Summary: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.

Top Publications

  1. Shallcross L, Fragaszy E, Johnson A, Hayward A. The role of the Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin in staphylococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether PVL is pathogenic or an epidemiological marker is unclear. We investigate the role of PVL in disease, colonisation, and clinical outcome...
  2. Pérez Roth E, Alcoba Florez J, López Aguilar C, Gutiérrez González I, Rivero Pérez B, Mendez Alvarez S. Familial furunculosis associated with community-acquired leukocidin-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus ST152. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus ST152 isolates associated with severe clinical symptoms are herein described. Remarkably, ST152 isolates usually are methicillin resistant...
  3. Tong S, Lilliebridge R, Holt D, McDonald M, Currie B, Giffard P. High-resolution melting analysis of the spa locus reveals significant diversity within sequence type 93 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from northern Australia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:1126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (MSSA), and the coexistence of MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus versions of the same lineage within northern Australia. ..
  4. Breurec S, Fall C, Pouillot R, Boisier P, Brisse S, Diene Sarr F, et al. Epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus lineages in five major African towns: high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:633-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This overrepresentation of PVL in MSSA could lead to the emergence and spread of successful, highly virulent PVL-positive MRSA clones, a phenomenon that has already started in Africa. ..
  5. Carrillo Marquez M, Hulten K, Hammerman W, Lamberth L, Mason E, Kaplan S. Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in children in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistance at Texas Children's Hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:545-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral coinfection in 15% of the cases was associated with respiratory failure. Clindamycin is an effective treatment for susceptible-SA pneumonia; VATS was more common in patients with USA300 infections. ..
  6. Li M, Cheung G, Hu J, Wang D, Joo H, Deleo F, et al. Comparative analysis of virulence and toxin expression of global community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1866-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates a major but not exclusive impact of virulence on the epidemiological success of USA300 and other CA-MRSA strains and emphasizes the importance of core genome-encoded toxins in CA-MRSA skin infections...
  7. D Souza N, Rodrigues C, Mehta A. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The PVL gene-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains were ST 30 and were postulated to be related to the penicillin-resistant S. aureus phage type 80/81, notorious for its virulence in the 1950s. ..
  8. Gillet Y, Dumitrescu O, Tristan A, Dauwalder O, Javouhey E, Floret D, et al. Pragmatic management of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-associated staphylococcal diseases. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011;38:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we consider the potential need for specialised PVL-based management and, if required, which tools should be used to achieve optimal management. ..
  9. Peyrani P, Allen M, Wiemken T, Haque N, Zervos M, Ford K, et al. Severity of disease and clinical outcomes in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains not influenced by the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..99). In patients with HAP or VAP due to MRSA, severity of disease and clinical outcomes are not influenced by the presence of the PVL gene. Therapeutic strategies directed to block PVL exotoxin may not impact outcomes in these patients. ..

More Information


  1. Löffler B, Hussain M, Grundmeier M, Brück M, Holzinger D, Varga G, et al. Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin is a very potent cytotoxic factor for human neutrophils. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000715 pubmed publisher
  2. Tristan A, Benito Y, Montserret R, Boisset S, Dusserre E, Penin F, et al. The signal peptide of Staphylococcus aureus panton valentine leukocidin LukS component mediates increased adhesion to heparan sulfates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5042 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may provide a molecular bridge that enhances the attachment of the S. aureus PVL+ strains to ECM components exposed at damaged epithelial sites. ..
  3. Higuchi W, Hung W, Takano T, Iwao Y, Ozaki K, Isobe H, et al. Molecular characteristics of the Taiwanese multiple drug-resistant ST59 clone of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pediatric cellulitis. J Infect Chemother. 2010;16:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a variety of PVL-positive MRSA clones are accumulating in Japan...
  4. Wehrhahn M, Robinson J, Pearson J, O Brien F, Tan H, Coombs G, et al. Clinical and laboratory features of invasive community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection: a prospective case-control study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:1025-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Invasive "PVL-positive" S. aureus infection was associated with less morbidity but similar mortality to "PVL-negative" infection. ..
