Summary: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.

Top Publications

  1. Konijn A. Iron metabolism in inflammation. Baillieres Clin Haematol. 1994;7:829-49 pubmed
    ..The altered iron metabolism in inflammation is proposed to be a part of the host defence mechanism against invading pathogens and tumor cells and is suggested to be mediated by inflammatory cytokines and NO. ..
  2. Gaetano C, Massimo L, Alberto M. Control of iron homeostasis as a key component of macrophage polarization. Haematologica. 2010;95:1801-3 pubmed publisher
  3. Milczarek A, Starzyński R, Styś A, Jończy A, Staroń R, Grzelak A, et al. A drastic superoxide-dependent oxidative stress is prerequisite for the down-regulation of IRP1: Insights from studies on SOD1-deficient mice and macrophages treated with paraquat. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176800 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that O2.--dependent up-regulation of this cellular protectant in paraquat-treated macrophages may counterbalance iron-related toxic effects of O2.-. ..
  4. Philpott C, Ryu M, Frey A, Patel S. Cytosolic iron chaperones: Proteins delivering iron cofactors in the cytosol of mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12764-12771 pubmed publisher
    ..The monothiol glutaredoxin Glrx3 and BolA2 function as a [2Fe-2S] chaperone complex. These proteins form a core system of cytosolic iron cofactor chaperones in mammalian cells. ..
  5. Dai H, He R, Zhang Y, Wu R, Xiao Y. Adenoviral vector mediated ferritin over-expression in mesenchymal stem cells detected by 7T MRI in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185260 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between ?R2, OD and ferritin concentration suggests that MRI can detect ferritin signal change accurately. ..
  6. Meneses F, Schnabel B, Silva I, Alberto F, Toma L, Nader H, et al. Identification of the mutations associated with hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome and hemochromatosis in a Brazilian family. Clin Genet. 2011;79:189-92 pubmed publisher
  7. Zarjou A, Bolisetty S, Joseph R, Traylor A, Apostolov E, Arosio P, et al. Proximal tubule H-ferritin mediates iron trafficking in acute kidney injury. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:4423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the protective role of FtH and reveal the critical role of proximal tubule FtH in iron trafficking in AKI. ..
  8. Weis S, Carlos A, Moita M, Singh S, Blankenhaus B, Cardoso S, et al. Metabolic Adaptation Establishes Disease Tolerance to Sepsis. Cell. 2017;169:1263-1275.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, disease tolerance to sepsis relies on a crosstalk between adaptive responses controlling iron and glucose metabolism, required to maintain blood glucose within a physiologic range compatible with host survival. ..
  9. Gorobets O, Gorobets S, Koralewski M. Physiological origin of biogenic magnetic nanoparticles in health and disease: from bacteria to humans. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:4371-4395 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Zhou J, Yao H, Meng L, Sun C, Ye W, Du Q. A Hollow NaGdF4 /AFn Nanosystem Based on "Relay Race" Release for Therapy. ChemMedChem. 2017;12:1191-1200 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show that NaGdF4 -AFn-FA can be used for targeted anticancer drug delivery as well as imaging, a novel multi-pronged theranostic system for tumor treatment. ..
  2. Sala D, Ciambellotti S, Giachetti A, Turano P, Rosato A. Investigation of the Iron(II) Release Mechanism of Human H-Ferritin as a Function of pH. J Chem Inf Model. 2017;57:2112-2118 pubmed publisher
    ..Double protonation of His residues at pH 4 facilitates the removal of the iron ligands within the C3 channel through the formation of salt bridges, resulting in a significantly lower release energy barrier than pH 9. ..
  3. Dostálová S, Vašíčková K, Hynek D, Krizkova S, Richtera L, Vaculovicova M, et al. Apoferritin as an ubiquitous nanocarrier with excellent shelf life. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:2265-2278 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study demonstrates that ApoDox has very good stability over the course of 12 weeks when stored properly (at 4°C), and is thus suitable for use as a nanocarrier in the specific delivery of anticancer drugs to patients. ..
  4. Mehlenbacher M, Poli M, Arosio P, Santambrogio P, Levi S, Chasteen N, et al. Iron Oxidation and Core Formation in Recombinant Heteropolymeric Human Ferritins. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3900-3912 pubmed publisher
    ..The L-rich ferritin, while also facilitating iron oxidation at the FC, additionally promoted oxidation at the mineral surface once the iron binding capacity of the FC was exceeded. ..
  5. Rosager A, Sørensen M, Dahlrot R, Hansen S, Schonberg D, Rich J, et al. Transferrin receptor-1 and ferritin heavy and light chains in astrocytic brain tumors: Expression and prognostic value. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182954 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that regulation of the iron metabolism in astrocytic brain tumors is complex involving both autocrine and paracrine signaling. ..