clathrin

Summary

Summary: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.

Top Publications

  1. Eissenberg J, Ilvarsonn A, Sly W, Waheed A, Krzyzanek V, Pohlmann R, et al. Drosophila GGA model: an ultimate gateway to GGA analysis. Traffic. 2011;12:1821-38 pubmed publisher
    ..ear-containing, ADP ribosylation factor-binding (GGA) proteins are monomeric adaptors implicated in clathrin-mediated vesicular transport between the trans Golgi network and endosomes, characterized mainly from cell ..
  2. Yao L, Rao Y, Bang C, Kurilova S, Varga K, Wang C, et al. Actin polymerization does not provide direct mechanical forces for vesicle fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. J Neurosci. 2013;33:15793-8 pubmed publisher
    Actin polymerization is important for vesicle fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), and it has been proposed that actin polymerization may promote vesicle fission during CME by providing direct mechanical forces...
  3. Ramanan V, Agrawal N, Liu J, Engles S, Toy R, Radhakrishnan R. Systems biology and physical biology of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Integr Biol (Camb). 2011;3:803-15 pubmed publisher
    ..experimental data and modeling of intracellular endocytic trafficking mechanisms with a focus on the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis...
  4. Moravec R, Conger K, D Souza R, Allison A, Casanova J. BRAG2/GEP100/IQSec1 interacts with clathrin and regulates ?5?1 integrin endocytosis through activation of ADP ribosylation factor 5 (Arf5). J Biol Chem. 2012;287:31138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that BRAG2 binds clathrin and the AP-2 adaptor complex and that both BRAG2 and Arf5 localize to clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane...
  5. Maldonado Baez L, Cole N, KRAMER H, Donaldson J. Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:233-47 pubmed publisher
    Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE)...
  6. Núñez D, Antonescu C, Mettlen M, Liu A, Schmid S, Loerke D, et al. Hotspots organize clathrin-mediated endocytosis by efficient recruitment and retention of nucleating resources. Traffic. 2011;12:1868-78 pubmed publisher
    The formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane has been reported to sometimes occur repeatedly at predefined sites...
  7. Chen X, Irani N, Friml J. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: the gateway into plant cells. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The major endocytic mechanism in plants depends on the coat protein clathrin. It starts by clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane, where specific cargoes are recognized and ..
  8. Stradalova V, Blažíková M, Grossmann G, Opekarova M, Tanner W, Malinsky J. Distribution of cortical endoplasmic reticulum determines positioning of endocytic events in yeast plasma membrane. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35132 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is initiated outside the cortical ER-covered plasma membrane zones...
  9. Adung a V, Gadelha C, Field M. Proteomic analysis of clathrin interactions in trypanosomes reveals dynamic evolution of endocytosis. Traffic. 2013;14:440-57 pubmed publisher
    ..endocytic modes are recognized, but for many unicellular organisms the process is likely dominated by the ancient clathrin-mediated pathway...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Umasankar P, Sanker S, Thieman J, Chakraborty S, Wendland B, Tsang M, et al. Distinct and separable activities of the endocytic clathrin-coat components Fcho1/2 and AP-2 in developmental patterning. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:488-501 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis occurs at multiple independent import sites on the plasma membrane, but how these positions are selected and how different cargo is simultaneously recognized is obscure...
  2. Carvajal Gonzalez J, Gravotta D, Mattera R, Diaz F, Perez Bay A, Román A, et al. Basolateral sorting of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor through interaction of a canonical YXXPhi motif with the clathrin adaptors AP-1A and AP-1B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3820-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Sorting motifs of this type are known to route surface receptors into clathrin-mediated endocytosis through interaction with the medium subunit (?2) of the clathrin adaptor AP-2, but how they ..
  3. Gregory A, Hale P, Perlmutter D, Houghton A. Clathrin pit-mediated endocytosis of neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G by cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that NE enters into early endosomal antigen-1(+) endosomes in a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent but flotillin-1- and caveolin-1-independent fashion...
