Genomes and Genes
phospholipid transfer proteins
Summary: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
- Ile K, Schaaf G, Bankaitis V. Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins and cellular nanoreactors for lipid signaling. Nat Chem Biol. 2006;2:576-83 pubmed..Recent studies suggest such integration is linked to the action of phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins that operate at the interface of the metabolism, trafficking and organization of specific lipids. ..
- Bateman A, Finn R, Sims P, Wiedmer T, Biegert A, SÃ¶ding J. Phospholipid scramblases and Tubby-like proteins belong to a new superfamily of membrane tethered transcription factors. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:159-62 pubmed publisher..Common functional features also suggest that tubby and PLSCR share a functional origin as membrane tethered transcription factors with capacity to modulate phosphoinositide-based signaling. ..
- Acharya U, Edwards M, Jorquera R, Silva H, Nagashima K, Labarca P, et al. Drosophila melanogaster Scramblases modulate synaptic transmission. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:69-82 pubmed..The lack of phenotypes related to failure of scrambling and the neurophysiological analysis lead us to propose that Scramblases play a modulatory role in the process of neurotransmission. ..
- Cusick J, Mustian A, Jacobs A, Reyland M. Identification of PLSCR1 as a protein that interacts with RELT family members. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;362:55-63 pubmed publisher..These studies demonstrate that RELT family members physically interact with PLSCR1, and that these interactions may regulate the phosphorylation of PLSCR1 by OSR1. ..
- Giansanti M, Belloni G, Gatti M. Rab11 is required for membrane trafficking and actomyosin ring constriction in meiotic cytokinesis of Drosophila males. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:5034-47 pubmed..We propose that Gio and Fwd mediate Rab11 recruitment at the cleavage furrow and that Rab11 facilitates targeted membrane delivery to the advancing furrow. ..
- Ruaud A, Nilsson L, Richard F, Larsen M, Bessereau J, Tuck S. The C. elegans P4-ATPase TAT-1 regulates lysosome biogenesis and endocytosis. Traffic. 2009;10:88-100 pubmed publisher..Hence, TAT-1 is required at multiple steps of the endolysosomal pathway, at least in part by ensuring proper trafficking of cell-specific effector proteins. ..
- Verhulst P, van der Velden L, Oorschot V, van Faassen E, Klumperman J, Houwen R, et al. A flippase-independent function of ATP8B1, the protein affected in familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1, is required for apical protein expression and microvillus formation in polarized epithelial cells. Hepatology. 2010;51:2049-60 pubmed publisher
- Smirnova T, Chadwick T, Voinov M, Poluektov O, van Tol J, Ozarowski A, et al. Local polarity and hydrogen bonding inside the Sec14p phospholipid-binding cavity: high-field multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Biophys J. 2007;92:3686-95 pubmed
- Liu R, Hojjati M, Devlin C, Hansen I, Jiang X. Macrophage phospholipid transfer protein deficiency and ApoE secretion: impact on mouse plasma cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:190-6 pubmed..001). Macrophage PLTP deficiency causes a significant reduction of apoE secretion from the cells, and this in turn promotes the accumulation of cholesterol in the circulation and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. ..
- Ile K, Kassen S, Cao C, Vihtehlic T, Shah S, Mousley C, et al. Zebrafish class 1 phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins: PITPbeta and double cone cell outer segment integrity in retina. Traffic. 2010;11:1151-67 pubmed publisher..This study reports the initial description of the zebrafish class 1 mPITP family, and the first analysis of PITPbeta function in a vertebrate. ..
- Ehlen H, Chinenkova M, Moser M, Munter H, Krause Y, Gross S, et al. Inactivation of anoctamin-6/Tmem16f, a regulator of phosphatidylserine scrambling in osteoblasts, leads to decreased mineral deposition in skeletal tissues. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:246-59 pubmed publisher..Our study is the first to our knowledge to reveal the requirement of Ano6 in PS scrambling in osteoblasts, supporting a function of PS exposure in the deposition of hydroxyapatite. ..
- Coleman J, Molday R. Critical role of the beta-subunit CDC50A in the stable expression, assembly, subcellular localization, and lipid transport activity of the P4-ATPase ATP8A2. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17205-16 pubmed publisher..Together, our studies indicate that CDC50A is the ?-subunit of ATP8A2 and is crucial for the correct folding, stable expression, export from endoplasmic reticulum, and phosphatidylserine flippase activity of ATP8A2...
