Summary: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.

Top Publications

  1. THOMAS C, Smart E. Caveolae structure and function. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:796-809 pubmed publisher
    ..This brief review will discuss a few of the key features of caveolae as it relates to signalling and disease processes. ..
  2. Pelkmans L, Zerial M. Kinase-regulated quantal assemblies and kiss-and-run recycling of caveolae. Nature. 2005;436:128-33 pubmed
    ..Our observations reveal new principles in caveolae trafficking and suggest that the dynamic properties of caveolae and their transport competence are regulated by different kinases operating at several levels. ..
  3. Pelkmans L, Bürli T, Zerial M, Helenius A. Caveolin-stabilized membrane domains as multifunctional transport and sorting devices in endocytic membrane traffic. Cell. 2004;118:767-80 pubmed
  4. Gonzalez E, Nagiel A, Lin A, Golan D, Michel T. Small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of caveolin-1 differentially modulates signaling pathways in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:40659-69 pubmed
  5. Glebov O, Bright N, Nichols B. Flotillin-1 defines a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:46-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that flotillin-1 is one determinant of a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. ..
  6. Williams T, Hassan G, Li J, Cohen A, Medina F, Frank P, et al. Caveolin-1 promotes tumor progression in an autochthonous mouse model of prostate cancer: genetic ablation of Cav-1 delays advanced prostate tumor development in tramp mice. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25134-45 pubmed
    ..Our current findings provide the first in vivo molecular genetic evidence that Cav-1 does indeed function as a tumor promoter during prostate carcinogenesis, rather than as a tumor suppressor. ..
  7. Kwak J, Kim H, Song J, Kim M, Park H, Hyun D, et al. Evidence for rat organic anion transporter 3 association with caveolin-1 in rat kidney. IUBMB Life. 2005;57:109-17 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that rOAT3 and caveolin-1 share a cellular expression in the plasma membrane and Cav-1 up-regulates the organic anionic compound uptake via rOAT3 under normal physiological conditions. ..
  8. Ratajczak P, Oliviero P, Marotte F, Kolar F, Ostadal B, Samuel J. Expression and localization of caveolins during postnatal development in rat heart: implication of thyroid hormone. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:244-51 pubmed
    b>Caveolins modulate signaling pathways involved in cardiac development...
  9. Simard J, Meshulam T, Pillai B, Kirber M, Brunaldi K, Xu S, et al. Caveolins sequester FA on the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, augment triglyceride formation, and protect cells from lipotoxicity. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To further discriminate the effect that caveolins have on transmembrane FA movement and distribution, we labeled the outer membrane leaflet with fluorescein-..

More Information


  1. Panneerselvam M, Patel H, Roth D. Caveolins and heart diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;729:145-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Caveolins serve as a platform in plasma membrane associated caveolae to orchestrate various signaling molecules to effectively communicate extracellular signals into the interior of cell...
  2. Hommelgaard A, Roepstorff K, Vilhardt F, Torgersen M, Sandvig K, van Deurs B. Caveolae: stable membrane domains with a potential for internalization. Traffic. 2005;6:720-4 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose that future studies dealing with internalization of caveolae should actually document such internalization and include kinetic data. ..
  3. Kirkham M, Nixon S, Howes M, Abi Rached L, Wakeham D, Hanzal Bayer M, et al. Evolutionary analysis and molecular dissection of caveola biogenesis. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2075-86 pubmed publisher
    Caveolae are an abundant feature of mammalian cells. Integral membrane proteins called caveolins drive the formation of caveolae but the precise mechanisms underlying caveola formation, and the origin of caveolae and caveolins during ..
  4. Chambaut Guérin A, Pairault J. Tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced adipose-related protein (TIARP): co-localization with caveolin-1. Biol Cell. 2005;97:339-47 pubmed
    ..Since TIARP is compartmentalized with caveolin-1 within caveolae domains, we suggest this protein to be part of a signalling complex in association with caveolin-1 and regulatory proteins. ..
  5. Silva W, Maldonado H, Velazquez G, García J, Gonzalez F. Caveolins in glial cell model systems: from detection to significance. J Neurochem. 2007;103 Suppl 1:101-12 pubmed
    ..Outstanding in this work emerge the ubiquitous expression of caveolins, including the typically regarded 'muscle-specific' cav3, in diverse glial cell model systems, their ..
  6. Blouin C, Le Lay S, Lasnier F, Dugail I, Hajduch E. Regulated association of caveolins to lipid droplets during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;376:331-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Caveolins, structural protein coats of caveolae primarily involved in membrane-related functions, have also been found associated to lipid droplets (LD), specialized organelles for fat storage...
