caveolin 2


Summary: Caveolin 2 is a binding partner of CAVEOLIN 1. It undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by C-SRC PROTEIN PP60 and plays a regulatory role in CAVEOLAE formation.

Top Publications

  1. Hnasko R, Lisanti M. The biology of caveolae: lessons from caveolin knockout mice and implications for human disease. Mol Interv. 2003;3:445-64 pubmed
  2. Webley W, Norkin L, Stuart E. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4:23 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, this second caveolin protein can now be added to the small number of host proteins that are associated with the inclusions of this obligate intracellular pathogen. ..
  3. Razani B, Wang X, Engelman J, Battista M, Lagaud G, Zhang X, et al. Caveolin-2-deficient mice show evidence of severe pulmonary dysfunction without disruption of caveolae. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2329-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data show for the first time a specific role for caveolin-2 in mammalian physiology independent of caveolin-1. ..
  4. Berta A, Kiss A, Kemeny Beke A, Lukats A, Szabó A, Szel A. Different caveolin isoforms in the retina of melanoma malignum affected human eye. Mol Vis. 2007;13:881-6 pubmed
    ..Since the retina contains a number of different neuronal and glial cell types, the caveolin expression of these cells can no longer be a matter of dispute. ..
  5. Lahtinen U, Honsho M, Parton R, Simons K, Verkade P. Involvement of caveolin-2 in caveolar biogenesis in MDCK cells. FEBS Lett. 2003;538:85-8 pubmed
    ..Correspondingly, in MDCK cells over-expressing caveolin-2 the basolateral membrane exhibited an increased number of caveolae. These results indicate the involvement of caveolin-2 in caveolar biogenesis. ..
  6. Lee H, Park D, Wang X, Scherer P, Schwartz P, Lisanti M. Src-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-2 on tyrosine 19. Phospho-caveolin-2 (Tyr(P)19) is localized near focal adhesions, remains associated with lipid rafts/caveolae, but no longer forms a high molecular mass hetero-oligomer with caveolin-1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:34556-67 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that caveolin-2 and Ras-GAP are constitutively associated in c-Src expressing NIH-3T3 cells, but not in untransfected NIH-3T3 cells. ..
  7. Van den Eynden G, Van Laere S, Van der Auwera I, Merajver S, Van Marck E, Van Dam P, et al. Overexpression of caveolin-1 and -2 in cell lines and in human samples of inflammatory breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;95:219-28 pubmed
    ..These results confirm the distinct molecular signature of IBC. Our data further suggest interaction between RhoC GTPase and the caveolins in IBC. ..
  8. Turi A, Kiss A, Mullner N. Estrogen downregulates the number of caveolae and the level of caveolin in uterine smooth muscle. Cell Biol Int. 2001;25:785-94 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the formation and number of caveolae are influenced by the physiological state of the uterus in a hormone dependent manner. ..
  9. Thorleifsson G, Walters G, Hewitt A, Masson G, Helgason A, Dewan A, et al. Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma. Nat Genet. 2010;42:906-9 pubmed publisher
    ..42, P = 0.0021). The risk variant identified here is located close to CAV1 and CAV2, both of which are expressed in the trabecular meshwork and retinal ganglion cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of POAG. ..

More Information


  1. Xie L, Vo Ransdell C, Abel B, Willoughby C, Jang S, Sowa G. Caveolin-2 is a negative regulator of anti-proliferative function and signaling of transforming growth factor-? in endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C1161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the negative regulation of TGF-? signaling and function by Cav-2 is independent of Cav-1 expression levels and is not because of changing targeting of Cav-1 protein to plasma membrane lipid raft/caveolar domains. ..
  2. Wiggs J, Kang J, Yaspan B, Mirel D, Laurie C, Crenshaw A, et al. Common variants near CAV1 and CAV2 are associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in Caucasians from the USA. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4707-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present data suggesting that associations with several CAV1/CAV2 SNPs are significant mostly in women. ..
  3. Savage K, Leung S, Todd S, Brown L, Jones R, Robertson D, et al. Distribution and significance of caveolin 2 expression in normal breast and invasive breast cancer: an immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;110:245-56 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to define the distribution of caveolin 2 (CAV2) in frozen and formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal breast samples and the significance of CAV2 expression in breast cancer...
  4. Shmuel M, Nodel Berner E, Hyman T, Rouvinski A, Altschuler Y. Caveolin 2 regulates endocytosis and trafficking of the M1 muscarinic receptor in MDCK epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1570-85 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that caveolins play a role in the attenuation of the M1 muscarinic receptor's intracellular trafficking to and from the PM. ..