  4. Wang Y, Yang Y, Liu X, Wang N, Cao H, Lu Y, et al. Inhibition of clathrin/dynamin-dependent internalization interferes with LPS-mediated TRAM-TRIF-dependent signaling pathway. Cell Immunol. 2012;274:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for LPS, in regulation of these two pathways, three internalization inhibitors, monodansylcadaverine (MDC, a clathrin inhibitor), dynasore (DS, a dynamin inhibitor) and chloroquine (CQ, an endosome acidifying maturation inhibitor) ..
  5. Suzuki R, Toshima J, Toshima J. Regulation of clathrin coat assembly by Eps15 homology domain-mediated interactions during endocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:687-700 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis involves a coordinated series of molecular events regulated by interactions among a variety of proteins and lipids through specific domains...
  6. Smith C, Chircop M. Clathrin-mediated endocytic proteins are involved in regulating mitotic progression and completion. Traffic. 2012;13:1628-41 pubmed publisher
    A few proteins required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) are associated with successful completion of mitosis at distinct mitotic stages...
  7. Jaiseng W, Fang Y, Ma Y, Sugiura R, Kuno T. Studies on the roles of clathrin-mediated membrane trafficking and zinc transporter Cis4 in the transport of GPI-anchored proteins in fission yeast. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41946 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that GPI-anchored proteins are transported through a clathrin-mediated post-Golgi membrane trafficking pathway and that zinc transporter Cis4 may play roles in membrane ..
  8. Li R, Liu P, Wan Y, Chen T, Wang Q, Mettbach U, et al. A membrane microdomain-associated protein, Arabidopsis Flot1, is involved in a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway and is required for seedling development. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2105-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytic processes are well established in yeast and animals; however, endocytic ..
  9. Stoneham C, Hollinshead M, Hajitou A. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and subsequent endo-lysosomal trafficking of adeno-associated virus/phage. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35849-59 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi and dominant negative mutants, we have demonstrated that targeted AAVP endocytosis is both dynamin and clathrin-dependent...
  10. Skruzny M, Brach T, Ciuffa R, Rybina S, Wachsmuth M, Kaksonen M. Molecular basis for coupling the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2533-42 pubmed
    Dynamic actin filaments are a crucial component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis when endocytic proteins cannot supply enough energy for vesicle budding...
  11. Di Rubbo S, Irani N, Kim S, Xu Z, Gadeyne A, Dejonghe W, et al. The clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 mediates endocytosis of brassinosteroid insensitive1 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2986-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates many aspects of plant development, including hormone signaling and responses to environmental stresses...
  12. Lee J, Kim D, Kim D, Simborio H, Min W, Lee H, et al. Interplay between clathrin and Rab5 controls the early phagocytic trafficking and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus within HeLa cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:28049-57 pubmed publisher
    Lipid raft-associated clathrin is essential for host-pathogen interactions during infection...
  13. Zhu Y, Xu Q, Wu D, Ren H, Zhao P, Lao W, et al. Japanese encephalitis virus enters rat neuroblastoma cells via a pH-dependent, dynamin and caveola-mediated endocytosis pathway. J Virol. 2012;86:13407-22 pubmed publisher
    ..not affected by chlorpromazine, overexpression of a dominant-negative form of EPS 15 protein, or silencing of the clathrin heavy chain by small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  14. Ivanovic T, Boulant S, Ehrlich M, Demidenko A, Arnold M, Kirchhausen T, et al. Recruitment of cellular clathrin to viral factories and disruption of clathrin-dependent trafficking. Traffic. 2011;12:1179-95 pubmed publisher
    ..this report, we show that µNS contains a conserved C-proximal sequence (711-LIDFS-715) that is similar to known clathrin-box motifs and is required for recruitment of clathrin to viral factories...
  15. Sorrentino V, Nelson J, Maspero E, Marques A, Scheer L, Polo S, et al. The LXR-IDOL axis defines a clathrin-, caveolae-, and dynamin-independent endocytic route for LDLR internalization and lysosomal degradation. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:2174-84 pubmed publisher
    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is taken up into cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the LDL receptor (LDLR)...
  16. den Otter W, Briels W. The generation of curved clathrin coats from flat plaques. Traffic. 2011;12:1407-16 pubmed publisher
    Flat clathrin lattices or 'plaques' are commonly believed to be the precursors to clathrin-coated buds and vesicles...