  5. Catena V, Baiocchi M, Lentini P, Badolati L, Baccarin M, Del Monte D, et al. Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Infez Med. 2012;20:205-10 pubmed
    ..Bactericidal antistaphylococcal antibiotics are recommended for the treatment as soon as possible to avoid the potentially devastating consequences of this kind of S. aureus. ..
  6. Noah M, Dawrant M, Faulkner G, Hill A, Harvey C, Hussain A, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin expressing Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: experience and outcome. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:2250-3 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus pneumonia with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. As a large extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center, we reviewed our experience and outcomes with Panton-Valentine Leukocidin expressing S. aureus pneumonia...
  7. Antri K, Rouzic N, Dauwalder O, Boubekri I, Bes M, Lina G, et al. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone ST80-IV in hospital and community settings in Algiers. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:526-32 pubmed publisher
    ..7% and 18.5%, respectively), but low (2.7%) among patients attending the outpatient clinic. The European PVL-positive C-MRSA clone ST80-IV is widespread in the Algiers hospital and community settings. ..
  8. Rouzic N, Janvier F, Libert N, Javouhey E, Lina G, Nizou J, et al. Prompt and successful toxin-targeting treatment of three patients with necrotizing pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1952-5 pubmed publisher
  9. Bekkhoucha S, Cady A, Gautier P, Itim F, Donnio P. A portrait of Staphylococcus aureus from the other side of the Mediterranean Sea: molecular characteristics of isolates from Western Algeria. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:553-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase of MRSA prevalence observed in Western Algeria, in outpatients as well as in hospitalized patients, is linked to dissemination of ST80 strains usually considered as community-acquired MRSA. ..
  10. Conceição T, Tavares A, Miragaia M, Hyde K, Aires de Sousa M, de Lencastre H. Prevalence and clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the Atlantic Azores islands: predominance of SCCmec types IV, V and VI. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:543-50 pubmed publisher
  11. Vorobieva V, Bazhukova T, Hanssen A, Caugant D, Semenova N, Haldorsen B, et al. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from the Arkhangelsk region, Russia: antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular epidemiology, and distribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. APMIS. 2008;116:877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus infections, and infection control measures to limit the spread of multiresistant MRSA and epidemic MSSA clones. ..
  12. Zivkovic A, Sharif O, Stich K, Doninger B, Biaggio M, Colinge J, et al. TLR 2 and CD14 mediate innate immunity and lung inflammation to staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin in vivo. J Immunol. 2011;186:1608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the proinflammatory properties of PVL and identify CD14/TLR2 as an essential receptor complex for PVL-induced lung inflammation. ..
  13. Aman M, Karauzum H, Bowden M, Nguyen T. Structural model of the pre-pore ring-like structure of Panton-Valentine leukocidin: providing dimensionality to biophysical and mutational data. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2010;28:1-12 pubmed
    ..Here, we report an all-atom model of the macromolecular structure of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in its octameric, pre-pore conformation that confirms and extends our understanding of the toxin's mechanism of action. ..
  14. Diep B, Chan L, Tattevin P, Kajikawa O, Martin T, Basuino L, et al. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes mediate Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin-induced lung inflammation and injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5587-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insights into the mechanism of PVL-induced lung injury and inflammation and demonstrate the utility of the rabbit for studying PVL-mediated pathogenesis. ..
  15. Masiuk H, Kopron K, Grumann D, Goerke C, Kolata J, Jursa Kulesza J, et al. Association of recurrent furunculosis with Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results make a case for the determination of luk-PV in recurrent soft tissue infections with methicillin-sensitive as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus...
  16. Schaumburg F, Ngoa U, Kösters K, Kock R, Adegnika A, Kremsner P, et al. Virulence factors and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus from infection and carriage in Gabon. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus isolates from asymptomatic carriers and infections. Of note, S. aureus isolates from Gabon show a very high prevalence of PVL-encoding genes, which exceeds the rates observed for developed countries. ..
  17. Damasco P, Chamon R, Barbosa A, da Cunha S, Aquino J, Cavalcante F, et al. Involvement of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus related to sequence type 25 and harboring pvl genes in a case of carotid cavernous fistula after community-associated sepsis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:196-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient's condition was complicated by pleural empyema and osteomyelitis in the right femur. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition after 160 days of hospitalization. ..