- Shelly L, Royer L, Sand T, Jensen H, Luo Y. Phospholipid transfer protein deficiency ameliorates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and inflammation in mice. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:773-81 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, plasma interleukin-6 levels are significantly lower in PLTP-deficient mice, indicating reduced systemic inflammation. These data suggest that PLTP appears to play a proatherogenic role in diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. ..
- Fan C, Chen C, Chen K, Shen C, Kuo Y, Chen Y, et al. Blockade of phospholipid scramblase 1 with its N-terminal domain antibody reduces tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinomas in vitro and in vivo. J Transl Med. 2012;10:254 pubmed publisher..These actions led to attenuation of tumorigenesis. Therefore, PLSCR1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for CRC. ..
- Phillips S, Ile K, Boukhelifa M, Huijbregts R, Bankaitis V. Specific and nonspecific membrane-binding determinants cooperate in targeting phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta-isoform to the mammalian trans-Golgi network. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2498-512 pubmed..These latter findings are at odds with a previous report that conventional PKC-mediated phosphorylation of residue Ser262 is required for PITPbeta targeting to Golgi membranes. ..
- Cui W, Li S, Du J, Zhu Z, An P. Silencing phospholipid scramblase 1 expression by RNA interference in colorectal cancer and metastatic liver cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2012;11:393-400 pubmed..The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of silencing PLSCR1 expression by RNA interference in colorectal cancer (CRC) and metastatic liver cancer...
- He Y, Liu J, Grossman D, Durrant D, Sweatman T, Lothstein L, et al. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial phospholipid scramblase 3 by protein kinase C-delta induces its activation and facilitates mitochondrial targeting of tBid. J Cell Biochem. 2007;101:1210-21 pubmed..These findings indicate that phosphorylation of PLS3 by PKC-delta induces PLS3 activation to facilitate mitochondrial targeting of tBid and apoptosis. ..
- Nilsson L, Jonsson E, Tuck S. Caenorhabditis elegans numb inhibits endocytic recycling by binding TAT-1 aminophospholipid translocase. Traffic. 2011;12:1839-49 pubmed publisher..PS is mislocalized in intestinal cells with defects in tat-1 or num-1A function. We propose that NUM-1A inhibits recycling by inhibiting TAT-1C's ability to translocate PS across the membranes of recycling endosomes. ..
- Talukder A, Bao M, Kim T, Facchinetti V, Hanabuchi S, Bover L, et al. Phospholipid scramblase 1 regulates Toll-like receptor 9-mediated type I interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Cell Res. 2012;22:1129-39 pubmed publisher..Our study demonstrates that PLSCR1 is a TLR9-interacting protein that plays an important role in pDC's type 1 IFN responses by regulating TLR9 trafficking to the endosomal compartment. ..
- Yazdanyar A, Yeang C, Jiang X. Role of phospholipid transfer protein in high-density lipoprotein- mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011;13:242-8 pubmed publisher..In this review, we focus on the potential role of PLTP in RCT through its impact on HDL homeostasis. The relationship between PLTP and RCT is expected to be an important area in finding novel therapies for atherosclerosis. ..
- Bankaitis V, Mousley C, Schaaf G. The Sec14 superfamily and mechanisms for crosstalk between lipid metabolism and lipid signaling. Trends Biochem Sci. 2010;35:150-60 pubmed publisher..Mechanisms of crosstalk, by which non-enzymatic proteins integrate metabolic cues with the action of interfacial enzymes, represent unappreciated regulatory themes in lipid signaling. ..
- Attia N, Nakbi A, Smaoui M, Chaaba R, Moulin P, Hammami S, et al. Increased phospholipid transfer protein activity associated with the impaired cellular cholesterol efflux in type 2 diabetic subjects with coronary artery disease. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007;213:129-37 pubmed..5% (p < 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, plasma PLTP activity was increased in type 2 diabetic patients with or without CAD, which could impair cellular cholesterol removal and might accelerate atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. ..
- Saito K, Tautz L, Mustelin T. The lipid-binding SEC14 domain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:719-26 pubmed..Here we review the published literature, plus some of our most recent unpublished findings, regarding the biology of the SEC14 domain, also known as CRAL_TRIO domain. ..
