adaptor protein complex 1


Summary: A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.

Top Publications

  1. Page L, Robinson M. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:619-30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the adaptor subunits act in concert to target the complex to the appropriate membrane. ..
  2. Puertollano R, van der Wel N, Greene L, Eisenberg E, Peters P, Bonifacino J. Morphology and dynamics of clathrin/GGA1-coated carriers budding from the trans-Golgi network. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1545-57 pubmed
  3. Park M, Song K, Reichardt I, Kim H, Mayer U, Stierhof Y, et al. Arabidopsis ?-adaptin subunit AP1M of adaptor protein complex 1 mediates late secretory and vacuolar traffic and is required for growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AP-1 is crucial in post-Golgi trafficking in plant cells and required for cell division and plant growth. ..
  4. Kametaka S, Sawada N, Bonifacino J, Waguri S. Functional characterization of protein-sorting machineries at the trans-Golgi network in Drosophila melanogaster. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:460-71 pubmed publisher
  5. Qiao Y, Jiang W, Lee J, Park B, Choi M, Piao R, et al. SPL28 encodes a clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1, medium subunit micro 1 (AP1M1) and is responsible for spotted leaf and early senescence in rice (Oryza sativa). New Phytol. 2010;185:258-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a map-based cloning approach, we determined that SPL28 encodes a clathrin-associated adaptor protein complex 1, medium subunit micro 1 (AP1M1), which is involved in the post-Golgi trafficking pathway...
  6. Doray B, Knisely J, Wartman L, Bu G, Kornfeld S. Identification of acidic dileucine signals in LRP9 that interact with both GGAs and AP-1/AP-2. Traffic. 2008;9:1551-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Either AC-LL motif of LRP9 is functional in endocytosis. These findings represent the first study characterizing the trafficking of LRP9 and also have implications for the identification of additional GGA cargo molecules. ..
  7. Meyer C, Zizioli D, Lausmann S, Eskelinen E, Hamann J, Saftig P, et al. mu1A-adaptin-deficient mice: lethality, loss of AP-1 binding and rerouting of mannose 6-phosphate receptors. EMBO J. 2000;19:2193-203 pubmed
    ..MPR46 fails to recycle back from the endosome to the TGN, indicating that AP-1 is required for retrograde endosome to TGN transport of the receptor. ..
  8. FOLSCH H, Pypaert M, Maday S, Pelletier L, Mellman I. The AP-1A and AP-1B clathrin adaptor complexes define biochemically and functionally distinct membrane domains. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:351-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, despite the similarity of the two AP-1 complexes, AP-1A and AP-1B exhibit great specificity for endosomal transport versus cell polarity...
  9. Waguri S, DeWitte F, Le Borgne R, Rouille Y, Uchiyama Y, Dubremetz J, et al. Visualization of TGN to endosome trafficking through fluorescently labeled MPR and AP-1 in living cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:142-55 pubmed

More Information


  1. Neubrand V, Will R, Mobius W, Poustka A, Wiemann S, Schu P, et al. Gamma-BAR, a novel AP-1-interacting protein involved in post-Golgi trafficking. EMBO J. 2005;24:1122-33 pubmed
    A novel peripheral membrane protein (2c18) that interacts directly with the gamma 'ear' domain of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) in vitro and in vivo is described...
  2. FOLSCH H. The building blocks for basolateral vesicles in polarized epithelial cells. Trends Cell Biol. 2005;15:222-8 pubmed
  3. Costaguta G, Duncan M, Fernandez G, Huang G, Payne G. Distinct roles for TGN/endosome epsin-like adaptors Ent3p and Ent5p. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3907-20 pubmed
    ..The data also support a model in which the Ent adaptors provide important accessory functions to AP-1 and Gga proteins in TGN/endosome traffic. ..
  4. FOLSCH H, Ohno H, Bonifacino J, Mellman I. A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells. Cell. 1999;99:189-98 pubmed
    ..We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B...