  18. Liu Y, Wang H, Du N, Shen E, Chen H, Niu J, et al. Molecular evidence for spread of two major methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones with a unique geographic distribution in Chinese hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:512-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene was 2.3%. The data documented two major epidemic MRSA clones, ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III and ST5-MRSA-SCCmec type II, with unique geographic distributions across China. ..
  19. Perez Vazquez M, Vindel A, Marcos C, Oteo J, Cuevas O, Trincado P, et al. Spread of invasive Spanish Staphylococcus aureus spa-type t067 associated with a high prevalence of the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene ant(4')-Ia and the efflux pump genes msrA/msrB. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;63:21-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The oxacillin, tobramycin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin resistance profile of spa-type t067 isolates was linked to the presence of ant(4')-Ia and msrA or msrB genes. ..
  20. Rasigade J, Sicot N, Laurent F, Lina G, Vandenesch F, Etienne J. A history of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-associated infection protects against death in PVL-associated pneumonia. Vaccine. 2011;29:4185-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a protective role of PVL-directed immunity in severe systemic PVL-associated disease, suggesting that anti-PVL vaccine could provide strong clinical benefits in this setting. ..
  21. Baranovich T, Zaraket H, Shabana I, Nevzorova V, Turcutyuicov V, Suzuki H. Molecular characterization and susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitals and the community in Vladivostok, Russia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the emergence of PVL-positive MSSA strains with enhanced virulence was observed, warranting continued surveillance. ..
  22. Bae I, Tonthat G, Stryjewski M, Rude T, Reilly L, Barriere S, et al. Presence of genes encoding the panton-valentine leukocidin exotoxin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: results of a multination. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3952-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This contemporary, international study demonstrates that pvl was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with MRSA cSSSI. ..
  23. Rabøl P, Dessau R, Warnecke M, Bjerglund L. [Fatal pneumonia with Panton Valentine leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2010;172:1190-1 pubmed
    ..Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus. ..
  24. Moodley A, Oosthuysen W, Duse A, Marais E. Molecular characterization of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4608-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Only one Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive isolate was detected. This is the first detailed MRSA epidemiology study for the whole country. ..
  25. Nguyen H, Rocha M, Chintalacharuvu K, Beenhouwer D. Detection and quantification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus cultures by ELISA and Western blotting: diethylpyrocarbonate inhibits binding of protein A to IgG. J Immunol Methods. 2010;356:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In Western blotting, the presence of DEPC prevented the binding of detecting antibody to Spa. These modified ELISA and Western blot techniques should prove useful for detecting and quantifying proteins in S. aureus culture supernatants. ..
  26. Geng W, Yang Y, Wu D, Zhang W, Wang C, Shang Y, et al. Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with community-onset pneumonia in China. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010;45:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that the recent CA-MRSA found in Chinese children with CAP was largely associated with the spread of the ST59-MRSA-IV clone, and most of the PVL-positive strains in this study did not cause necrotic cases. ..
  27. Wu D, Wang Q, Yang Y, Geng W, Wang Q, Yu S, et al. Epidemiology and molecular characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from skin/soft tissue infections in a children's hospital in Beijing, China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;67:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..4% versus 5.9%, P < 0.01).In conclusion, CA-MRSA infections are not common among Chinese children with SSTIs. Our findings show that MSSA strains in China have diverse genetic backgrounds...
  28. Deleo F, Otto M, Kreiswirth B, Chambers H. Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet. 2010;375:1557-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the most up-to-date knowledge and provide a perspective for the future prophylaxis or new treatments for CA-MRSA infections. ..
  29. Tokajian S, Khalil P, Jabbour D, Rizk M, Farah M, Hashwa F, et al. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lebanon. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:707-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of the PVL-positive isolates (53%) were ST80-MRSA-IVc. Systematic surveillance of both hospital and community isolates in Lebanon together with measures designed to limit the spread are required. ..