- Desfougères T, Ferreira T, Berges T, Regnacq M. SFH2 regulates fatty acid synthase activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is critical to prevent saturated fatty acid accumulation in response to haem and oleic acid depletion. Biochem J. 2008;409:299-309 pubmed
- Howe A, Fairn G, Macdonald K, Bankaitis V, McMaster C. Regulation of phosphoinositide levels by the phospholipid transfer protein Sec14p controls Cdc42p/p21-activated kinase-mediated cell cycle progression at cytokinesis. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1814-23 pubmed..Sec14p regulation of phosphoinositide levels affects cytokinesis at the level of the Cdc42p/Cla4p/Ste20p signaling cascade. ..
- Van Q, Liu J, Lu B, Feingold K, Shi Y, Lee R, et al. Phospholipid scramblase-3 regulates cardiolipin de novo biosynthesis and its resynthesis in growing HeLa cells. Biochem J. 2007;401:103-9 pubmed..The results identify PLS3 as a novel regulator of CL de novo biosynthesis and its resynthesis. ..
- Cacciagli P, Haddad M, Mignon Ravix C, El Waly B, Moncla A, Missirian C, et al. Disruption of the ATP8A2 gene in a patient with a t(10;13) de novo balanced translocation and a severe neurological phenotype. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:1360-3 pubmed publisher..Extensive screening in the mentally retarded population will be needed to determine if ATP8A2 haploinsufficiency or dysfunction causes a neurological phenotype in humans. ..
- Bevers E, Williamson P. Phospholipid scramblase: an update. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2724-30 pubmed publisher..Observations on cells from patients with Scott syndrome, a rare hereditary bleeding disorder resulting from impaired lipid scrambling, have shown that there are multiple activation pathways that converge on scramblase activity. ..
- Kang H, Wei J, Cohen D. PC-TP/StARD2: Of membranes and metabolism. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:449-56 pubmed publisher..Because PC-TP discriminates between phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it might function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. ..
- Iqbal Z, Cejudo Martin P, de Brouwer A, van der Zwaag B, Ruiz Lozano P, Scimia M, et al. Disruption of the podosome adaptor protein TKS4 (SH3PXD2B) causes the skeletal dysplasia, eye, and cardiac abnormalities of Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;86:254-61 pubmed publisher..Interestingly however, dermal fibroblasts from one of the individuals without an SH3PXD2B mutation nevertheless expressed lower levels of the TKS4 protein, suggesting a common mechanism underlying disease causation. ..
- Smirnova T, Chadwick T, MacArthur R, Poluektov O, Song L, Ryan M, et al. The chemistry of phospholipid binding by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphatidylinositol transfer protein Sec14p as determined by EPR spectroscopy. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:34897-908 pubmed..The data further suggest that the Sec14p phospholipid binding pocket provides a polarity gradient that we propose is a primary thermodynamic factor that powers the ability of Sec14p to abstract a phospholipid from a membrane bilayer. ..
- Morgan C, Allen Baume V, Radulovic M, Li M, Skippen A, Cockcroft S. Differential expression of a C-terminal splice variant of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta lacking the constitutive-phosphorylated Ser262 that localizes to the Golgi compartment. Biochem J. 2006;398:411-21 pubmed..The presence of PITPbeta sp variants adds an extra level of proteome complexity and, in rat liver, the single gene for PITPbeta gives rise to seven distinct protein species that can be resolved on the basis of their charge differences. ..
- Escola Gil J, Rotllan N, Julve J, Blanco Vaca F. In vivo macrophage-specific RCT and antioxidant and antiinflammatory HDL activity measurements: New tools for predicting HDL atheroprotection. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:321-7 pubmed publisher..Thus, functional testing of the antiatherogenic functions of HDL in experimental animal models may facilitate the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis...
- Lott K, Bhardwaj A, Sims P, Cingolani G. A minimal nuclear localization signal (NLS) in human phospholipid scramblase 4 that binds only the minor NLS-binding site of importin alpha1. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28160-9 pubmed publisher..These data provide the first structural and functional evidence of a novel NLS-binding mode in importin ?1 that uses only the minor groove as the exclusive site for nuclear import of nonclassical cargos. ..
- Kusano S, Eizuru Y. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:438-44 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection...
- Huang Y, Zhao Q, Zhou C, Gu Z, Li D, Xu H, et al. Antileukemic roles of human phospholipid scramblase 1 gene, evidence from inducible PLSCR1-expressing leukemic cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:6618-27 pubmed..These data will shed new insights into understanding the biochemical and biological functions of PLSCR1 protein. ..