  7. Kittel A, Kiss A, Müllner N, Matkó I, Sperlagh B. Expression of NTPDase1 and caveolins in human cardiovascular disease. Histochem Cell Biol. 2005;124:51-9 pubmed
    ..NTPDase1/CD39 can interact with caveolins, structural proteins of signal-transducing microdomains termed caveolae...
  8. Lin P, Williams W, Kobiljski J, Numata M. Caveolins bind to (Na+, K+)/H+ exchanger NHE7 by a novel binding module. Cell Signal. 2007;19:978-88 pubmed
    ..Here we show that caveolins directly bind to the C-terminal extension of NHE7 by an unconventional binding-module...
  9. Robinson P, Etheridge S, Song L, Armenise P, Jones O, Fitzgerald E. Formation of N-type (Cav2.2) voltage-gated calcium channel membrane microdomains: Lipid raft association and clustering. Cell Calcium. 2010;48:183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, formation of clusters supporting "hotspots" of Ca(v) activity requires aggregation of macromolecular complexes containing raft components, stabilised by interactions with the cytoskeleton. ..
  10. Koneru S, Penumathsa S, Thirunavukkarasu M, Samuel S, Zhan L, Han Z, et al. Redox regulation of ischemic preconditioning is mediated by the differential activation of caveolins and their association with eNOS and GLUT-4. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H2060-72 pubmed
  11. Hansen C, Nichols B. Exploring the caves: cavins, caveolins and caveolae. Trends Cell Biol. 2010;20:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Until recently, the only extensively characterised protein components of caveolae were the caveolins. Recently, data from several laboratories have demonstrated that a family of four related proteins, termed ..
  12. Richard J, Melikov K, Brooks H, Prevot P, Lebleu B, Chernomordik L. Cellular uptake of unconjugated TAT peptide involves clathrin-dependent endocytosis and heparan sulfate receptors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15300-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that unconjugated peptide might follow endocytic pathways different from those utilized by TAT peptide conjugated to different proteins. ..
  13. Vinten J, Johnsen A, Roepstorff P, Harpøth J, Tranum Jensen J. Identification of a major protein on the cytosolic face of caveolae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1717:34-40 pubmed
    ..The results show that in a large number of cell types, PTRF is essentially located to caveolae, and that each caveola harbors many copies of the protein. Consequently, we suggest the name Cavin for this protein. ..
  14. Feron O, Balligand J. Caveolins and the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:788-97 pubmed
    ..genetic deletion or overexpression of specific caveolin isoforms has provided key evidence for the importance of caveolins and caveolae in several aspects of the cardiovascular biology, including vascular contractility, lipid ..
  15. Pilch P, Souto R, Liu L, Jedrychowski M, Berg E, Costello C, et al. Cellular spelunking: exploring adipocyte caveolae. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2103-11 pubmed
  16. Maniatis N, Chernaya O, Shinin V, Minshall R. Caveolins and lung function. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;729:157-79 pubmed publisher
  17. Chidlow J, Sessa W. Caveolae, caveolins, and cavins: complex control of cellular signalling and inflammation. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The organization and functions of caveolae are mediated by coat proteins (caveolins) and support or adapter proteins (cavins)...
  18. Chun J, Hyun S, Kwon T, Lee E, Hong S, Kang S. The subcellular localization control of integrin linked kinase 1 through its protein-protein interaction with caveolin-1. Cell Signal. 2005;17:751-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data indicate that caveolin-1 regulates ILK1 auto-phosphorylation activity and its subcellular localization via a specific protein-protein interaction through blocking the exposure of its putative nls motif. ..
  19. Davies J, Scott C, Oishi K, Liapis A, Ioannou Y. Inactivation of NPC1L1 causes multiple lipid transport defects and protects against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12710-20 pubmed
  20. Ha H, Pak Y. Modulation of the caveolin-3 and Akt status in caveolae by insulin resistance in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Exp Mol Med. 2005;37:169-78 pubmed
  21. Stralfors P. Caveolins and caveolae, roles in insulin signalling and diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;729:111-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Lack of caveolae makes animals and human beings insulin resistant, but there is presently no evidence that caveolae play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. ..
  22. Karjalainen M, Kakkonen E, Upla P, Paloranta H, Kankaanpää P, Liberali P, et al. A Raft-derived, Pak1-regulated entry participates in alpha2beta1 integrin-dependent sorting to caveosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2857-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results together suggest that alpha2beta1 integrin clustering defines its own entry pathway that is Pak1 dependent but clathrin and caveolin independent and that is able to sort cargo to caveosomes. ..
  23. Damm E, Pelkmans L, Kartenbeck J, Mezzacasa A, Kurzchalia T, Helenius A. Clathrin- and caveolin-1-independent endocytosis: entry of simian virus 40 into cells devoid of caveolae. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:477-88 pubmed
    ..Our results revealed the existence of a virus-activated endocytic pathway from the plasma membrane to the ER that involves neither clathrin nor caveolae and that can be activated also in the presence of cav-1. ..
