coatomer protein


Summary: A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.

Top Publications

  1. Jayaram S, Senti K, Tiklová K, Tsarouhas V, Hemphälä J, Samakovlis C. COPI vesicle transport is a common requirement for tube expansion in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1964 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the programmed deposition and growth of distinct luminal molds may provide distending forces during tube expansion in diverse organs. ..
  2. Tunnacliffe A, van de Vrugt H, Pensotti V, Radice P. The coatomer protein delta-COP, encoded by the archain gene, is conserved across diverse eukaryotes. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:784-6 pubmed
  3. Duden R, Griffiths G, Frank R, Argos P, Kreis T. Beta-COP, a 110 kd protein associated with non-clathrin-coated vesicles and the Golgi complex, shows homology to beta-adaptin. Cell. 1991;64:649-65 pubmed
    ..These coated vesicles accumulate in rat liver Golgi fractions treated with GTP gamma S and strongly label for beta-COP. Our data suggest that beta-COP is a component of a coat associated with vesicles and cisternae of the Golgi complex. ..
  4. Shtutman M, Baig M, Levina E, Hurteau G, Lim C, Broude E, et al. Tumor-specific silencing of COPZ2 gene encoding coatomer protein complex subunit ? 2 renders tumor cells dependent on its paralogous gene COPZ1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Function-based genomic screening identified the coatomer protein complex ?1 (COPZ1) gene as essential for different tumor cell types but not for normal cells...
  5. Lee C, Goldberg J. Structure of coatomer cage proteins and the relationship among COPI, COPII, and clathrin vesicle coats. Cell. 2010;142:123-32 pubmed publisher
  6. Duden R, Hosobuchi M, Hamamoto S, Winey M, Byers B, Schekman R. Yeast beta- and beta'-coat proteins (COP). Two coatomer subunits essential for endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi protein traffic. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:24486-95 pubmed
    ..Genetic interactions connect sec27-1 and sec21-1 (coatomer gamma subunit) with the ARF1 and ARF2 genes and with the SEC22, BET1, and BOS1 genes, which encode membrane proteins involved in ER-to-Golgi transport. ..
  7. O Kelly I, Butler M, Zilberberg N, Goldstein S. Forward transport. 14-3-3 binding overcomes retention in endoplasmic reticulum by dibasic signals. Cell. 2002;111:577-88 pubmed
    ..Other retained proteins are demonstrated to carry functional 14-3-3beta release motifs. ..
  8. Reinhard C, Harter C, Bremser M, Brugger B, Sohn K, Helms J, et al. Receptor-induced polymerization of coatomer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1224-8 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose a mechanism by which the induced conformational change of coatomer results in its polymerization, and thus drives formation of the bud on the Golgi membrane during biogenesis of a COPI vesicle. ..
  9. Xu X, Kedlaya R, Higuchi H, Ikeda S, Justice M, Setaluri V, et al. Mutation in archain 1, a subunit of COPI coatomer complex, causes diluted coat color and Purkinje cell degeneration. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000956 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study documents for the first time the physiological consequences of the impairment of the ARCN1 function in the whole animal and demonstrates a direct association between ARCN1 and neurodegeneration. ..

More Information


  1. Harter C, Wieland F. A single binding site for dilysine retrieval motifs and p23 within the gamma subunit of coatomer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11649-54 pubmed
    ..We suggest that, under physiological conditions, interaction of coatomer with both endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motifs and the cytoplasmic domain of p23 is mediated by gamma-COP. ..
  2. Lowe M, Kreis T. In vivo assembly of coatomer, the COP-I coat precursor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:30725-30 pubmed
    ..These results describe for the first time in vivo assembly of a coat protein complex involved in membrane traffic and extend our knowledge of how coatomer is structured. ..
  3. Oprins A, Duden R, Kreis T, Geuze H, Slot J. Beta-COP localizes mainly to the cis-Golgi side in exocrine pancreas. J Cell Biol. 1993;121:49-59 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that beta-COP plays a role in membrane transport at the cis-side of the Golgi complex. ..