  5. Elsheikh S, Green A, Rakha E, Samaka R, Ammar A, Powe D, et al. Caveolin 1 and Caveolin 2 are associated with breast cancer basal-like and triple-negative immunophenotype. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:327-34 pubmed publisher
    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) and caveolin 2 (CAV2) are the principal structural proteins of caveolae, sphingolipid and cholesterol-rich invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction...
  6. Lee S, Kwon H, Jeong K, Pak Y. Regulation of cancer cell proliferation by caveolin-2 down-regulation and re-expression. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:1395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that cav-2 acts as a modulator of cancer progression. ..
  7. Manetti M, Allanore Y, Saad M, Fatini C, Cohignac V, Guiducci S, et al. Evidence for caveolin-1 as a new susceptibility gene regulating tissue fibrosis in systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71:1034-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results add CAV1 to the list of SSc susceptibility genes and provide further evidence for the contribution of this pathway in the fibrotic process that characterises SSc pathogenesis. ..
  8. Galbiati F, Volonte D, Gil O, Zanazzi G, Salzer J, Sargiacomo M, et al. Expression of caveolin-1 and -2 in differentiating PC12 cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons: caveolin-2 is up-regulated in response to cell injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10257-62 pubmed
    ..Robust expression of caveolin-1 and -2 is also observed along the entire cell surface of DRG neurons, including high levels on growth cones. These findings demonstrate that neuronal cells express caveolins. ..
  9. Mora R, Bonilha V, Marmorstein A, Scherer P, Brown D, Lisanti M, et al. Caveolin-2 localizes to the golgi complex but redistributes to plasma membrane, caveolae, and rafts when co-expressed with caveolin-1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25708-17 pubmed
  10. Das K, Lewis R, Scherer P, Lisanti M. The membrane-spanning domains of caveolins-1 and -2 mediate the formation of caveolin hetero-oligomers. Implications for the assembly of caveolae membranes in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:18721-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that these unusual membrane-spanning regions found in the caveolin family play a specific role in protein-protein interactions. ..
  11. Engelman J, Zhang X, Lisanti M. Genes encoding human caveolin-1 and -2 are co-localized to the D7S522 locus (7q31.1), a known fragile site (FRA7G) that is frequently deleted in human cancers. FEBS Lett. 1998;436:403-10 pubmed
    ..Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 1381-1385; Engelman, J.A. et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 16374-16381), we propose that the caveolin-1 gene may represent the candidate tumor suppressor gene at the D7S522 locus on human chromosome 7q31.1. ..
  12. Scherer P, Lewis R, Volonte D, Engelman J, Galbiati F, Couet J, et al. Cell-type and tissue-specific expression of caveolin-2. Caveolins 1 and 2 co-localize and form a stable hetero-oligomeric complex in vivo. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:29337-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that expression levels of caveolins 1, 2, and 3 can be independently up-regulated or down-regulated in response to a variety of distinct cellular cues. ..
  13. Rimoldi V, Reversi A, Taverna E, Rosa P, Francolini M, Cassoni P, et al. Oxytocin receptor elicits different EGFR/MAPK activation patterns depending on its localization in caveolin-1 enriched domains. Oncogene. 2003;22:6054-60 pubmed
  14. Breuza L, Corby S, Arsanto J, Delgrossi M, Scheiffele P, Le Bivic A. The scaffolding domain of caveolin 2 is responsible for its Golgi localization in Caco-2 cells. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4457-67 pubmed
    ..derived from human colon cancer that does not express caveolin 1 (Cav-1), there was no detectable expression of caveolin 2 (Cav-2). When Cav-2 was reintroduced in these cells, it accumulated in the Golgi complex...
  15. Shatseva T, Lee D, Deng Z, Yang B. MicroRNA miR-199a-3p regulates cell proliferation and survival by targeting caveolin-2. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2826-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MiR-199a-3p targeting of caveolin-2 might have an important role in breast cancer tumor progression, making it a potential candidate for intervention in cancer. ..
  16. Kim H, Lee T, Lee J, Ahn M, Moon C, Wie M, et al. Immunohistochemical study of caveolin-1 and -2 in the rat retina. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:101-4 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of caveolin differential expression in the retina of rats, and suggests that caveolin plays an important role in signal transduction in glial cells and neuronal cells. ..
