adaptor protein complex delta subunits


Summary: A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 130-kDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 3.

Top Publications

  1. Le Borgne R, Alconada A, Bauer U, Hoflack B. The mammalian AP-3 adaptor-like complex mediates the intracellular transport of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:29451-61 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that AP-3 functions in the intracellular targeting of transmembrane glycoproteins to lysosomes. ..
  2. Angers C, Merz A. HOPS interacts with Apl5 at the vacuole membrane and is required for consumption of AP-3 transport vesicles. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4563-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that AP-3 remains associated with budded vesicles, interacts with Vps41 and HOPS upon vesicle docking at the vacuole, and finally dissociates during docking or fusion. ..
  3. Ban J, Hlavaty J, Orlik O, Splitter G, Altaner C. The human homologue of the bovine leukemia virus receptor BLVRcp1 is the delta-subunit of adaptor-related AP-3 protein that does not bind the BVLgp51. Arch Virol. 1999;144:2013-22 pubmed
    ..This finding implies that this BLVgp51 binding site is present only on the bovine BLVRcp and therefore its human homologue cannot be recognized by BLVgp51. This might also explain the resistance of human cells to BLV infection. ..
  4. Wyss S, Berlioz Torrent C, Boge M, Blot G, Honing S, Benarous R, et al. The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]. J Virol. 2001;75:2982-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal dileucine was shown to assist the membrane-proximal Y712 motif in restricting the cell surface expression of Env. ..
  5. Styers M, Kowalczyk A, Faundez V. Intermediate filaments and vesicular membrane traffic: the odd couple's first dance?. Traffic. 2005;6:359-65 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we will discuss potential mechanisms by which IFs may regulate the localization and function of organelles...
  6. Owen D, Vallis Y, Pearse B, McMahon H, Evans P. The structure and function of the beta 2-adaptin appendage domain. EMBO J. 2000;19:4216-27 pubmed
    ..This results in the displacement of the other ligands from the beta 2 appendage. Thus clathrin binding to an AP2-accessory protein complex would cause the controlled release of accessory proteins at sites of vesicle formation. ..
  7. Crump C, Xiang Y, Thomas L, Gu F, Austin C, Tooze S, et al. PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic. EMBO J. 2001;20:2191-201 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate the requirement for PACS-1 interactions with adaptor proteins in multiple processes, including secretory granule biogenesis and HIV-1 pathogenesis. ..
  8. KYERE S, Mercredi P, Dong X, Spearman P, Summers M. The HIV-1 matrix protein does not interact directly with the protein interactive domain of AP-3?. Virus Res. 2012;169:411-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, no evidence of binding was observed in these in vitro experiments, even at relatively high protein concentrations (200?M), suggesting that AP-3? plays an alternative role in HIV-1 assembly. ..
  9. Ma Y, Takeuchi M, Sugiura R, Sio S, Kuno T. Deletion mutants of AP-1 adaptin subunits display distinct phenotypes in fission yeast. Genes Cells. 2009;14:1015-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, results suggest that the four subunits are all essential for the heterotetrameric complex formation and for the AP-1 function in exit transport from endosomes. ..