- Segawa K, Suzuki J, Nagata S. Constitutive exposure of phosphatidylserine on viable cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19246-51 pubmed publisher..c. into nude mice, they generated tumors as efficiently as parental lymphoma cells that did not expose PS. These results indicated that PS exposure alone is not sufficient to be recognized by macrophages as an eat-me signal. ..
- Moerland M, Samyn H, van Gent T, van Haperen R, Dallinga Thie G, Grosveld F, et al. Acute elevation of plasma PLTP activity strongly increases pre-existing atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1277-82 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, acute elevation of PLTP activity destabilizes atherosclerotic lesions and aggravates pre-existing atherosclerosis. ..
- Paterson J, Renkema K, Burden L, Halleck M, Schlegel R, Williamson P, et al. Lipid specific activation of the murine P4-ATPase Atp8a1 (ATPase II). Biochemistry. 2006;45:5367-76 pubmed
- Ogier N, Klein A, Deckert V, Athias A, Bessède G, Le Guern N, et al. Cholesterol accumulation is increased in macrophages of phospholipid transfer protein-deficient mice: normalization by dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2407-12 pubmed..The antiatherogenic properties of macrophage-derived PLTP are related at least in part to its ability to reduce cholesterol accumulation in macrophages through changes in the alpha-tocopherol content and oxidative status of the cells. ..
- Vikstedt R, Ye D, Metso J, Hildebrand R, Van Berkel T, Ehnholm C, et al. Macrophage phospholipid transfer protein contributes significantly to total plasma phospholipid transfer activity and its deficiency leads to diminished atherosclerotic lesion development. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:578-86 pubmed..Macrophage PLTP is a significant contributor to plasma PLTP activity and deficiency of PLTP in macrophages leads to lowered atherosclerotic lesion development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on Western-type diet. ..
- De Vries R, Groen A, Perton F, Dallinga Thie G, van Wijland M, Dikkeschei L, et al. Increased cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients: roles of pre beta-HDL, phospholipid transfer protein and cholesterol esterification. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:733-41 pubmed..Unaltered pre beta-HDL formation in diabetic hypertriglyceridemia, despite low apo A-I, could contribute to maintenance of cholesterol efflux. ..
- Moerland M, Anghelescu N, Samyn H, van Haperen R, van Gent T, Strouboulis J, et al. Inducible expression of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) in transgenic mice: acute effects of PLTP on lipoprotein metabolism. Transgenic Res. 2007;16:503-13 pubmed..Using this mouse model, it will be possible to study the effects of acute elevation of PLTP activity on lipoprotein metabolism and pre-existing atherosclerosis. ..
- Chen B, Jiang Y, Zeng S, Yan J, Li X, Zhang Y, et al. Endocytic sorting and recycling require membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry maintained by TAT-1/CHAT-1. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001235 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that CHAT-1 and TAT-1 maintain membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, thus promoting membrane tubulation and regulating endocytic sorting and recycling. ..
- Chen Y, Hui H, Yang H, Zhao K, Qin Y, Gu C, et al. Wogonoside induces cell cycle arrest and differentiation by affecting expression and subcellular localization of PLSCR1 in AML cells. Blood. 2013;121:3682-91 pubmed publisher..The results of this study therefore suggest that wogonoside may represent a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AML. ..
- Gatt M, Glover D. The Drosophila phosphatidylinositol transfer protein encoded by vibrator is essential to maintain cleavage-furrow ingression in cytokinesis. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2225-35 pubmed..We discuss these defects in relation to multiple functions of phosphoinositol lipids in regulating actin dynamics and membrane synthesis. ..
- Plé H, Maltais M, Corduan A, Rousseau G, Madore F, Provost P. Alteration of the platelet transcriptome in chronic kidney disease. Thromb Haemost. 2012;108:605-15 pubmed..These results suggest that an alteration of microRNA-based mRNA regulatory mechanisms may underlie the platelet response to uremia and entail the development of platelet-related complications in CKD. ..
- Lie J, Moerland M, van Gent T, van Haperen R, Scheek L, Sadeghi Niaraki F, et al. Sex differences in atherosclerosis in mice with elevated phospholipid transfer protein activity are related to decreased plasma high density lipoproteins and not to increased production of triglycerides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:1070-7 pubmed..We conclude that increased atherosclerosis caused by overexpression of PLTP is related to a decrease in HDL, rather than to elevated hepatic secretion of triglycerides. ..