  17. Cheeseman L, Harry E, McAinsh A, Prior I, Royle S. Specific removal of TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin at metaphase deregulates kinetochore fiber tension. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:2102-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have used 'knocksideways' to rapidly (?5 minutes) and specifically remove TACC3-ch-TOG-clathrin non-motor complexes from kinetochore fibers (K-fibers)...
  18. Chen D, Jian Y, Liu X, Zhang Y, Liang J, Qi X, et al. Clathrin and AP2 are required for phagocytic receptor-mediated apoptotic cell clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003517 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin and the multi-subunit adaptor protein complex AP2 are central players in clathrin-mediated endocytosis by which the cell selectively internalizes surface materials...
  19. Cheng J, Grassart A, Drubin D. Myosin 1E coordinates actin assembly and cargo trafficking during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2891-904 pubmed publisher
    Myosin 1E (Myo1E) is recruited to sites of clathrin-mediated endocytosis coincident with a burst of actin assembly. The recruitment dynamics and lifetime of Myo1E are similar to those of tagged actin polymerization regulatory proteins...
  20. Cao H, Krueger E, McNiven M. Hepatocytes internalize trophic receptors at large endocytic "Hot Spots". Hepatology. 2011;54:1819-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian epithelial cells is believed to require the synergistic action of structural coat proteins and mechanochemical enzymes to deform and sever the plasma membrane (PM) into discreet vesicles...
  21. Gravotta D, Carvajal Gonzalez J, Mattera R, Deborde S, Banfelder J, Bonifacino J, et al. The clathrin adaptor AP-1A mediates basolateral polarity. Dev Cell. 2012;22:811-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin and the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B mediate basolateral trafficking in epithelia...
  22. Congdon E, Gu J, Sait H, Sigurdsson E. Antibody uptake into neurons occurs primarily via clathrin-dependent Fc? receptor endocytosis and is a prerequisite for acute tau protein clearance. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, clathrin-specific inhibitors reduced uptake in neurons (? 78%, p < 0.0001) and slices (? 35%, p = 0...
  23. Wee Y, Roundy K, Weis J, Weis J. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins of the innate immune response act as membrane organizers by influencing clathrin and v-ATPase localization and function. Innate Immun. 2012;18:834-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of cells lacking these proteins (IfitmDel) with IFN-? resulted in the loss of clathrin from membrane compartments and the inhibition of clathrin-mediated phagocytosis, suggesting a molecular ..
  24. Sidiropoulos P, Miehe M, Bock T, Tinelli E, Oertli C, Kuner R, et al. Dynamin 2 mutations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy highlight the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in myelination. Brain. 2012;135:1395-411 pubmed publisher
    ..nervous system expressing dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy mutants showed defects in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We demonstrate that, as a consequence, protein surface levels are altered in Schwann cells...
  25. Milosevic I, Giovedi S, Lou X, Raimondi A, Collesi C, Shen H, et al. Recruitment of endophilin to clathrin-coated pit necks is required for efficient vesicle uncoating after fission. Neuron. 2011;72:587-601 pubmed publisher
    Endophilin is a membrane-binding protein with curvature-generating and -sensing properties that participates in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes...
  26. Song K, Jang M, Kim S, Lee G, Lee G, Kim D, et al. An A/ENTH domain-containing protein functions as an adaptor for clathrin-coated vesicles on the growing cell plate in Arabidopsis root cells. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:1013-25 pubmed publisher
    ..amino-terminal homology domain-containing protein from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation from the cell plate...
  27. von Kleist L, Stahlschmidt W, Bulut H, Gromova K, Puchkov D, Robertson M, et al. Role of the clathrin terminal domain in regulating coated pit dynamics revealed by small molecule inhibition. Cell. 2011;146:471-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates many cell physiological processes such as the internalization of growth factors and receptors, entry of pathogens, and synaptic transmission...
  28. Cheng C, Shih W, Huang W, Chi P, Wu M, Liu H. Bovine ephemeral fever virus uses a clathrin-mediated and dynamin 2-dependent endocytosis pathway that requires Rab5 and Rab7 as well as microtubules. J Virol. 2012;86:13653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, colocalization of the M protein of BEFV with clathrin or dynamin 2 was observed under a fluorescence microscope...