More Information


  1. Dong X, Li H, Derdowski A, Ding L, Burnett A, Chen X, et al. AP-3 directs the intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Gag and plays a key role in particle assembly. Cell. 2005;120:663-74 pubmed
    ..These studies illuminate an early step in retroviral particle assembly and provide evidence that the trafficking of Gag to late endosomes is part of a productive particle assembly pathway. ..
  2. Heil C, Noor M. Studying recombination with high-throughput sequencing: an educational primer for use with "fine-scale heterogeneity in crossover rate in the garnet-scalloped region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome". Genetics. 2013;194:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional background information, a detailed explanation of the methods used in this study, and discussion questions are provided. ..
  3. Singh N, Stone E, Aquadro C, Clark A. Fine-scale heterogeneity in crossover rate in the garnet-scalloped region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. Genetics. 2013;194:375-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results shed new light on the scale and magnitude of crossover rate heterogeneity in D. melanogaster and highlight potential features mediating this heterogeneity. ..
  4. Liu L, Sutton J, Woodruff E, Villalta F, Spearman P, Dong X. Defective HIV-1 particle assembly in AP-3-deficient cells derived from patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. J Virol. 2012;86:11242-53 pubmed
  5. Zlatic S, Tornieri K, L hernault S, Faundez V. Clathrin-dependent mechanisms modulate the subcellular distribution of class C Vps/HOPS tether subunits in polarized and nonpolarized cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1699-715 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that vesicular (AP-3) and nonvesicular (Hrs) clathrin mechanisms segregate class C Vps/HOPS tethers to organelles and domains of mammalian cells bearing complex architectures...
  6. Haigh A, Lloyd V. Loss of genomic imprinting in Drosophila clones. Genome. 2006;49:1043-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that genomic imprinting associated with a mini-X chromosome is lost in Drosophila melanogaster clones. ..
  7. Bourel Bonnet L, Pécheur E, Grandjean C, Blanpain A, Baust T, Melnyk O, et al. Anchorage of synthetic peptides onto liposomes via hydrazone and alpha-oxo hydrazone bonds. preliminary functional investigations. Bioconjug Chem. 2005;16:450-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results clearly indicate the usefulness of such peptidoliposomes, easily prepared by hydrazone chemoselective ligation, as a tool for biological investigation. ..
  8. Boner W, Morgan I. Novel cellular interacting partners of the human papillomavirus 16 transcription/replication factor E2. Virus Res. 2002;90:113-8 pubmed
    ..Several of these partners have characteristics that make them ideal candidates for mediating E2 function. ..
  9. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Alperyn M, Grigliatti T. Enhancer of garnet/deltaAP-3 is a cryptic allele of the white gene and identifies the intracellular transport system for the white protein. Genome. 2002;45:296-312 pubmed
    ..This observation supports a role for these genes in intracellular transport and leads to a model whereby incorrect sorting of the white gene product can explain the pigmentation phenotypes of an entire group of eye-color genes...
  10. Del Val M, Yewdell J. The latest killer AP. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:1049-50 pubmed
  11. Matsuzaki F. Drosophila G-protein signalling: intricate roles for Ric-8?. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:1047-9 pubmed
  12. Naga Prasad S, Laporte S, Chamberlain D, Caron M, Barak L, Rockman H. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates beta2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis by AP-2 recruitment to the receptor/beta-arrestin complex. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:563-75 pubmed
  13. Garcia E, Nikolic D, Piguet V. HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells occurs through a tetraspanin-containing compartment enriched in AP-3. Traffic. 2008;9:200-14 pubmed
  14. Geyer M, Yu H, Mandic R, Linnemann T, Zheng Y, Fackler O, et al. Subunit H of the V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 and connects Nef to the endocytic machinery. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28521-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, blocking the expression of V1H decreased the enhancement of virion infectivity by Nef. Thus, V1H can function as an adaptor for interactions between Nef and AP-2. ..
  15. Nishimura N, Plutner H, Hahn K, Balch W. The delta subunit of AP-3 is required for efficient transport of VSV-G from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:6755-60 pubmed
  16. Kent H, Evans P, Schäfer I, Gray S, Sanderson C, Luzio J, et al. Structural basis of the intracellular sorting of the SNARE VAMP7 by the AP3 adaptor complex. Dev Cell. 2012;22:979-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The mislocalization can be rescued by transfection with wild-type δ-adaptin but not by δ-adaptin containing mutations that abolish VAMP7 binding, despite in all cases intact AP3 being present and LAMP1 trafficking being rescued. ..
  17. Lundmark R, Carlsson S. The beta-appendages of the four adaptor-protein (AP) complexes: structure and binding properties, and identification of sorting nexin 9 as an accessory protein to AP-2. Biochem J. 2002;362:597-607 pubmed
    ..SNX9, which contains a phox and an Src homology 3 domain, was found in large complexes and was at least partially associated with AP-2 in the cytosol. SNX9 may function to assist AP-2 in its role at the plasma membrane. ..
  18. Lloyd V, Sinclair D, Wennberg R, Warner T, Honda B, Grigliatti T. A genetic and molecular characterization of the garnet gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 1999;42:1183-93 pubmed
    ..This finding provides an explanation for the phenotype of garnet mutations and predicts that other Drosophila eye-colour genes will be a rich resource for the genetic dissection of intracellular vesicle transport. ..
  19. Hirst J, Robinson M. Clathrin and adaptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1404:173-93 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies indicate that AP-3 plays a role in the sorting of proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. ..
  20. Ooi C, Moreira J, Dell Angelica E, Poy G, Wassarman D, Bonifacino J. Altered expression of a novel adaptin leads to defective pigment granule biogenesis in the Drosophila eye color mutant garnet. EMBO J. 1997;16:4508-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, the eye pigmentation defect in the Drosophila garnet mutant may be attributed to compromised function of a coat protein involved in intracellular transport processes required for biogenesis or function of pigment granules. ..
  21. Shim J, Lee J. The AP-3 clathrin-associated complex is essential for embryonic and larval development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol Cells. 2005;19:452-7 pubmed
    ..APM-3 is expressed in most cells, particularly strongly in spermatheca and vulva. We conclude that the products of the C. elegans m3, s3, b3 and d genes are essential for embryogenesis and larval development. ..
  22. Dores M, Paing M, Lin H, Montagne W, Marchese A, Trejo J. AP-3 regulates PAR1 ubiquitin-independent MVB/lysosomal sorting via an ALIX-mediated pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3612-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, AP-3 facilitates PAR1 interaction with ALIX, suggesting that AP-3 functions before PAR1 engagement of ALIX and MVB/lysosomal sorting. ..