  17. Fisher E, Schreiber S, Joost H, Boeing H, Döring F. A two-step association study identifies CAV2 rs2270188 single nucleotide polymorphism interaction with fat intake in type 2 diabetes risk. J Nutr. 2011;141:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in dietary SFA from 10 to 20 % energy predicted an ~200% greater risk of type 2 diabetes. We found preliminary evidence that CAV2 rs2270188 interacts with dietary fat to affect risk of type 2 diabetes. ..
  18. Shin T, Kim H, Jin J, Moon C, Ahn M, Tanuma N, et al. Expression of caveolin-1, -2, and -3 in the spinal cords of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;165:11-20 pubmed
    ..Taking all the findings into consideration, we postulate that the expression levels of each caveolin begin to increase when EAE is initiated, possibly contributing to the modulation of signal transduction pathways in the affected cells. ..
  19. Engelman J, Zhang X, Lisanti M. Sequence and detailed organization of the human caveolin-1 and -2 genes located near the D7S522 locus (7q31.1). Methylation of a CpG island in the 5' promoter region of the caveolin-1 gene in human breast cancer cell lines. FEBS Lett. 1999;448:221-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our current studies provide a systematic basis for diagnostically evaluating the potential deletion, mutation, or methylation of the caveolin genes in a variety of human tumors. ..
  20. Gould M, Williams G, Nicholson H. Changes in caveolae, caveolin, and polymerase 1 and transcript release factor (PTRF) expression in prostate cancer progression. Prostate. 2010;70:1609-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that changes in the cell membrane involving loss of caveolae and PTRF expression occur with the development of prostate cancer. These changes are accompanied by an up-regulation of caveolin-2. ..
  21. Kuehn M, Wang K, Roos B, Stone E, Kwon Y, Alward W, et al. Chromosome 7q31 POAG locus: ocular expression of caveolins and lack of association with POAG in a US cohort. Mol Vis. 2011;17:430-5 pubmed
    ..We were unable to detect this association in our patients from Iowa, suggesting that this risk factor may not have a strong effect in all populations. ..
  22. Ando T, Ishiguro H, Kimura M, Mitsui A, Mori Y, Sugito N, et al. The overexpression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 correlates with a poor prognosis and tumor progression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:601-9 pubmed
    ..0105 and 0.0424 for CAV1 and CAV2, respectively). These results suggest that positive staining for CAV1 and CAV2 could be a potentially useful prognostic marker of ESCC. ..
  23. Chan Y, Cardwell M, Hermanas T, Uchiyama T, Martinez J. Rickettsial outer-membrane protein B (rOmpB) mediates bacterial invasion through Ku70 in an actin, c-Cbl, clathrin and caveolin 2-dependent manner. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:629-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results illustrate that rOmpB is sufficient to mediate Ku70-dependent invasion of mammalian cells and that clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytic events likely contribute to the internalization process...
  24. Razani B, Schlegel A, Liu J, Lisanti M. Caveolin-1, a putative tumour suppressor gene. Biochem Soc Trans. 2001;29:494-9 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the functional roles of the caveolin gene family and summarize the evidence that supports a role for caveolae as mediators of a number of cellular signalling processes, including apoptosis. ..
  25. de Almeida C, Witkiewicz A, Jasmin J, Tanowitz H, Sotgia F, Frank P, et al. Caveolin-2-deficient mice show increased sensitivity to endotoxemia. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:2151-61 pubmed
  26. Fong A, Garcia E, Gwynn L, Lisanti M, Fazzari M, Li M. Expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder correlates with tumor grade and squamous differentiation. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;120:93-100 pubmed
  27. Han S, Park K, Lee G, Huh Y, Min B. Mutation and aberrant expression of Caveolin-1 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas and oral cancer cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2004;24:435-40 pubmed
    ..These results provide genetic evidence showing that the inactivation of Caveolin-1 by a mutation or by reduced expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. ..
  28. Marchesan D, Rutberg M, Andersson L, Asp L, Larsson T, Boren J, et al. A phospholipase D-dependent process forms lipid droplets containing caveolin, adipocyte differentiation-related protein, and vimentin in a cell-free system. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:27293-300 pubmed
    ..The activator could be replaced by a constitutively active PLD or phosphatidic acid. These results indicate that PLD and the formation of phosphatidic acid are important in the assembly of the TG-containing structures. ..
  29. Yang T, He L, Chen M, Fang K, Colecraft H. Bio-inspired voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2540 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reveal a universal method for developing novel calcium channel blockers that may be extended to develop probes for a broad cohort of unrelated ion channels. ..
