cDNA clone which covers the entire coding region for the precursor of adrenodoxin was isolated from a rat adrenal cDNA library...
  13. Grinberg A, Hannemann F, Schiffler B, Muller J, Heinemann U, Bernhardt R. Adrenodoxin: structure, stability, and electron transfer properties. Proteins. 2000;40:590-612 pubmed
    b>Adrenodoxin is an iron-sulfur protein that belongs to the broad family of the [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxins found in plants, animals and bacteria...
  14. Muller A, Muller J, Muller Y, Uhlmann H, Bernhardt R, Heinemann U. New aspects of electron transfer revealed by the crystal structure of a truncated bovine adrenodoxin, Adx(4-108). Structure. 1998;6:269-80 pubmed
    b>Adrenodoxin (Adx) is a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal gland mitochondrial matrix of mammals...
  15. Barros M, Nobrega F. YAH1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new essential gene that codes for a protein homologous to human adrenodoxin. Gene. 1999;233:197-203 pubmed
    Here we describe the identification of a yeast gene (YAH1) with significant homology to a mammalian enzyme, adrenodoxin, encoded in open reading frame (ORF) YPL252C...
  16. Ewen K, Ringle M, Bernhardt R. Adrenodoxin--a versatile ferredoxin. IUBMB Life. 2012;64:506-12 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian adrenodoxin (Adx) has been known for many years as an essential electron mediator in mitochondrial cytochrome P450 systems...
  17. Derouet Hümbert E, Roemer K, Bureik M. Adrenodoxin (Adx) and CYP11A1 (P450scc) induce apoptosis by the generation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Biol Chem. 2005;386:453-61 pubmed
    ..they catalyze regio- and stereo-specific steroid hydroxylations and consist of three protein entities: adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), adrenodoxin (Adx), and a mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme, e.g...
  18. Jose J, Bernhardt R, Hannemann F. Functional display of active bovine adrenodoxin on the surface of E. coli by chemical incorporation of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. Chembiochem. 2001;2:695-701 pubmed
    ..Here we present for the first time the efficient display of a protein (bovine adrenodoxin) that contains an inorganic, prosthetic group in its active form on the surface of Escherichia coli...
  19. Ziegler G, Vonrhein C, Hanukoglu I, Schulz G. The structure of adrenodoxin reductase of mitochondrial P450 systems: electron transfer for steroid biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 1999;289:981-90 pubmed
    b>Adrenodoxin reductase is a monomeric 51 kDa flavoenzyme that is involved in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones. The structure of the native bovine enzyme was determined at 2...
  20. Brownie A, Bhasker C, Waterman M. Levels of adrenodoxin, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase and cytochromes P-45011 beta, P-45021, P-450scc, in adrenal zona fasciculata-reticularis tissue from androgen-treated rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1988;55:15-20 pubmed
    ..The decreases in mitochondrial cytochrome P-450scc (15%) and adrenodoxin (20%) were much less than that observed for cytochrome P-45011 beta...
  21. Lacour T, Achstetter T, Dumas B. Characterization of recombinant adrenodoxin reductase homologue (Arh1p) from yeast. Implication in in vitro cytochrome p45011beta monooxygenase system. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:23984-92 pubmed
    ..of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 forms involved in steroidogenesis includes very specific proteins, namely adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin...
  22. Bichet A, Hannemann F, Rekowski M, Bernhardt R. A new application of the yeast two-hybrid system in protein engineering. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2007;20:117-23 pubmed
    ..The electrons required for these reactions are provided via a redox chain consisting of adrenodoxin reductase (AdR) and adrenodoxin (Adx)...
  23. Omdahl J, Wilson K, Swerdlow H, Driscoll W. Molecular cloning and immunological characterization of porcine kidney ferredoxin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;293:213-8 pubmed
    ..protein-binding and phosphorylation sites occupied identical positions in both porcine renodoxin and bovine adrenodoxin. Furthermore, porcine renodoxin was functionally indistinguishable from bovine adrenodoxin and the mature forms ..