  30. Zhang M, Ito T, Li S, Jin J, Takeuchi F, Lauderdale T, et al. Identification of the third type of PVL phage in ST59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;323:20-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Coombs G, Goering R, Chua K, Monecke S, Howden B, Stinear T, et al. The molecular epidemiology of the highly virulent ST93 Australian community Staphylococcus aureus strain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43037 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether ST93-IVa [2B] t202-dt10 arose from one PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202, or by independent acquisitions of SCCmec-IVa [2B]-dt10 into multiple PVL-positive ST93-MSSA-t202 strains is not known. ..
  32. Alp E, Klaassen C, Doganay M, Altoparlak U, Aydin K, Engin A, et al. MRSA genotypes in Turkey: persistence over 10 years of a single clone of ST239. J Infect. 2009;58:433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results place Turkey in the epicenter of ST239 prevalence. ..
  33. Holzinger D, Gieldon L, Mysore V, Nippe N, Taxman D, Duncan J, et al. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces an inflammatory response in human phagocytes via the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:1069-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study analyzes a specific host signaling pathway that mediates PVL-induced inflammation and cytotoxicity, which has high relevance for CA-MRSA-associated and PVL-mediated pathogenic processes, such as necrotizing infections...
  34. Orscheln R, Hunstad D, Fritz S, Loughman J, Mitchell K, Storch E, et al. contribution of genetically restricted, methicillin-susceptible strains to the ongoing epidemic of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that factors other than methicillin resistance are driving the epidemic. ..
  35. Mesrati I, Saïdani M, Ennigrou S, Zouari B, Ben Redjeb S. Clinical isolates of Pantone-Valentine leucocidin- and gamma-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus aureus: prevalence and association with clinical infections. J Hosp Infect. 2010;75:265-8 pubmed
    ..008) and furunculosis (55.5% of strains; P = 0.036). Our findings confirmed the association between pvl-positive strains, cutaneous infections and meticillin resistance in S. aureus. ..
  36. Wu B, Zhang W, Huang J, Liu H, Zhang T. Effect of recombinant Panton-Valentine leukocidin in vitro on apoptosis and cytokine production of human alveolar macrophages. Can J Microbiol. 2010;56:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we speculated that PVL could play a negative role in HAM function at lower concentrations. ..
  37. Otto M. Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2010;64:143-62 pubmed publisher
    ..All these toxins impact disease progression in animal models of USA300 infection. In contrast, the basis of virulence in other CA-MRSA epidemics, which also include PVL-negative strains, is poorly understood...
  38. Del Giudice P, Bes M, Hubiche T, Blanc V, Roudiere L, Lina G, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains are associated with follicular skin infections. Dermatology. 2011;222:167-70 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus, compared to 16 of the 131 (12%) nonfollicular infections (p < 0.001). PVL-positive S. aureus strains are mainly associated with follicular skin infections. ..
  39. Lee M, Arrecubieta C, Martin F, Prince A, Borczuk A, Lowy F. A postinfluenza model of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Postinfluenza Staphylococcus aureus pneumonias are increasingly recognized as a major form of life-threatening infections...
  40. Badiou C, Dumitrescu O, George N, Forbes A, Drougka E, Chan K, et al. Rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin in clinical specimens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..PVL is expressed by S. aureus during human infection, and a PVL-specific ELISA and ICT could be reliable tests for the diagnosis of infections caused by PVL-producing strains. ..
  41. Walther B, Monecke S, Ruscher C, Friedrich A, Ehricht R, Slickers P, et al. Comparative molecular analysis substantiates zoonotic potential of equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:704-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence for the adaptation of certain MRSA genotypes to more than one mammalian species, reflecting their extended host spectra. ..
  42. Otter J, Havill N, Boyce J, French G. Comparison of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from teaching hospitals in London and the USA, 2004-2006: where is USA300 in the UK?. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:835-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There are striking differences between the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in UK and US hospitals, which may have implications for control. ..
  43. Tinelli M, Monaco M, Vimercati M, Ceraminiello A, Pantosti A. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in skin and soft tissue infections, Northern Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:250-7 pubmed
    ..The PVL-positive MSSA strain resembles typical community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus in its ability to cause prolonged community and hospital outbreaks of skin infections...