  5. Nesterov A, Carter R, Sorkina T, Gill G, Sorkin A. Inhibition of the receptor-binding function of clathrin adaptor protein AP-2 by dominant-negative mutant mu2 subunit and its effects on endocytosis. EMBO J. 1999;18:2489-99 pubmed
  6. Kang R, FOLSCH H. ARH cooperates with AP-1B in the exocytosis of LDLR in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that in addition to its role in endocytosis, ARH cooperates with AP-1B in basolateral exocytosis of LDLR from REs. ..
  7. FOLSCH H, Pypaert M, Schu P, Mellman I. Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:595-606 pubmed
  8. Page L, Sowerby P, Lui W, Robinson M. Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:993-1004 pubmed
    ..The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins. ..
  9. Olusanya O, Andrews P, Swedlow J, Smythe E. Phosphorylation of threonine 156 of the mu2 subunit of the AP2 complex is essential for endocytosis in vitro and in vivo. Curr Biol. 2001;11:896-900 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that phosphorylation of a single threonine residue (Thr156) of the mu2 subunit of the AP2 complex is essential for efficient endocytosis of transferrin both in an in vitro coated-pit budding assay and in living cells...
  10. Foote C, Nothwehr S. The clathrin adaptor complex 1 directly binds to a sorting signal in Ste13p to reduce the rate of its trafficking to the late endosome of yeast. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:615-26 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a model in which this novel sorting signal targets A(F-->A)-ALP into clathrin/AP-1 vesicles at the EE for retrieval back to the TGN. ..
  11. Geyer M, Yu H, Mandic R, Linnemann T, Zheng Y, Fackler O, et al. Subunit H of the V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 and connects Nef to the endocytic machinery. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28521-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, blocking the expression of V1H decreased the enhancement of virion infectivity by Nef. Thus, V1H can function as an adaptor for interactions between Nef and AP-2. ..
  12. Ghosh P, Kornfeld S. The cytoplasmic tail of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor contains four binding sites for AP-1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;426:225-30 pubmed
    ..The YSKV motif mediated the strongest interaction with AP-1 and the two CK2 motifs bound AP-1 only when they were phosphorylated. The COOH-terminal dileucines were not required for interaction with AP-1. ..
  13. Takatsu H, Sakurai M, Shin H, Murakami K, Nakayama K. Identification and characterization of novel clathrin adaptor-related proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24693-700 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gamma2-adaptin constitute a novel adaptor-related complex that participates in a transport step different from that of AP-1. ..
  14. Dell Angelica E, Ohno H, Ooi C, Rabinovich E, Roche K, Bonifacino J. AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression. EMBO J. 1997;16:917-28 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the sigma3 chains are components of a novel, ubiquitous adaptor-like complex involved in the recognition of tyrosine-based sorting signals. ..
  15. Cancino J, Torrealba C, Soza A, Yuseff M, Gravotta D, Henklein P, et al. Antibody to AP1B adaptor blocks biosynthetic and recycling routes of basolateral proteins at recycling endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4872-84 pubmed
  16. Touz M, Kulakova L, Nash T. Adaptor protein complex 1 mediates the transport of lysosomal proteins from a Golgi-like organelle to peripheral vacuoles in the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3053-60 pubmed
  17. Kita A, Sugiura R, Shoji H, He Y, Deng L, Lu Y, et al. Loss of Apm1, the micro1 subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor-protein-1 complex, causes distinct phenotypes and synthetic lethality with calcineurin deletion in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2920-31 pubmed
  18. Benmerah A, Gagnon J, Begue B, Megarbane B, Dautry Varsat A, Cerf Bensussan N. The tyrosine kinase substrate eps15 is constitutively associated with the plasma membrane adaptor AP-2. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:1831-8 pubmed
  19. Ang A, FOLSCH H, Koivisto U, Pypaert M, Mellman I. The Rab8 GTPase selectively regulates AP-1B-dependent basolateral transport in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:339-50 pubmed
    ..However, expression of active Rab8 caused a selective dissociation of AP-1B complexes, reflecting the specificity of Rab8 for AP-1B-dependent transport...