  24. Yuksel B, Kulle A, Gurbuz F, Welzel M, Kotan D, Mengen E, et al. The novel mutation p.Trp147Arg of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein causes classic lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia with adrenal insufficiency and 46,XY disorder of sex development. Horm Res Paediatr. 2013;80:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Transient in vitro expression of the mutant proteins together with P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase yielded severely diminished cholesterol conversion of the p.Trp147Arg mutant...
  25. Cangialosi M, Puccia E, Mazzola A, Mansueto V, Arukwe A. Screening of ovarian steroidogenic pathway in Ciona intestinalis and its modulation after tributyltin exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;245:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethanol was used as solvent control. Gene expression analysis was performed for adrenodoxin (ADREN) and adrenodoxin reductase (ADOX) (mediators of acute steroidogenesis) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid ..
  26. Hamamoto I, Kurokohchi K, Tanaka S, Ichikawa Y. Adrenoferredoxin-binding peptide of NADPH-adrenoferredoxin reductase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;953:207-13 pubmed
    ..The amino-acid sequence of the adrenoferredoxin-binding peptide was identified. The peptide accounted for 95% of the sugar content of the NADPH-adrenoferredoxin reductase. ..
  27. Lepesheva G, Azeva T, Strushkevich N, Gilep A, Usanov S. Site-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1). Effect of lysine residue substitution on its structural and functional properties. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000;65:1409-18 pubmed
    ..positively charged amino acid residues of cytochrome P450scc that may be important for its interaction with adrenodoxin and for its functional activity...
  28. Zöllner A, Hannemann F, Lisurek M, Bernhardt R. Deletions in the loop surrounding the iron-sulfur cluster of adrenodoxin severely affect the interactions with its native redox partners adrenodoxin reductase and cytochrome P450(scc) (CYP11A1). J Inorg Biochem. 2002;91:644-54 pubmed
    The redox active iron-sulfur center of bovine adrenodoxin is coordinated by four cysteine residues in positions 46, 52, 55 and 92 and is covered by a loop containing the residues Glu-47, Gly-48, Thr-49, Leu-50 and Ala-51...
  29. Ringle M, Khatri Y, Zapp J, Hannemann F, Bernhardt R. Application of a new versatile electron transfer system for cytochrome P450-based Escherichia coli whole-cell bioconversions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:7741-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we established a novel robust redox chain based on adrenodoxin, which can deliver electrons to mitochondrial, bacterial and microsomal P450s...
  30. Hachiya N, Mihara K, Suda K, Horst M, Schatz G, Lithgow T. Reconstitution of the initial steps of mitochondrial protein import. Nature. 1995;376:705-9 pubmed
    ..The ATP-mediated transfer of a precursor from MSF to specific subunits of the import receptor is similar to the GTP-mediated transfer of precursors from the signal recognition particle to its receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum. ..
  31. Alam R, Hachiya N, Sakaguchi M, Kawabata S, Iwanaga S, Kitajima M, et al. cDNA cloning and characterization of mitochondrial import stimulation factor (MSF) purified from rat liver cytosol. J Biochem. 1994;116:416-25 pubmed
    ..The purified recombinant MSFL and MSFS1 stimulated mitochondrial import of adrenodoxin precursor (pAd) synthesized in vitro with wheat germ lysate translation system...
  32. Stromstedt M, Waterman M. A full-length cDNA encoding mouse adrenodoxin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1261:126-8 pubmed
    A full-length cDNA encoding mouse adrenodoxin was isolated from a Y1 adrenocortical tumor cell lambda ZAP cDNA library. The 883 bp cDNA contains a 567 bp open reading frame encoding a protein containing 188 amino acids...