  44. Enany S, Yaoita E, Yoshida Y, Enany M, Yamamoto T. Molecular characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Egypt. Microbiol Res. 2010;165:152-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We revealed that PVL is a good marker for CA-MRSA infections and that PVL+ isolates belonged to different genotypes. ..
  45. Coombs G, Nimmo G, Pearson J, Christiansen K, Bell J, Collignon P, et al. Prevalence of MRSA strains among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from outpatients, 2006. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2009;33:10-20 pubmed
    ..As infections caused by these strains frequently results in hospitalisation their emergence is a major health concern. ..
  46. O Brien F, Coombs G, Pearman J, Gracey M, Moss F, Christiansen K, et al. Population dynamics of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus in remote communities. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009;64:684-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the evidence suggests that in WA CA-MRSA strains arose in remote communities and have now disseminated into the wider community, there is no evidence that they arose from the predominant MSSA clones in these communities. ..
  47. Scribel L, Silva Carvalho M, Souza R, Superti S, Kvitko C, Figueiredo A, et al. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying SCCmecIV in a university hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;65:457-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A high overall mortality (30.8%) was found. This study show that OSPC isolates are not only causing community-associated infections but are also involved in HCAI in our country. ..
  48. Cremieux A, Dumitrescu O, Lina G, Vallee C, Cote J, Muffat Joly M, et al. Panton-valentine leukocidin enhances the severity of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rabbit osteomyelitis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7204 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus. The possible therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  49. Witte W. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: what do we need to know?. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 7:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, CA-MRSA infections seem to be much less frequent in Europe than in the USA, where patients with particular predispositions and low social status are at especial risk...
  50. Yoong P, Pier G. Antibody-mediated enhancement of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the high rates of primary and recurring MRSA infections in humans, it appears that antibodies to PVL might contribute to host susceptibility to infection...
  51. Yamashita K, Kawai Y, Tanaka Y, Hirano N, Kaneko J, Tomita N, et al. Crystal structure of the octameric pore of staphylococcal ?-hemolysin reveals the ?-barrel pore formation mechanism by two components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17314-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Lipinska U, Hermans K, Meulemans L, Dumitrescu O, Badiou C, Duchateau L, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin does play a role in the early stage of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: a rabbit model. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22864 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, they support the epidemiological link between PVL producing S. aureus strains and necrotizing skin infections. ..
  53. Brown M, O Hara F, Close N, Mera R, Miller L, Suaya J, et al. Prevalence and sequence variation of panton-valentine leukocidin in methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus strains in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:86-90 pubmed publisher
  54. Tong A, Tong S, Zhang Y, Lamlertthon S, Sharma Kuinkel B, Rude T, et al. Panton-Valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome for Staphylococcus aureus skin infections: evaluation from the CANVAS studies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37212 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this contemporary, international study suggest that pvl presence was not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with cSSSI due to either MRSA or MSSA. ..
  55. Rafai M, Abouelalaa K, Skhsoukh Y, Balkhi H, Belyamani L, Dimou M. Evolution of a fatal septic arthritis caused by a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain. Joint Bone Spine. 2013;80:525-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-PLV antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity, such as clindamycin and linezolid should be started without waiting for typing of the S. aureus strain. ..
  56. Vandenesch F, Lina G, Henry T. Staphylococcus aureus hemolysins, bi-component leukocidins, and cytolytic peptides: a redundant arsenal of membrane-damaging virulence factors?. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins (which include the Panton Valentine leukocidin, LukAB/GH, and LukED), and the cytolytic peptides (phenol ..
  57. Al Talib H, Hasan H, Yean C, Al Ashwal S, Ravichandran M. Fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus: a case report. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:58-60 pubmed
    ..This report describes a fatal case of hospital-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible S. aureus in a patient with a brain tumor. ..
  58. Hongo I, Baba T, Oishi K, Morimoto Y, Ito T, Hiramatsu K. Phenol-soluble modulin alpha 3 enhances the human neutrophil lysis mediated by Panton-Valentine leukocidin. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:715-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Phenol-soluble modulin alpha 3 did, however, enhance PVL-mediated lysis of human PMNs. ..