  24. Kirkham M, Fujita A, Chadda R, Nixon S, Kurzchalia T, Sharma D, et al. Ultrastructural identification of uncoated caveolin-independent early endocytic vehicles. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:465-76 pubmed
    ..These carriers contained GPI-anchored proteins and fluid phase markers and represented the major vehicles mediating CTB uptake in both WT and caveolae-null cells. ..
  25. Capozza F, Cohen A, Cheung M, Sotgia F, Schubert W, Battista M, et al. Muscle-specific interaction of caveolin isoforms: differential complex formation between caveolins in fibroblastic vs. muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C677-91 pubmed
    ..Thus we conclude that all three caveolins can interact to form a discrete hetero-oligomeric complex, but that such complex formation is clearly muscle ..
  26. Fox T, Houck K, O Neill S, Nagarajan M, Stover T, Pomianowski P, et al. Ceramide recruits and activates protein kinase C zeta (PKC zeta) within structured membrane microdomains. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12450-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that structured membrane microdomains are necessary for ceramide-induced activation of PKC zeta and resultant diminished Akt activity, leading to vascular smooth muscle cell growth arrest. ..
  27. Li X, Everson W, Smart E. Caveolae, lipid rafts, and vascular disease. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2005;15:92-6 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will focus on the role of caveolae in the cardiovascular system. ..
  28. Oshikawa J, Otsu K, Toya Y, Tsunematsu T, Hankins R, Kawabe J, et al. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscles of caveolin-3-null mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12670-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that Cav3 is an enhancer of insulin signaling in skeletal muscles but does not act as a scaffolding molecule for insulin receptors. ..
  29. Halayko A, Tran T, Gosens R. Phenotype and functional plasticity of airway smooth muscle: role of caveolae and caveolins. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2008;5:80-8 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes mechanisms regulating ASM cell phenotype plasticity, and the role of caveolae as determinants of the functional diversity of ASM cells of a particular phenotypic state. ..
  30. Frank P, Lisanti M. Caveolin-1 and caveolae in atherosclerosis: differential roles in fatty streak formation and neointimal hyperplasia. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004;15:523-9 pubmed
    ..Development of new drugs that regulate caveolin-1 expression may be important in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerotic vascular disease. ..
  31. Chun J, Kwon T, Lee E, Hyun S, Hong S, Kang S. The subcellular localization of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase is controlled by caveolin-1 binding. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;326:136-46 pubmed
  32. Gosens R, Mutawe M, Martin S, Basu S, Bos S, Tran T, et al. Caveolae and caveolins in the respiratory system. Curr Mol Med. 2008;8:741-53 pubmed
    ..They owe their characteristic Omega-shape to complexes of unique proteins, the caveolins, which indirectly tether cholesterol and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains to the cytoskeleton...
  33. Hong Y, Kim J, Lee J, Chae H, Jang S, Jeon J, et al. Agonist-induced internalization of mGluR1alpha is mediated by caveolin. J Neurochem. 2009;111:61-71 pubmed publisher
  34. Rossi S, Poliani P, Missale C, Monti E, Fanzani A. Caveolins in rhabdomyosarcoma. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:2553-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Caveolins are scaffolding proteins that play a pivotal role in numerous processes, including caveolae biogenesis, vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of signal transduction...
  35. Lajoie P, Nabi I. Lipid rafts, caveolae, and their endocytosis. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2010;282:135-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we will characterize lipid rafts and caveolae, their endocytosis and its regulation by the actin cytoskeleton, caveolin-1, dynamin, and cholesterol. ..
  36. Tagawa A, Mezzacasa A, Hayer A, Longatti A, Pelkmans L, Helenius A. Assembly and trafficking of caveolar domains in the cell: caveolae as stable, cargo-triggered, vesicular transporters. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:769-79 pubmed
    ..Finally, we identified the Golgi complex as the site where newly assembled caveolar domains appeared first. ..
  37. Kumari S, Mg S, Mayor S. Endocytosis unplugged: multiple ways to enter the cell. Cell Res. 2010;20:256-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide an account of various endocytic routes, their mechanisms of operation and occurrence across phyla. ..
  38. Lentini D, Guzzi F, Pimpinelli F, Zaninetti R, Cassetti A, Coco S, et al. Polarization of caveolins and caveolae during migration of immortalized neurons. J Neurochem. 2008;104:514-23 pubmed
    ..line of immortalized murine neurons (gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons; GN11), enriched with caveolins and caveolae invaginations that show in vitro chemotaxis upon serum exposure...