  30. Cha S, Jung N, Kim B, Kim H, Kwak J. Evidence for cyclooxygenase-1 association with caveolin-1 and -2 in cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. IUBMB Life. 2004;56:221-7 pubmed
    ..Co-localization of caveolins with cylooxygenase-1 in caveolae suggested that caveolin would play an important role in regulating the function of COX-1. ..
  31. Kiss A, Botos E, Turi A, Müllner N. Ocadaic acid treatment causes tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-2 and induces internalization of caveolae in rat peritoneal macrophages. Micron. 2004;35:707-15 pubmed
    ..As a result of OA treatment caveolin-2 remains phosphorylated and the phosphorylation of these protein might inhibit the recycling of caveolae. ..
  32. Zschocke J, Bayatti N, Behl C. Caveolin and GLT-1 gene expression is reciprocally regulated in primary astrocytes: association of GLT-1 with non-caveolar lipid rafts. Glia. 2005;49:275-87 pubmed
    ..We also provide strong evidence that GLT-1 itself is concentrated in lipid rafts, inferring an important role for glial glutamate transporter function. ..
  33. Wang X, Lee H, Capozza F, Marmon S, Sotgia F, Brooks J, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-2 at residue 27: differences in the spatial and temporal behavior of phospho-Cav-2 (pY19 and pY27). Biochemistry. 2004;43:13694-706 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that, in addition to the common characteristics that these two sites appear to share, phospho-Cav-2 (pY19) and phospho-Cav-2 (pY27) may each possess a set of unique functional roles. ..
  34. Aldred M, Ginn Pease M, Morrison C, Popkie A, Gimm O, Hoang Vu C, et al. Caveolin-1 and caveolin-2,together with three bone morphogenetic protein-related genes, may encode novel tumor suppressors down-regulated in sporadic follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2864-71 pubmed
    ..PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas did not show significant down-regulation, and thus, caveolin-1 may become a useful molecular marker to differentiate the various histologies of thyroid malignancies. ..
  35. Darvas M, Fadok J, Palmiter R. Requirement of dopamine signaling in the amygdala and striatum for learning and maintenance of a conditioned avoidance response. Learn Mem. 2011;18:136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that learning 2WAA requires DA signaling in both the amygdala and the entire striatum; however, after sufficient training, DA signaling in the striatum alone can maintain the learned avoidance behavior. ..
  36. Salgado H, Tecuapetla F, Perez Rosello T, Pérez Burgos A, Pérez Garci E, Galarraga E, et al. A reconfiguration of CaV2 Ca2+ channel current and its dopaminergic D2 modulation in developing neostriatal neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:3771-87 pubmed
    ..2 type channels were used for release in young animals but very little in mature animals, suggesting that changes took place simultaneously at the somatodendritic and the synaptic membranes. ..
  37. Abel B, Willoughby C, Jang S, Cooper L, Xie L, Vo Ransdell C, et al. N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-2 negates anti-proliferative effect of transforming growth factor beta in endothelial cells. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:3317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav-2 counteracts anti-proliferative effect of TGF-beta in endothelial cells. ..
  38. Achcar R, Demura Y, Rai P, Taraseviciene Stewart L, Kasper M, Voelkel N, et al. Loss of caveolin and heme oxygenase expression in severe pulmonary hypertension. Chest. 2006;129:696-705 pubmed
    ..Caveolin 1 is down-regulated in transformed cells and may be a tumor suppressor protein. Caveolin 2 is coexpressed and hetero-oligomerizes with caveolin 1...
  39. Taggart M, Leavis P, Feron O, Morgan K. Inhibition of PKCalpha and rhoA translocation in differentiated smooth muscle by a caveolin scaffolding domain peptide. Exp Cell Res. 2000;258:72-81 pubmed
  40. Yoshikawa M, Nakanishi H, Yamashiro K, Miyake M, Akagi T, Gotoh N, et al. Association of Glaucoma-Susceptible Genes to Regional Circumpapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Visual Field Defects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:2510-2519 pubmed publisher
    ..Our regional association analyses on cpRNFLT allow detailed characterization of glaucoma-related genes and should be a new target for genomic studies for glaucoma endophenotypes. ..
  41. Gómez Ruiz A, De Miguel C, Campion J, Martinez J, Milagro F. Time-dependent regulation of muscle caveolin activation and insulin signalling in response to high-fat diet. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3259-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Late chronic phase signalling through both proteins was impaired inducing a prediabetic state. Summarizing, caveolins seem to mediate a time-dependent regulation of insulin cascade in response to high-fat diet in muscle. ..