  20. Zhao X, Greener T, Al Hasani H, Cushman S, Eisenberg E, Greene L. Expression of auxilin or AP180 inhibits endocytosis by mislocalizing clathrin: evidence for formation of nascent pits containing AP1 or AP2 but not clathrin. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:353-65 pubmed
  21. Ngo H, Yang M, Paprotka K, Pypaert M, Hoppe H, Joiner K. AP-1 in Toxoplasma gondii mediates biogenesis of the rhoptry secretory organelle from a post-Golgi compartment. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5343-52 pubmed
    ..These are the first results to implicate AP-1 in transport from a post-Golgi compartment to a mature secretory organelle and substantially expand the role for AP-1 in anterograde protein transport. ..
  22. Meyer C, Eskelinen E, Guruprasad M, Von Figura K, Schu P. Mu 1A deficiency induces a profound increase in MPR300/IGF-II receptor internalization rate. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4469-76 pubmed
    ..Thus AP-1-mediated transport of MPR300 from endosomes to the TGN controls indirectly the recycling rate of the receptor between the plasma membrane and endosomes. ..
  23. Metcalf D, Nightingale T, Zenner H, Lui Roberts W, Cutler D. Formation and function of Weibel-Palade bodies. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:19-27 pubmed
    ..Following recruitment of cargo at the TGN, there is a second wave of recruitment that delivers integral and peripheral membrane proteins to WPBs, some of which is AP3 dependent...
  24. Owen D, Evans P. A structural explanation for the recognition of tyrosine-based endocytotic signals. Science. 1998;282:1327-32 pubmed
    ..Specificity was conferred by hydrophobic pockets that bind the tyrosine and leucine in the peptide. In the crystal, the protein forms dimers that could increase the strength and specificity of binding to dimeric receptors. ..
  25. Kim M, Hersh L. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter interacts with clathrin-associated adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12580-7 pubmed
    ..There appear to be two endocytosis motifs, one involving the adaptor protein 1 binding site and the other involving the adaptor protein 2 binding site. These results suggest a complex trafficking pathway for VAChT. ..
  26. Kim S, Ryan T. Synaptic vesicle recycling at CNS snapses without AP-2. J Neurosci. 2009;29:3865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that in the absence of AP-2, SV proteins still become endocytosed, and synaptic vesicle recycling remains operational. ..
  27. Collins B, McCoy A, Kent H, Evans P, Owen D. Molecular architecture and functional model of the endocytic AP2 complex. Cell. 2002;109:523-35 pubmed
    ..A model for AP2 recruitment and activation is proposed. ..
  28. Valencia J, Watabe H, Chi A, Rouzaud F, Chen K, Vieira W, et al. Sorting of Pmel17 to melanosomes through the plasma membrane by AP1 and AP2: evidence for the polarized nature of melanocytes. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1080-91 pubmed
    ..These results show that Pmel17 is sorted to melanosomes by various intracellular routes, directly or indirectly through the plasma membrane, and the presence of basolateral elements in melanocytes suggests their polarized nature. ..
  29. Anderson E, Maday S, Sfakianos J, Hull M, Winckler B, Sheff D, et al. Transcytosis of NgCAM in epithelial cells reflects differential signal recognition on the endocytic and secretory pathways. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:595-605 pubmed
    ..Thus, transcytosis of NgCAM and perhaps other membrane proteins may reflect the spatial regulation of recognition by adaptors such as AP-1B. ..
  30. Ma Y, Takeuchi M, Sugiura R, Sio S, Kuno T. Deletion mutants of AP-1 adaptin subunits display distinct phenotypes in fission yeast. Genes Cells. 2009;14:1015-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, results suggest that the four subunits are all essential for the heterotetrameric complex formation and for the AP-1 function in exit transport from endosomes. ..