  33. LaSala D, Shibanaka Y, Jeng A. Coexpression of CYP11B2 or CYP11B1 with adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase for assessing the potency and selectivity of aldosterone synthase inhibitors. Anal Biochem. 2009;394:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..It requires electron transfer from the adrenodoxin/adrenodoxin reductase system to catalyze the production of aldosterone...
  34. Senda M, Kishigami S, Kimura S, Fukuda M, Ishida T, Senda T. Molecular mechanism of the redox-dependent interaction between NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase and Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:382-400 pubmed
    ..The interplay of electron transfer and induced conformational changes seems to be critical to the sequential electron-transfer reaction from NADH to BphA3. ..
  35. Vinogradova A, Luzikov V, Novikova L. Comparative study of topogenesis of cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) and its hybrids with adrenodoxin expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2007;72:208-14 pubmed
    Hybrid proteins consisting of the mature form of cytochrome P450scc (mP) and adrenodoxin (Ad), attached to either the NH2- or COOH-terminus (Ad-mP and mP-Ad, respectively), were expressed in E. coli...
  36. Duport C, Schoepp B, Chatelain E, Spagnoli R, Dumas B, Pompon D. Critical role of the plasma membrane for expression of mammalian mitochondrial side chain cleavage activity in yeast. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:1502-14 pubmed
    ..CYP11A1 activity requires the expression of the mammalian NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase (Adrp) and adrenodoxin (Adxp) proteins as electron carriers...
  37. Slominski A, Zjawiony J, Wortsman J, Semak I, Stewart J, Pisarchik A, et al. A novel pathway for sequential transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol and expression of the P450scc system in mammalian skin. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:4178-88 pubmed
    ..e. the genes and proteins for P450scc enzyme, adrenodoxin, adrenodoxin reductase and MLN64. Functionality of the system was confirmed in mitochondria from skin cells...
  38. Voevodskaya N, Serezhenkov V, Cooper C, Kubrina L, Vanin A. Exogenous ferrous iron is required for the nitric oxide-catalysed destruction of the iron-sulphur centre in adrenodoxin. Biochem J. 2002;368:633-9 pubmed
    ..95 kPa on the stability of the binuclear iron-sulphur centre (ISC) of reduced iron-sulphur protein adrenodoxin (0.2 mM) have been observed using the EPR method...
  39. Sevrioukova I, Garcia C, Li H, Bhaskar B, Poulos T. Crystal structure of putidaredoxin, the [2Fe-2S] component of the P450cam monooxygenase system from Pseudomonas putida. J Mol Biol. 2003;333:377-92 pubmed
    ..47 A and 1.65 A resolution, respectively, are nearly identical and very similar to those of bovine adrenodoxin (Adx) and Escherichia coli ferredoxin...
  40. Lisurek M, Bernhardt R. Modulation of aldosterone and cortisol synthesis on the molecular level. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;215:149-59 pubmed
    ..found in patients suffering from steroid hormone-related diseases as well as introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and as consequence of protein-protein interaction with both CYP11A1 and the natural redox partner adrenodoxin.
  41. Komiya T, Rospert S, Koehler C, Looser R, Schatz G, Mihara K. Interaction of mitochondrial targeting signals with acidic receptor domains along the protein import pathway: evidence for the 'acid chain' hypothesis. EMBO J. 1998;17:3886-98 pubmed
  42. Waki N, Hiwatashi A, Ichikawa Y. Purification and biochemical characterization of hepatic ferredoxin (hepatoredoxin) from bovine liver mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 1986;195:87-91 pubmed
    ..The monomeric molecular mass of the hepatoredoxin was larger than that of adrenocortical ferredoxin (adrenodoxin) from bovine adrenocortical mitochondria at 14 kDa...