  4. Benichou S, Bomsel M, Bodeus M, Durand H, Doute M, Letourneur F, et al. Physical interaction of the HIV-1 Nef protein with beta-COP, a component of non-clathrin-coated vesicles essential for membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:30073-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that beta-COP might be one of the cellular mediators of Nef function in HIV-1-infected cells. ..
  5. Guo Q, Vasile E, Krieger M. Disruptions in Golgi structure and membrane traffic in a conditional lethal mammalian cell mutant are corrected by epsilon-COP. J Cell Biol. 1994;125:1213-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, along with biochemical and yeast genetics methods, mammalian somatic cell mutants can provide powerful tools for the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying intracellular membrane traffic. ..
  6. Dascher C, Balch W. Dominant inhibitory mutants of ARF1 block endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport and trigger disassembly of the Golgi apparatus. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1437-48 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in the context of the GDP and GTP-bound forms of ARF in controlling both membrane structure and vesicular traffic through the early secretory pathway. ..
  7. Stenbeck G, Harter C, Brecht A, Herrmann D, Lottspeich F, Orci L, et al. beta'-COP, a novel subunit of coatomer. EMBO J. 1993;12:2841-5 pubmed
    ..This subunit occurs in amounts stoichiometric to the established COPs both in the coatomer and in nonclathrin-coated vesicles and shows homology to the beta-subunits of trimeric G proteins. ..
  8. Eugster A, Frigerio G, Dale M, Duden R. COP I domains required for coatomer integrity, and novel interactions with ARF and ARF-GAP. EMBO J. 2000;19:3905-17 pubmed
    ..Glo3p also interacts with intact coatomer in vitro. ..
  9. Piguet V, Gu F, Foti M, Demaurex N, Gruenberg J, Carpentier J, et al. Nef-induced CD4 degradation: a diacidic-based motif in Nef functions as a lysosomal targeting signal through the binding of beta-COP in endosomes. Cell. 1999;97:63-73 pubmed
    ..A novel class of endosomal sorting motif, based on acidic residues, is thus revealed, and beta-COP is identified as its downstream partner. ..
  10. Goldberg J. Structural and functional analysis of the ARF1-ARFGAP complex reveals a role for coatomer in GTP hydrolysis. Cell. 1999;96:893-902 pubmed
    ..Thus, a tripartite complex controls the GTP hydrolysis reaction triggering disassembly of COPI vesicle coats. ..
  11. Helms J, Helms Brons D, Brugger B, Gkantiragas I, Eberle H, Nickel W, et al. A putative heterotrimeric G protein inhibits the fusion of COPI-coated vesicles. Segregation of heterotrimeric G proteins from COPI-coated vesicles. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:15203-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of the proteins that interact with the heterotrimeric G proteins in the Golgi-derived detergent-insoluble complex might help to reveal the regulation of protein secretion mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins...
  12. Presley J, Ward T, Pfeifer A, Siggia E, Phair R, Lippincott Schwartz J. Dissection of COPI and Arf1 dynamics in vivo and role in Golgi membrane transport. Nature. 2002;417:187-93 pubmed
    ..This role for Arf1/coatomer might provide a model for investigating the behaviour of other coat protein systems within cells. ..
  13. Styers M, O Connor A, Grabski R, Cormet Boyaka E, Sztul E. Depletion of beta-COP reveals a role for COP-I in compartmentalization of secretory compartments and in biosynthetic transport of caveolin-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C1485-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that COP-I is required for the compartmentalization of the ERGIC, Golgi, TGN, and recycling endosomes and that COP-I plays a novel role in the biosynthetic transport of Cav1. ..
  14. Sohn K, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, Bremser M, Lottspeich F, et al. A major transmembrane protein of Golgi-derived COPI-coated vesicles involved in coatomer binding. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:1239-48 pubmed
    ..From these data we conclude that p23 represents a Golgi-specific receptor for coatomer involved in the formation of COPI-coated vesicles...
  15. Liu J, Prunuske A, Fager A, Ullman K. The COPI complex functions in nuclear envelope breakdown and is recruited by the nucleoporin Nup153. Dev Cell. 2003;5:487-98 pubmed
    ..These results provide insight into how key steps in nuclear division are orchestrated. ..
  16. Duden R, Kajikawa L, Wuestehube L, Schekman R. epsilon-COP is a structural component of coatomer that functions to stabilize alpha-COP. EMBO J. 1998;17:985-95 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that a function of epsilon-COP is to stabilize alpha-COP and the coatomer complex. ..
  17. Guo Q, Penman M, Trigatti B, Krieger M. A single point mutation in epsilon-COP results in temperature-sensitive, lethal defects in membrane transport in a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11191-6 pubmed
    ..ldlF cells should be useful for the future analysis of the structure and function of epsilon-COP, the assembly of COPs into coatomers, and the participation of coatomers in intracellular membrane transport. ..
  18. Andag U, Neumann T, Schmitt H. The coatomer-interacting protein Dsl1p is required for Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum retrieval in yeast. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39150-60 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that Dsl1p is a peripheral membrane protein, which in vitro specifically binds to coatomer, the major component of the protein coat of COPI vesicles. ..
  19. Janvier K, Craig H, Le Gall S, Benarous R, Guatelli J, Schwartz O, et al. Nef-induced CD4 downregulation: a diacidic sequence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef does not function as a protein sorting motif through direct binding to beta-COP. J Virol. 2001;75:3971-6 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are thus required to characterize the residues of Nef involved in the binding to beta-COP and to evaluate the contribution of this interaction to the Nef-induced perturbations of membrane trafficking. ..
  20. Michelsen K, Schmid V, Metz J, Heusser K, Liebel U, Schwede T, et al. Novel cargo-binding site in the beta and delta subunits of coatomer. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:209-17 pubmed
    ..A homology model of the COPI trunk domain illustrates the recognition of R-based signals by COPI. ..
  21. Sun Z, Anderl F, Fröhlich K, Zhao L, Hanke S, Brugger B, et al. Multiple and stepwise interactions between coatomer and ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (Arf1)-GTP. Traffic. 2007;8:582-93 pubmed
    ..These interactions are located within the core, adaptor-like domain of coatomer, indicating an organizational similarity between the COP I coat and clathrin adaptor complexes. ..
  22. Majoul I, Straub M, Hell S, Duden R, Söling H. KDEL-cargo regulates interactions between proteins involved in COPI vesicle traffic: measurements in living cells using FRET. Dev Cell. 2001;1:139-53 pubmed
    ..Both p24a and p23 interact with ARF1, but only p24 interacts with ARFGAP. These findings suggest a model for how cargo-induced oligomerization of ERD2 regulates its sorting into COPI-coated buds. ..
  23. Wegmann D, Hess P, Baier C, Wieland F, Reinhard C. Novel isotypic gamma/zeta subunits reveal three coatomer complexes in mammals. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1070-80 pubmed
    ..This existence of three structurally different forms of coatomer will need to be considered in future models of COPI-mediated transport. ..
  24. Cosson P, Démollière C, Hennecke S, Duden R, Letourneur F. Delta- and zeta-COP, two coatomer subunits homologous to clathrin-associated proteins, are involved in ER retrieval. EMBO J. 1996;15:1792-8 pubmed
    ..Both proteins show significant homology to clathrin adaptor subunits. These results emphasize the role of coatomer in retrieval of dilysine-tagged proteins back to the ER, and the similarity between clathrin and coatomer coats. ..
  25. Aridor M, Bannykh S, Rowe T, Balch W. Sequential coupling between COPII and COPI vesicle coats in endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:875-93 pubmed
    ..We propose that sequential coupling between COPII and COPI coats is essential to coordinate and direct bi-directional vesicular traffic between the ER and pre-Golgi intermediates involved in transport of protein to the Golgi complex...
  26. Llorente A, Lauvrak S, van Deurs B, Sandvig K. Induction of direct endosome to endoplasmic reticulum transport in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (LdlF) with a temperature-sensitive defect in epsilon-coatomer protein (epsilon-COP). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35850-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that in ldlF cells depleted of epsilon-COP ricin might be transported to the ER by an induced brefeldin A-resistant pathway that circumvents the Golgi apparatus. ..