  31. Chapuy B, Tikkanen R, Mühlhausen C, Wenzel D, von Figura K, Honing S. AP-1 and AP-3 mediate sorting of melanosomal and lysosomal membrane proteins into distinct post-Golgi trafficking pathways. Traffic. 2008;9:1157-72 pubmed publisher
  32. Fields I, Shteyn E, Pypaert M, Proux Gillardeaux V, Kang R, Galli T, et al. v-SNARE cellubrevin is required for basolateral sorting of AP-1B-dependent cargo in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:477-88 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that cellubrevin and AP-1B cooperate in basolateral membrane trafficking. ..
  33. Fernandez G, Payne G. Laa1p, a conserved AP-1 accessory protein important for AP-1 localization in yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3304-17 pubmed
    ..Our results identify Laa1p as a new determinant of AP-1 localization, suggesting a model in which Laa1p and Arf cooperate to direct stable association of AP-1 with appropriate intracellular membranes. ..
  34. Schledzewski K, Brinkmann H, Mendel R. Phylogenetic analysis of components of the eukaryotic vesicle transport system reveals a common origin of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3 and the F subcomplex of the coatomer COPI. J Mol Evol. 1999;48:770-8 pubmed
    ..The situation encountered today is the result of successive rounds of coordinated gene duplications of both the large and the small/medium subunits, with F-COPI being the first that separated from the ancestral pre-F-COPI...
  35. Medigeshi G, Schu P. Characterization of the in vitro retrograde transport of MPR46. Traffic. 2003;4:802-11 pubmed
    ..Residual membrane-associated AP-1 may have masked a requirement for cytosolic AP-1. The competence of membranes from AP-1-deficient cells for endosome-to-TGN transport in vitro was severely compromised. ..
  36. Lui Roberts W, Collinson L, Hewlett L, Michaux G, Cutler D. An AP-1/clathrin coat plays a novel and essential role in forming the Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:627-36 pubmed
    ..We propose that, in contrast to other secretory granules, cargo aggregation alone is not sufficient to form immature WPBs and that an external scaffold that contains AP-1 and clathrin is essential...
  37. Ang A, Taguchi T, Francis S, FOLSCH H, Murrells L, Pypaert M, et al. Recycling endosomes can serve as intermediates during transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane of MDCK cells. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:531-43 pubmed
    ..Because an apically targeted VSV-G mutant behaved similarly, these results suggest that REs not only serve as an intermediate but also as a common site for polarized sorting on the endocytic and secretory pathways. ..
  38. Heldwein E, Macia E, Wang J, Yin H, Kirchhausen T, Harrison S. Crystal structure of the clathrin adaptor protein 1 core. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14108-13 pubmed
    ..We show that directed mutations of residues at a particular corner of the gamma chain prevent recruitment to the TGN in cells and diminish PI-4-P-dependent, but not Arf1-dependent, liposome binding in vitro. ..
  39. Craig H, Reddy T, Riggs N, Dao P, Guatelli J. Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif. Virology. 2000;271:9-17 pubmed
  40. Kita A, Li C, Yu Y, Umeda N, Doi A, Yasuda M, et al. Role of the Small GTPase Rho3 in Golgi/Endosome trafficking through functional interaction with adaptin in Fission Yeast. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16842 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of a direct link between the small GTPase Rho and the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 in membrane trafficking. ..
  41. Glyvuk N, Tsytsyura Y, Geumann C, D Hooge R, Hüve J, Kratzke M, et al. AP-1/sigma1B-adaptin mediates endosomal synaptic vesicle recycling, learning and memory. EMBO J. 2010;29:1318-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The sigma1B-deficient mice have reduced motor coordination and severely impaired long-term spatial memory. These data reveal a molecular mechanism for a severe human X-chromosome-linked mental retardation. ..