  43. Archakov A, Ivanov Y. Optical biosensor and scanning probe microscopy studies of cytochrome P450 interactions with redox partners and phospholipid layers. Methods Enzymol. 2002;357:94-103 pubmed
  44. Grinter R, Milner J, Walker D. Ferredoxin containing bacteriocins suggest a novel mechanism of iron uptake in Pectobacterium spp. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33033 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is not observed with the mammalian ferredoxin protein adrenodoxin, indicating that Pectobacterium spp...
  45. Strushkevich N, Harnastai I, Usanov S. Mechanism of steroidogenic electron transport: role of conserved Glu429 in destabilization of CYP11A1-adrenodoxin complex. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2010;75:570-8 pubmed
    ..the wild type hemoprotein indicating tighter binding and, as the result, the impaired dissociation of oxidized adrenodoxin from the complex...
  46. Annalora A, Bobrovnikova Marjon E, Serda R, Lansing L, Chiu M, Pastuszyn A, et al. Rat cytochrome P450C24 (CYP24A1) and the role of F249 in substrate binding and catalytic activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;425:133-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Phe-249 within the F-helix was demonstrated to have an important role in properly binding and aligning substrate in the CYP24A1 active site for C(23) and C(24) oxidation reactions. ..
  47. Almog B, Gold R, Tajima K, Dantes A, Salim K, Rubinstein M, et al. Leptin attenuates follicular apoptosis and accelerates the onset of puberty in immature rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;183:179-91 pubmed
    ..Our data suggests that leptin may be involved in accelerating follicular maturation by attenuating follicular atresia and increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. ..
  48. Dikanov S, Samoilova R, Kappl R, Crofts A, Huttermann J. The reduced [2Fe-2S] clusters in adrenodoxin and Arthrospira platensis ferredoxin share spin density with protein nitrogens, probed using 2D ESEEM. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:6807-19 pubmed publisher
    We have used X-band ESEEM to study the reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster in adrenodoxin and Arthrospira platensis ferredoxin...
  49. Lepesheva G, Azeva T, Strushkevich N, Adamovich T, Cherkesova T, Usanov S. Comparative structural-functional characterization of recombinant and natural adrenodoxin. Interaction with cytochrome P450scc. Biochemistry (Mosc). 1999;64:1079-88 pubmed
    The conditions for heterologous expression of recombinant bovine adrenodoxin in E. coli have been optimized, thus reaching expression levels up to 12-14 micromoles per liter of culture medium...
  50. Herman P, Behrens M, Chakraborty S, Chrastil B, Barycki J, Weeks D. A three-component dicamba O-demethylase from Pseudomonas maltophilia, strain DI-6: gene isolation, characterization, and heterologous expression. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24759-67 pubmed
    ..4-kDa protein composed of 105 residues with similarity to the adrenodoxin family of [2Fe-2S] bacterial ferredoxins. The oxygenase gene (ddmC) encodes a 37...
  51. Tajima K, Hosokawa K, Yoshida Y, Dantes A, Sasson R, Kotsuji F, et al. Establishment of FSH-responsive cell lines by transfection of pre-ovulatory human granulosa cells with mutated p53 (p53val135) and Ha-ras genes. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:48-57 pubmed
    ..Expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), adrenodoxin and cytochrome P450scc were enhanced 64-, 48- and 3.1-fold respectively by FSH stimulation...
  52. Anandatheerthavarada H, Amuthan G, Biswas G, Robin M, Murali R, Waterman M, et al. Evolutionarily divergent electron donor proteins interact with P450MT2 through the same helical domain but different contact points. EMBO J. 2001;20:2394-403 pubmed
    ..the sites of N-terminally truncated cytochrome P4501A1 targeted to mitochondria (P450MT2) which interact with adrenodoxin (Adx), cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and bacterial flavodoxin (Fln)...
  53. Huang M, Miller W. Creation and activity of COS-1 cells stably expressing the F2 fusion of the human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2569-76 pubmed
    A fusion construct for the human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system termed F2 (H(2)N-P450scc-adrenodoxin reductase-adrenodoxin-COOH), was stably expressed in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells...