pore forming cytotoxic proteins


Summary: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.

Top Publications

  1. Ohshima K, Shimazaki K, Kume T, Suzumiya J, Kanda M, Kikuchi M. Perforin and Fas pathways of cytotoxic T-cells in histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. Histopathology. 1998;33:471-8 pubmed
    ..As a result, both pathways seemed to induce an abundance of apoptosis and thus induce necrotizing lesions. ..
  2. Li S, Liu L, Guo X, Zhang Y, Xiang Y, Wang Q, et al. Host Pore-Forming Protein Complex Neutralizes the Acidification of Endocytic Organelles to Counteract Intracellular Pathogens. J Infect Dis. 2017;215:1753-1763 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, ??-CAT attenuated the dissemination of L. monocytogenes in vivo. These findings reveal a novel host strategy and effectors that combat pathogen adaptation to acidic conditions along the endocytic pathway. ..
  3. Rahman K, Gupta R, Yadav G, Husein N, Singh M, Nityanand S. Fluorescent Aerolysin (FLAER)-based paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) screening: a single center experience from India. Int J Lab Hematol. 2017;39:261-271 pubmed publisher
    ..These patients usually have a small clone size. Even if they have a large clone, it does not get translated into a high LDH or severe clinical symptoms. ..
  4. Fast L. Recipient CD8+ cells are responsible for the rapid elimination of allogeneic donor lymphoid cells. J Immunol. 1996;157:4805-10 pubmed
    ..The perforin pathway was the predominant pathway used by the recipient CD8+ cells to mediate this elimination. ..
  5. Williamson E, Eley S, Stagg A, Green M, Russell P, Titball R. A sub-unit vaccine elicits IgG in serum, spleen cell cultures and bronchial washings and protects immunized animals against pneumonic plague. Vaccine. 1997;15:1079-84 pubmed
    ..The enhanced protective efficacy of this sub-unit vaccine over an existing vaccine has been demonstrated in an animal model of pneumonic plague. ..
  6. Spada F, Grant E, Peters P, Sugita M, Melian A, Leslie D, et al. Self-recognition of CD1 by gamma/delta T cells: implications for innate immunity. J Exp Med. 2000;191:937-48 pubmed
    ..The presence of bactericidal granulysin suggests these cells may directly mediate host defense even before foreign antigen-specific T cells have differentiated. ..
  7. Fischer B, Muller B, Fischer K, Baur N, Kreutz W. Acidic pH inhibits non-MHC-restricted killer cell functions. Clin Immunol. 2000;96:252-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, an acidic microenvironment within solid tumors may contribute to the observed immunosuppression in vivo, compromising antitumoral defense and immunotherapy in general, respectively. ..
  8. Huggins M, Johnson H, Jin F, N Songo A, Hanson L, Lafrance S, et al. Perforin Expression by CD8 T Cells Is Sufficient To Cause Fatal Brain Edema during Experimental Cerebral Malaria. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, leakage from the vasculature into the parenchyma causes brain swelling and edema. This results in a breakdown of homeostatic maintenance that likely contributes to ECM pathology. ..
  9. Cao C, Liao D, Yu J, Tian H, Long Y. Construction of an aerolysin nanopore in a lipid bilayer for single-oligonucleotide analysis. Nat Protoc. 2017;12:1901-1911 pubmed publisher
    ..A step-by-step description is provided of how to perform single-oligonucleotide analyses and how to process the acquired data. The total time required for this protocol is ?3 d. ..

More Information


  1. Leary S, Eley S, Williamson E, Titball R. Expression of Yersinia pestis V antigen in attenuated salmonella typhimurium: development of a novel vaccine for plague. Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1995;13:216-7 pubmed
  2. Zeine R, Pon R, Ladiwala U, Antel J, Filion L, Freedman M. Mechanism of gammadelta T cell-induced human oligodendrocyte cytotoxicity: relevance to multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;87:49-61 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that in MS, gammadelta T cells may utilize either the Fas-mediated or Perforin-based cell cytotoxicity pathways in exerting oligodendrocyte damage, though the Perforin pathway is predominant. ..
  3. Kayagaki N, Yamaguchi N, Nakayama M, Kawasaki A, Akiba H, Okumura K, et al. Involvement of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1999;162:2639-47 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a differential regulation of TRAIL and FasL expression on human CD4+ T cell clones and that TRAIL constitutes an additional pathway of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. ..
  4. Thanabalasuriar A, Surewaard B, Willson M, Neupane A, Stover C, Warrener P, et al. Bispecific antibody targets multiple Pseudomonas aeruginosa evasion mechanisms in the lung vasculature. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2249-2261 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the need to block multiple evasion and subversion mechanisms in tandem to kill P. aeruginosa. ..