  29. Gadeyne A, S nchez Rodr guez C, Vanneste S, Di Rubbo S, Zauber H, Vanneste K, et al. The TPLATE adaptor complex drives clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plants. Cell. 2014;156:691-704 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism for eukaryotic plasma membrane-based proteome turn-over...
  30. Shevchuk A, Novak P, Taylor M, Diakonov I, Ziyadeh Isleem A, Bitoun M, et al. An alternative mechanism of clathrin-coated pit closure revealed by ion conductance microscopy. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:499-508 pubmed publisher
    Current knowledge of the structural changes taking place during clathrin-mediated endocytosis is largely based on electron microscopy images of fixed preparations and x-ray crystallography data of purified proteins...
  31. Kleine Vehn J, Wabnik K, Martinière A, Łangowski Ł, Willig K, Naramoto S, et al. Recycling, clustering, and endocytosis jointly maintain PIN auxin carrier polarity at the plasma membrane. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:540 pubmed publisher
    ..At the circumventing edges of the polar domain, spatially defined internalization of escaped cargos occurs by clathrin-dependent endocytosis...
  32. Foraker A, Camus S, Evans T, Majeed S, Chen C, Taner S, et al. Clathrin promotes centrosome integrity in early mitosis through stabilization of centrosomal ch-TOG. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:591-605 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin depletion by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) impairs mitotic spindle stability and cytokinesis...
  33. Hirst J, Barlow L, Francisco G, Sahlender D, Seaman M, Dacks J, et al. The fifth adaptor protein complex. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001170 pubmed publisher
    ..Tagged AP-5 localises to a late endosomal compartment in HeLa cells. AP-5 does not associate with clathrin and is insensitive to brefeldin A...
  34. Gautier J, Lomakina M, Bouslama Oueghlani L, Derivery E, Beilinson H, Faigle W, et al. Clathrin is required for Scar/Wave-mediated lamellipodium formation. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3414-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This screen identified Clathrin heavy chain (CHC) as a protein that binds to the SWC and whose depletion affects lamellipodium formation...
  35. Ritter B, Murphy S, Dokainish H, Girard M, Gudheti M, Kozlov G, et al. NECAP 1 regulates AP-2 interactions to control vesicle size, number, and cargo during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001670 pubmed publisher
    AP-2 is the core-organizing element in clathrin-mediated endocytosis...
  36. Korhonen J, Puolakkainen M, Haveri A, Tammiruusu A, Sarvas M, Lahesmaa R. Chlamydia pneumoniae entry into epithelial cells by clathrin-independent endocytosis. Microb Pathog. 2012;52:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA interference was used to assay the role of clathrin and human scavenger receptor B, type I (SR-BI) in the entry of C...
  37. Abdel Shakor A, Atia M, Kwiatkowska K, Sobota A. Cell surface ceramide controls translocation of transferrin receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Cell Signal. 2012;24:677-84 pubmed publisher
    Transferrin receptor mediates internalization of transferrin with bound ferric ions through the clathrin-dependent pathway...
  38. Kural C, Tacheva Grigorova S, Boulant S, Cocucci E, Baust T, Duarte D, et al. Dynamics of intracellular clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-containing carriers. Cell Rep. 2012;2:1111-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin/AP1- and clathrin/AP3-coated vesicular carriers originate from endosomes and the trans-Golgi network...
  39. Yang S, He M, Liu X, Li X, Fan B, Zhao S. Japanese encephalitis virus infects porcine kidney epithelial PK15 cells via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis. Virol J. 2013;10:258 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that the knockdown of clathrin by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced JEV-infected cells and JEV E-glycoprotein levels, ..
  40. Jenkins P, Vasavda C, Hostettler J, Davis J, Abdi K, Bennett V. E-cadherin polarity is determined by a multifunction motif mediating lateral membrane retention through ankyrin-G and apical-lateral transcytosis through clathrin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14018-31 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction with ankyrin-G, whereas dileucine residues conferring apical-lateral transcytosis act through a clathrin-dependent process and function in an editing pathway...