  39. Parton R, Simons K. The multiple faces of caveolae. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007;8:185-94 pubmed
  40. Head B, Insel P. Do caveolins regulate cells by actions outside of caveolae?. Trends Cell Biol. 2007;17:51-7 pubmed
    ..Recent work shows that caveolins can act independently of caveolae, both in cells that lack caveolae (e.g...
  41. Hardin C, Vallejo J. Caveolins in vascular smooth muscle: form organizing function. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:808-15 pubmed
    ..In this review, we discuss the emerging role of the caveolins in organizing and modulating the basic functions of smooth muscle: contraction, growth/proliferation, and the ..
  42. Valasek M, Weng J, Shaul P, Anderson R, Repa J. Caveolin-1 is not required for murine intestinal cholesterol transport. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28103-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CAV1 is not required for cholesterol absorption or ezetimibe sensitivity in the mouse...
  43. Cha S, Shin S, Jung S, Kim Y, Park Y, Kwak J, et al. Evidence for Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 association with caveolin-1 and -2 in C6 glioma cells. IUBMB Life. 2004;56:621-7 pubmed
    ..Considering the decrement of NCX1 activity by antisense ODNs, caveolins may play an important role in diverse of pathophysiological process of NCX1-related disorders in the body.
  44. Pol A, Martin S, Fernandez M, Ingelmo Torres M, Ferguson C, Enrich C, et al. Cholesterol and fatty acids regulate dynamic caveolin trafficking through the Golgi complex and between the cell surface and lipid bodies. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2091-105 pubmed
    b>Caveolins are a crucial component of plasma membrane (PM) caveolae but have also been localized to intracellular compartments, including the Golgi complex and lipid bodies...
  45. Ren X, Ostermeyer A, Ramcharan L, Zeng Y, Lublin D, Brown D. Conformational defects slow Golgi exit, block oligomerization, and reduce raft affinity of caveolin-1 mutant proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:4556-67 pubmed
    ..The conformation of caveolin-1 may be optimized to overcome this difficulty, but remain very sensitive to mutation. Disrupting conformation can coordinately affect oligomerization, raft affinity, and Golgi exit of caveolin-1. ..
  46. Patel H, Murray F, Insel P. Caveolae as organizers of pharmacologically relevant signal transduction molecules. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;48:359-91 pubmed
    ..b>Caveolins (-1, -2, and -3) have cytoplasmic N and C termini, palmitolylation sites, and a scaffolding domain that ..
  47. Yao Q, Chen J, Cao H, Orth J, McCaffery J, STAN R, et al. Caveolin-1 interacts directly with dynamin-2. J Mol Biol. 2005;348:491-501 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between dynamin and the caveolin coat, and demonstrate a selectivity of one Dyn2 form toward the caveolae-mediated endocytosis. ..
  48. Williams T, Lisanti M. Caveolin-1 in oncogenic transformation, cancer, and metastasis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C494-506 pubmed
    ..b>Caveolins are a class of oligomeric structural proteins that are both necessary and sufficient for caveolae formation...
  49. Capozza F, Combs T, Cohen A, Cho Y, Park S, Schubert W, et al. Caveolin-3 knockout mice show increased adiposity and whole body insulin resistance, with ligand-induced insulin receptor instability in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C1317-31 pubmed
    ..These findings may have clinical implications for the early diagnosis and treatment of caveolinopathies. ..
  50. Cohen A, Hnasko R, Schubert W, Lisanti M. Role of caveolae and caveolins in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2004;84:1341-79 pubmed
    ..That so many signaling molecules and signaling cascades are regulated by an interaction with the caveolins provides a paradigm by which numerous disease processes may be affected by ablation or mutation of these ..
  51. Jasmin J, Mercier I, Hnasko R, Cheung M, Tanowitz H, Dupuis J, et al. Lung remodeling and pulmonary hypertension after myocardial infarction: pathogenic role of reduced caveolin expression. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;63:747-55 pubmed
    ..Yet, the molecular mechanisms involved in CHF-induced PH and lung remodeling remain unknown. Caveolins (Cav-1, -2 and -3) are the principal structural proteins of the vesicular invaginations of the plasma membrane, ..
  52. Rust M, Lakadamyali M, Zhang F, Zhuang X. Assembly of endocytic machinery around individual influenza viruses during viral entry. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:567-73 pubmed
    ..CCP formation at these sites is much faster than elsewhere on the cell surface, suggesting a virus-induced CCP formation mechanism that may be commonly exploited by many other types of viruses...
  53. Massol R, Larsen J, Fujinaga Y, Lencer W, Kirchhausen T. Cholera toxin toxicity does not require functional Arf6- and dynamin-dependent endocytic pathways. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3631-41 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the existence of an additional retrograde pathway used by CT to reach the ER. ..