  27. Hoffman G, Rahl P, Collins R, Cerione R. Conserved structural motifs in intracellular trafficking pathways: structure of the gammaCOP appendage domain. Mol Cell. 2003;12:615-25 pubmed
  28. Pepperkok R, Whitney J, Gomez M, Kreis T. COPI vesicles accumulating in the presence of a GTP restricted arf1 mutant are depleted of anterograde and retrograde cargo. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 1):135-44 pubmed
  29. Zhao L, Helms J, Brunner J, Wieland F. GTP-dependent binding of ADP-ribosylation factor to coatomer in close proximity to the binding site for dilysine retrieval motifs and p23. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14198-203 pubmed
  30. Hara Kuge S, Kuge O, Orci L, Amherdt M, Ravazzola M, Wieland F, et al. En bloc incorporation of coatomer subunits during the assembly of COP-coated vesicles. J Cell Biol. 1994;124:883-92 pubmed
    ..Radiolabeled coatomer was employed to establish that all the subunits of the coatomer enter coated vesicles as an intact unit. ..
  31. Matsuura Tokita K, Takeuchi M, Ichihara A, Mikuriya K, Nakano A. Live imaging of yeast Golgi cisternal maturation. Nature. 2006;441:1007-10 pubmed
  32. Fiedler K, Veit M, Stamnes M, Rothman J. Bimodal interaction of coatomer with the p24 family of putative cargo receptors. Science. 1996;273:1396-9 pubmed
    ..The either-or bimodal binding of coatomer to p24 tails suggests models for how coatomer can potentially package retrograde-directed and anterograde-directed cargo into distinct COPI-coated vesicles...
  33. Chen J, Lacomis L, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Stamnes M. Cytosol-derived proteins are sufficient for Arp2/3 recruitment and ARF/coatomer-dependent actin polymerization on Golgi membranes. FEBS Lett. 2004;566:281-6 pubmed
    ..These results show that activated ARF1 can stimulate Arp2/3 recruitment to Golgi membranes through coatomer, Cdc42 or Rac, and N-WASP...
  34. Eugster A, Frigerio G, Dale M, Duden R. The alpha- and beta'-COP WD40 domains mediate cargo-selective interactions with distinct di-lysine motifs. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:1011-23 pubmed
  35. Yu W, Lin J, Jin C, Xia B. Solution structure of human zeta-COP: direct evidences for structural similarity between COP I and clathrin-adaptor coats. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide direct evidence supporting the previous proposal that the COP I F-subcomplex and adaptor protein complexes have similar tertiary and quaternary structures. ..
  36. Faini M, Prinz S, Beck R, Schorb M, Riches J, Bacia K, et al. The structures of COPI-coated vesicles reveal alternate coatomer conformations and interactions. Science. 2012;336:1451-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a fundamentally different basis for vesicle coat assembly. ..
  37. Hosobuchi M, Kreis T, Schekman R. SEC21 is a gene required for ER to Golgi protein transport that encodes a subunit of a yeast coatomer. Nature. 1992;360:603-5 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate that a non-clathrin coat protein plays an essential role in intercompartmental transport. ..
  38. Chow V, Quek H. HEP-COP, a novel human gene whose product is highly homologous to the alpha-subunit of the yeast coatomer protein complex. Gene. 1996;169:223-7 pubmed
    ..Considering the close similarities between HEP-COP and yeast alpha-COP, and the ubiquitous expression of HEP-COP implying an essential cellular role, it is likely that HEP-COP is the human homologue of alpha-COP. ..
  39. Zhao L, Helms J, Brugger B, Harter C, Martoglio B, Graf R, et al. Direct and GTP-dependent interaction of ADP ribosylation factor 1 with coatomer subunit beta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4418-23 pubmed
    ..These data implicate a bivalent interaction of the complex with the donor membrane during vesicle formation. ..