  41. El Sayed A, Harashima H. Endocytosis of gene delivery vectors: from clathrin-dependent to lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Mol Ther. 2013;21:1118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers the well-recognized clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), phagocytosis, and macropinocytosis in addition to the less addressed pathways that ..
  42. Fu W, Jiang Q, Zhang C. Novel functions of endocytic player clathrin in mitosis. Cell Res. 2011;21:1655-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin has been widely recognized as a pivotal player in endocytosis, in which several adaptors and accessory proteins are involved. Recent studies suggested that clathrin is also essential for cell division...
  43. Grassart A, Cheng A, Hong S, Zhang F, Zenzer N, Feng Y, et al. Actin and dynamin2 dynamics and interplay during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:721-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves the recruitment of numerous proteins to sites on the plasma membrane with prescribed timing to mediate specific stages of the process...
  44. Sahlender D, Kozik P, Miller S, Peden A, Robinson M. Uncoupling the functions of CALM in VAMP sorting and clathrin-coated pit formation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64514 pubmed publisher
    CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia protein) is a cargo-selective adaptor for the post-Golgi R-SNAREs VAMPs 2, 3, and 8, and it also regulates the size of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles at the plasma membrane...
  45. Ybe J, Fontaine S, Stone T, Nix J, Lin X, Mishra S. Nuclear localization of clathrin involves a labile helix outside the trimerization domain. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:142-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Clathrin is a trimeric protein involved in receptor-mediated-endocytosis, but can function as a non-trimer outside of endocytosis...
  46. Nagawa S, Xu T, Lin D, Dhonukshe P, Zhang X, Friml J, et al. ROP GTPase-dependent actin microfilaments promote PIN1 polarization by localized inhibition of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001299 pubmed publisher
  47. Lemmon S, Traub L. Getting in touch with the clathrin terminal domain. Traffic. 2012;13:511-9 pubmed publisher
    The N-terminal domain (TD) of the clathrin heavy chain is folded into a seven-bladed ?-propeller that projects inward from the polyhedral outer clathrin coat...
  48. Macro L, Jaiswal J, Simon S. Dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and its requirement for organelle biogenesis in Dictyostelium. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:5721-32 pubmed publisher
    The protein clathrin mediates one of the major pathways of endocytosis from the extracellular milieu and plasma membrane...
  49. Henry A, Hislop J, Grove J, THORN K, Marsh M, von Zastrow M. Regulation of endocytic clathrin dynamics by cargo ubiquitination. Dev Cell. 2012;23:519-32 pubmed publisher
    Some endocytic cargoes control clathrin-coated pit (CCP) maturation, but it is not known how such regulation is communicated. We found that ?-opioid neuropeptide receptors signal to their enclosing CCPs by ubiquitination...
  50. Huang H, Chen C, Chang W, Tao M, Huang C. Entry of hepatitis B virus into immortalized human primary hepatocytes by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. J Virol. 2012;86:9443-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The pre-S1 domain of the large HBsAg (LHBsAg) protein specifically interacted with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and clathrin adaptor protein AP-2...
  51. Montagnac G, Meas Yedid V, Irondelle M, Castro Castro A, Franco M, Shida T, et al. ?TAT1 catalyses microtubule acetylation at clathrin-coated pits. Nature. 2013;502:567-70 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mechanisms restricting acetylation to these microtubules are unknown. Here we report that clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) control microtubule acetylation through a direct interaction of the ?-tubulin ..
  52. Dannhauser P, Ungewickell E. Reconstitution of clathrin-coated bud and vesicle formation with minimal components. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:634-9 pubmed publisher
    During the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis an essentially planar area of membrane has to undergo a gross deformation to form a spherical bud...
  53. Sak M, Breen K, Rønning S, Pedersen N, Bertelsen V, Stang E, et al. The oncoprotein ErbB3 is endocytosed in the absence of added ligand in a clathrin-dependent manner. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:1031-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ErbB3 is endocytosed in the absence of added ligand, independently of its tyrosine phosphorylation state and in a clathrin-dependent manner...