  42. Wang Y, Wang J, Sun H, Martinez M, Sun Y, Macia E, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate regulates targeting of clathrin adaptor AP-1 complexes to the Golgi. Cell. 2003;114:299-310 pubmed
    ..We propose that PI4KIIalpha establishes the Golgi's unique lipid-defined organelle identity by generating PI(4)P-rich domains that specify the docking of the AP-1 coat machinery. ..
  43. Wasiak S, Legendre Guillemin V, Puertollano R, Blondeau F, Girard M, de Heuvel E, et al. Enthoprotin: a novel clathrin-associated protein identified through subcellular proteomics. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:855-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for enthoprotin in clathrin-mediated budding on internal membranes. Our study reveals the utility of proteomics in the identification of novel vesicle trafficking proteins...
  44. Erdtmann L, Janvier K, Raposo G, Craig H, Benaroch P, Berlioz Torrent C, et al. Two independent regions of HIV-1 Nef are required for connection with the endocytic pathway through binding to the mu 1 chain of AP1 complex. Traffic. 2000;1:871-83 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the recruitment by Nef of AP1 via binding to mu 1 participates in the connection of Nef with the endocytic pathway. ..
  45. Ohno H, Tomemori T, Nakatsu F, Okazaki Y, Aguilar R, Foelsch H, et al. Mu1B, a novel adaptor medium chain expressed in polarized epithelial cells. FEBS Lett. 1999;449:215-20 pubmed
    ..Yeast two-hybrid analyses show that mu1B is capable of interacting with generic tyrosine-based sorting signals. These observations suggest that mu1B may be involved in protein sorting events specific to polarized cells. ..
  46. Abrami L, Bischofberger M, Kunz B, Groux R, van der Goot F. Endocytosis of the anthrax toxin is mediated by clathrin, actin and unconventional adaptors. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000792 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocytic pathways are highly modular systems. Here we identify some of the key players that allow efficient heptamerization of PA and subsequent ubiquitin-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the anthrax toxin. ..
  47. Traub L, Apodaca G. AP-1B: polarized sorting at the endosome. Nat Cell Biol. 2003;5:1045-7 pubmed
  48. Daboussi L, Costaguta G, Payne G. Phosphoinositide-mediated clathrin adaptor progression at the trans-Golgi network. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Gga2p binds directly to the TGN PtdIns(4)-kinase Pik1p and contributes to Pik1p recruitment. These results identify a PtdIns(4)P-based mechanism for regulating progressive assembly of adaptor-specific clathrin coats at the TGN. ..
  49. Doray B, Lee I, Knisely J, Bu G, Kornfeld S. The gamma/sigma1 and alpha/sigma2 hemicomplexes of clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2 harbor the dileucine recognition site. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1887-96 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insights into the trafficking mechanisms of D/EXXXL[LI]-mediated sorting signals. ..
  50. Theos A, Tenza D, Martina J, Hurbain I, Peden A, Sviderskaya E, et al. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5356-72 pubmed
  51. Hinners I, Tooze S. Changing directions: clathrin-mediated transport between the Golgi and endosomes. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:763-71 pubmed
    ..Recent data have shed light on the locations, functions and interactions of AP-1 and GGA proteins. These data provide support for the role of both in anterograde transport from the Golgi complex. ..
  52. Ghosh P, Kornfeld S. AP-1 binding to sorting signals and release from clathrin-coated vesicles is regulated by phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:699-708 pubmed
    ..A model is proposed where cyclical phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the subunits of AP-1 regulate its function from membrane recruitment until its release into cytosol...
  53. Santini F, Marks M, Keen J. Endocytic clathrin-coated pit formation is independent of receptor internalization signal levels. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1177-94 pubmed
    ..Rather, the findings support a model in which coated pit formation proceeds through recruitment and activation of AP2, likely through a limited number of regulated docking sites that act independently of endocytic signals...