  40. Orci L, Stamnes M, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, Perrelet A, Sollner T, et al. Bidirectional transport by distinct populations of COPI-coated vesicles. Cell. 1997;90:335-49 pubmed
  41. Lay D, Gorgas K, Just W. Peroxisome biogenesis: where Arf and coatomer might be involved. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1678-87 pubmed
  42. Moelleken J, Malsam J, Betts M, Movafeghi A, Reckmann I, Meissner I, et al. Differential localization of coatomer complex isoforms within the Golgi apparatus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4425-30 pubmed
    ..These differences suggest distinct functions for coatomer isoforms in a manner similar to clathrin/adaptor vesicles, where different adaptor proteins serve particular transport routes. ..
  43. Dominguez M, Dejgaard K, Fullekrug J, Dahan S, Fazel A, Paccaud J, et al. gp25L/emp24/p24 protein family members of the cis-Golgi network bind both COP I and II coatomer. J Cell Biol. 1998;140:751-65 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, upon expression of mutated members, steady-state distribution of unmutated ones shifted as well, presumably as a consequence of their observed oligomeric properties. ..
  44. Faulstich D, Auerbach S, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Wegchingel S, Lottspeich F, et al. Architecture of coatomer: molecular characterization of delta-COP and protein interactions within the complex. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:53-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that these interactions reflect in vivo associations of those subunits and thus play a functional role in the assembly of coatomer and/or serve to maintain the molecular architecture of the complex. ..
  45. Harter C, Pavel J, Coccia F, Draken E, Wegehingel S, Tschochner H, et al. Nonclathrin coat protein gamma, a subunit of coatomer, binds to the cytoplasmic dilysine motif of membrane proteins of the early secretory pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1902-6 pubmed
  46. Gerich B, Orci L, Tschochner H, Lottspeich F, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, et al. Non-clathrin-coat protein alpha is a conserved subunit of coatomer and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3229-33 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the DNA-derived primary structure with peptides from bovine alpha-COP shows a striking homology. alpha-COP is localized to coated transport vesicles and coated buds of Golgi membranes derived from CHO cells. ..
  47. Stamnes M, Craighead M, Hoe M, Lampen N, Geromanos S, Tempst P, et al. An integral membrane component of coatomer-coated transport vesicles defines a family of proteins involved in budding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8011-5 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate a role for this protein family in the budding of coatamer-coated and other species of coated vesicles...
  48. Csukai M, Chen C, De Matteis M, Mochly Rosen D. The coatomer protein beta'-COP, a selective binding protein (RACK) for protein kinase Cepsilon. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:29200-6 pubmed
    ..we have used the PKCepsilon V1 region to clone a PKCepsilon-selective RACK, which was identified as the COPI coatomer protein, beta'-COP...
  49. Béthune J, Kol M, Hoffmann J, Reckmann I, Brugger B, Wieland F. Coatomer, the coat protein of COPI transport vesicles, discriminates endoplasmic reticulum residents from p24 proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8011-21 pubmed
    ..In contrast, ER-resident cargos bind to coatomer as monomers and to sites other than gamma-COP. The COPI coat therefore discriminates between p24 proteins and ER-resident proteins by differential binding involving distinct subunits. ..
  50. Lee S, Yang J, Hong W, Premont R, Hsu V. ARFGAP1 plays a central role in coupling COPI cargo sorting with vesicle formation. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:281-90 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that GAP plays a central role in coupling cargo sorting and vesicle formation, with implications for simplifying models to describe how these two processes are coupled during COPI transport. ..
  51. Letourneur F, Gaynor E, Hennecke S, Démollière C, Duden R, Emr S, et al. Coatomer is essential for retrieval of dilysine-tagged proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. Cell. 1994;79:1199-207 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that coatomer plays an essential role in retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport and retrieval of dilysine-tagged proteins back to the ER. ..
  52. Aniento F, Gu F, Parton R, Gruenberg J. An endosomal beta COP is involved in the pH-dependent formation of transport vesicles destined for late endosomes. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:29-41 pubmed
  53. Schekman R, Orci L. Coat proteins and vesicle budding. Science. 1996;271:1526-33 pubmed
    ..Secretion, which has been viewed as a default pathway, may require sorting and packaging signals on transported molecules to ensure their rapid delivery to the cell surface...