  59. David M, Rudolph K, Hennessy T, Boyle Vavra S, Daum R. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, rural southwestern Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1693-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1% were ST8. Among 120 prospective isolates, 57.5% were clindamycin resistant. CA-MRSA epidemiology in southwestern Alaska differs from that in the lower 48 states; ST8 strains were rarely identified and clindamycin resistance was common...
  60. Montgomery C, Daum R. Transcription of inflammatory genes in the lung after infection with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a role for panton-valentine leukocidin?. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of lukSF-PV did not alter the early immune response to CA-MRSA in the lung. ..
  61. Kanerva M, Salmenlinna S, Vuopio Varkila J, Lehtinen P, Möttönen T, Virtanen M, et al. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Finland in 2004 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2655-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9/100,000 population) and strain variation increased in comparison to years 1997 to 1999. There were 7 community-associated epidemic and 25 sporadic MRSA strain types. Half of these had Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. ..
  62. Okon K, Basset P, Uba A, Lin J, Oyawoye B, Shittu A, et al. Cooccurrence of predominant Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive sequence type (ST) 152 and multidrug-resistant ST 241 Staphylococcus aureus clones in Nigerian hospitals. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3000-3 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (MSSA) isolates were observed. The cooccurrence of multidrug-resistant MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA isolates entails the risk of emergence of a multidrug-resistant PVL-positive MRSA clone. ..
  63. Ellington M, Ganner M, Warner M, Cookson B, Kearns A. Polyclonal multiply antibiotic-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leucocidin in England. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:46-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent scattered reports of the emergence of multiresistant PVL-MRSA have highlighted the potential for resistance to emerge. Here we detail polyclonal multiply antibiotic-resistant PVL-MRSA occurring in England...
  64. Graves S, Kobayashi S, Braughton K, Diep B, Chambers H, Otto M, et al. Relative contribution of Panton-Valentine leukocidin to PMN plasma membrane permeability and lysis caused by USA300 and USA400 culture supernatants. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:446-56 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus culture supernatants have limited ability to estimate the relative contribution of PVL to pathogenesis (or cytolysis in vitro or in vivo), especially when assayed using culture media that promote selective high production of PVL. ..
  65. Shallcross L, Williams K, Hopkins S, Aldridge R, Johnson A, Hayward A. Panton-Valentine leukocidin associated staphylococcal disease: a cross-sectional study at a London hospital, England. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:1644-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration should be given to current infection control strategy, which advocates household contact screening and decolonization on the assumption that PVL-associated disease is rare...
  66. Sharma Kuinkel B, Ahn S, Rude T, Zhang Y, Tong S, Ruffin F, et al. Presence of genes encoding panton-valentine leukocidin is not the primary determinant of outcome in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:848-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that neither pvl presence nor in vitro level of alpha-hemolysin production is the primary determinant of outcome among patients with HAP caused by S. aureus. ..
  67. Jahamy H, Ganga R, Al Raiy B, Shemes S, Nagappan V, Sharma M, et al. Staphylococcus aureus skin/soft-tissue infections: the impact of SCCmec type and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PVL is implicated in abscess formation but not bacteremia. Bacteremia is likely related to host condition and/or other virulence factors that were not studied...
  68. Huang Y, Ho C, Chen C, Su L, Lin T. Comparative molecular analysis of community-associated and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children in northern Taiwan. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:1167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the CA clone of ST59 was also identified in a substantial proportion of HA isolates. ..
  69. Inden K, Kaneko J, Miyazato A, Yamamoto N, Mouri S, Shibuya Y, et al. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of myeloid dendritic cells by leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus. Microbes Infect. 2009;11:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that LukF caused the activation of BM-DCs by triggering a TLR4-dependent signaling pathway and suggests that Luk may affect the host inflammatory response as well as show a cytolytic effect on leukocytes. ..
  70. Kawaguchiya M, Urushibara N, Kuwahara O, Ito M, Mise K, Kobayashi N. Molecular characteristics of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Hokkaido, northern main island of Japan: identification of sequence types 6 and 59 Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive community-acquired methicillin-resi. Microb Drug Resist. 2011;17:241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a potential spread of these emerging CA-MRSA clones in Japan. ..