  42. Hoeke L, Sharbati J, Pawar K, Keller A, Einspanier R, Sharbati S. Intestinal Salmonella typhimurium infection leads to miR-29a induced caveolin 2 regulation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67300 pubmed publisher
    ..Particular attention was given to miR-29a, which was involved in most interactions including Caveolin 2. RT-qPCR experiments verified up-regulation of miR-29a after infection while its predicted target Caveolin 2 was ..
  43. Silva W, Maldonado H, Lisanti M, Devellis J, Chompré G, Mayol N, et al. Identification of caveolae and caveolin in C6 glioma cells. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1999;17:705-14 pubmed
    ..In addition, they demonstrate that cultured C6 glioma cells can be useful as a model system to study the role of CAV and caveolins in subcellular transport and signal transduction events in glial cells and the brain. ..
  44. Cho W, Chow A, Schulz R, Daniel E. Matrix metalloproteinase-2, caveolins, focal adhesion kinase and c-Kit in cells of the mouse myocardium. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:1069-86 pubmed
    ..Also, MMP-2 is closely associated with FAK at FB and c-Kit at ICLC. Thus, Cav-1 expression is not necessary for Cav-2 expression. Cav-3 or Cav-3 with Cav-2 has the capability to make Cav. ..
  45. Fernandez I, Ying Y, Albanesi J, Anderson R. Mechanism of caveolin filament assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11193-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that the heptameric subunit forms in part through lateral interactions between the alpha-helices of the seven Cav(1-101) units. Caveolin-1, therefore, appears to be the structural molecule of the caveolae filamentous coat. ..
  46. Galbiati F, Volonte D, Engelman J, Watanabe G, Burk R, Pestell R, et al. Targeted downregulation of caveolin-1 is sufficient to drive cell transformation and hyperactivate the p42/44 MAP kinase cascade. EMBO J. 1998;17:6633-48 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that upregulation of caveolin-1 may be important in mediating contact inhibition and negatively regulating the activation state of the p42/44 MAP kinase cascade. ..
  47. Nomura R, Fujimoto T. Tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1: immunolocalization and molecular characterization. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:975-86 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that phosphorylation of caveolin-1 in v-Src-expressing cells occurs at multiple residues and induces flattening, aggregation, and fusion of caveolae and/or caveolae-derived vesicles. ..
  48. Carrillo E, Escobar Y, Gonzalez G, Hernández A, Galindo J, Garcia M, et al. Posttranscriptional regulation of the ?2-subunit of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels by MicroRNAs during long-term exposure to isoproterenol in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;58:470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of long-term ?-adrenergic administration on the expression levels of the cardiac L-type Ca channel ?2 subunit, which regulates channel trafficking and function, were characterized in adult rats...
  49. Schubert W, Sotgia F, Cohen A, Capozza F, Bonuccelli G, Bruno C, et al. Caveolin-1(-/-)- and caveolin-2(-/-)-deficient mice both display numerous skeletal muscle abnormalities, with tubular aggregate formation. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:316-33 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this hypothesis, skeletal muscle isolated from male Cav-3(-/-) mice did not show any of these abnormalities. As such, this is the first study linking stem cells with the genesis of these intriguing muscle defects. ..
  50. van Helmond Z, Miners J, Bednall E, Chalmers K, Zhang Y, Wilcock G, et al. Caveolin-1 and -2 and their relationship to cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2007;33:317-27 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that alterations in the expression of vascular CAV-1 and CAV-2 are unlikely to play a role in the development of CAA in AD. ..
  51. Cho W, Daniel E. Colocalization between caveolin isoforms in the intestinal smooth muscle and interstitial cells of Cajal of the Cav1(+/+) and Cav1 (-/-) mouse. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:9-16 pubmed
    ..To conclude, cav1 is necessary for the expression of cav2 in SMC and ICC of intestine and facilitates, but is not necessary for the expression of cav3. ..
  52. Ma X, Liu L, Nie W, Li Y, Zhang B, Zhang J, et al. Prognostic role of caveolin in breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Breast. 2013;22:462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that negative expression of stromal Cav-1 was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer, while the detection of Cav-1 and Cav-2 in tumor epithelial cells was not. ..
  53. Rybin V, Grabham P, Elouardighi H, Steinberg S. Caveolae-associated proteins in cardiomyocytes: caveolin-2 expression and interactions with caveolin-3. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H325-32 pubmed