  71. Ellington M, Perry C, Ganner M, Warner M, McCormick Smith I, Hill R, et al. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of ciprofloxacin-susceptible MRSA encoding PVL in England and Wales. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:1113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The 275 PVL-MRSA included internationally disseminated community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains, as well as other minor lineages, and were associated with typical risk factors and disease presentations. ..
  72. Tong S, Lilliebridge R, Bishop E, Cheng A, Holt D, McDonald M, et al. Clinical correlates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), PVL isoforms, and clonal complex in the Staphylococcus aureus population of Northern Australia. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:760-9 pubmed publisher
    ..MSSA contributes a large but underrecognized burden of PVL(+) disease. Compared with elsewhere in the world, there is a relative abundance of the clade that contains CC93 and CC121 in both northern Australia and Asia. ..
  73. Perret M, Badiou C, Lina G, Burbaud S, Benito Y, Bes M, et al. Cross-talk between Staphylococcus aureus leukocidins-intoxicated macrophages and lung epithelial cells triggers chemokine secretion in an inflammasome-dependent manner. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1019-36 pubmed publisher
  74. Kaltsas A, Guh A, Mediavilla J, Varshney A, Robiou N, Gialanellia P, et al. Frequency of panton-valentine leukocidin-producing methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus strains in patients with complicated skin and soft tissue infection in bronx, new york. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2992-5 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (MRSA) and MSSA SSTIs were comparable. In multivariable analysis, the presence of lukF-PV remained a significant predictor for incision and drainage among MSSA strains...
  75. Brennan G, Shore A, Corcoran S, Tecklenborg S, Coleman D, O Connell B. Emergence of hospital- and community-associated panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST772-MRSA-V in Ireland and detailed investigation of an ST772-MRSA-V cluster in a neonatal intensive care unit. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that hospital-acquired and CA-ST772-MRSA-V is currently emerging in Ireland and may have been imported from India on several occasions. ..
  76. Nimmo G, Schooneveldt J, Sutherland J, Power S, Olesen D, Selvey C, et al. Epidemiology of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Queensland, Australia: associations with indigenous populations and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:1253-9 pubmed publisher
    ..nmMRSA strains are present throughout Queensland and cause infections in both community and healthcare settings. ..
  77. Del Giudice P, Blanc V, de Rougemont A, Bes M, Lina G, Hubiche T, et al. Primary skin abscesses are mainly caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Dermatology. 2009;219:299-302 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) of the 41 primary skin abscesses were due to PVL-positive strains, compared to only 2 (12.5%) of the 16 secondary skin abscesses (p < 0.001). Primary skin abscesses are mainly caused by PVL-positive S. aureus strains. ..
  78. Thomsen I, McKenna B, Saye E, Jimenez N, Edwards K, Creech C. Molecular distinctions exist between community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and disease-associated isolates in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:418-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that only colonization with specific strain types, rather than methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in general, increases the risk for CA-MRSA disease. ..
  79. Khosravi A, Hoveizavi H, Farshadzadeh Z. The prevalence of genes encoding leukocidins in Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant and sensitive to methicillin isolated from burn patients in Taleghani Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran. Burns. 2012;38:247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of genes encoding leukocidins in S...
  80. Besseyre des Horts T, Dumitrescu O, Badiou C, Thomas D, Benito Y, Etienne J, et al. A histidine-to-arginine substitution in Panton-Valentine leukocidin from USA300 community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus does not impair its leukotoxicity. Infect Immun. 2010;78:260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the H176R variation in the PVL sequence causes no change in leukotoxicity and that the R variant is as efficient as wild-type PVL at inducing pore formation in leukocytes...
  81. Golding G, Bryden L, Levett P, McDonald R, Wong A, Wylie J, et al. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sequence type 398 in humans, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Although prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA seems to be low for the general population in Canada, recent emergence of infections resulting from this strain is of public health concern. ..
  82. Boakes E, Kearns A, Ganner M, Perry C, Warner M, Hill R, et al. Molecular diversity within clonal complex 22 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin in England and Wales. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed variances in acquired elements (most notably SCCmec and PVL-encoding phages) suggested that CC22 PVL-MRSA in England and Wales have evolved on multiple occasions. ..