- Kusano S, Eizuru Y. Human phospholipid scramblase 1 interacts with and regulates transactivation of HTLV-1 Tax. Virology. 2012;432:343-52 pubmed publisher..PLSCR1 may play an important role in the IFN-mediated repression of Tax-dependent transactivation during HTLV-1 infection...
- Shishova E, Stoll J, Ersoy B, Shrestha S, Scapa E, Li Y, et al. Genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein attenuates diet-induced hepatic glucose production. Hepatology. 2011;54:664-74 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest PC-TP inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy in the management of hepatic insulin resistance. ..
- Suzuki J, Umeda M, Sims P, Nagata S. Calcium-dependent phospholipid scrambling by TMEM16F. Nature. 2010;468:834-8 pubmed publisher..A patient with Scott syndrome, which results from a defect in phospholipid scrambling activity, was found to carry a mutation at a splice-acceptor site of the gene encoding TMEM16F, causing the premature termination of the protein. ..
- Kanno K, Wu M, Scapa E, Roderick S, Cohen D. Structure and function of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP)/StarD2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:654-62 pubmed..Nevertheless, Pctp(-/-) mice exhibit interesting defects in lipid homeostasis, the understanding of which should elucidate the biological functions of PC-TP. ..
- Quintao E, Cazita P. Lipid transfer proteins: past, present and perspectives. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:1-9 pubmed publisher..Therefore, the biological roles of PLTP and CETP must be carefully monitored when investigating drugs that inhibit their activity in the prevention of atherosclerosis. ..
- Sahu S, Gummadi S, Manoj N, Aradhyam G. Phospholipid scramblases: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;462:103-14 pubmed..In the present review, we discuss the current understanding of PLSCR1 in relation to its trafficking, localization and signaling functions. ..
- Lenoir G, Williamson P, Holthuis J. On the origin of lipid asymmetry: the flip side of ion transport. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2007;11:654-61 pubmed..Consequently, understanding how P(4) ATPases acquired the ability to translocate phospholipids instead of simple ions has become a major focus of interest. ..
- Amir Moazami O, Alexia C, Charles N, Launay P, Monteiro R, Benhamou M. Phospholipid scramblase 1 modulates a selected set of IgE receptor-mediated mast cell responses through LAT-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25514-23 pubmed publisher..Altogether, these data identify PLSCR1 as a novel amplifier of FcepsilonRI signaling that acts selectively on the Lyn-initiated LAT/phospholipase Cgamma1/calcium axis, resulting in potentiation of a selected set of mast cell responses. ..
- Cosker K, Shadan S, van Diepen M, Morgan C, Li M, Allen Baume V, et al. Regulation of PI3K signalling by the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITPalpha during axonal extension in hippocampal neurons. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:796-803 pubmed publisher..We conclude that PITPalpha controls the polarized extension of axonal processes through the provision of PtdIns for localized PI3K-dependent signalling. ..
- Cockcroft S, Carvou N. Biochemical and biological functions of class I phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:677-91 pubmed
- Shimizu T, Iehara T, Sato K, Fujii T, Sakai H, Okada Y. TMEM16F is a component of a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel but not a volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channel. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C748-59 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that human TMEM16F is an essential component of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel with a Ca(2+) sensitivity that is distinct from that of TMEM16A/B and that it is not related to VSOR activity. ..
- Li Y, Rogulski K, Zhou Q, Sims P, Prochownik E. The negative c-Myc target onzin affects proliferation and apoptosis via its obligate interaction with phospholipid scramblase 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3401-13 pubmed..They further suggest a contiguous link between the earliest events mediated by c-Myc and the latest ones, which culminate at the cell surface and lead to phospholipid reshuffling and cell death. ..
- Fairn G, Curwin A, Stefan C, McMaster C. The oxysterol binding protein Kes1p regulates Golgi apparatus phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15352-7 pubmed..Kes1p affects both the availability and level of Golgi apparatus PI-4P. A set of potential PI-4P-responsive proteins that include the Rab GTPase Ypt31p and its GTP exchange factor are described. ..
- Wang X, Wang J, Gengyo Ando K, Gu L, Sun C, Yang C, et al. C. elegans mitochondrial factor WAH-1 promotes phosphatidylserine externalization in apoptotic cells through phospholipid scramblase SCRM-1. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:541-9 pubmed..Thus WAH-1, after its release from mitochondria during apoptosis, promotes plasma membrane phosphatidylserine externalization through its downstream effector, SCRM-1. ..
- Darland Ransom M, Wang X, Sun C, Mapes J, Gengyo Ando K, Mitani S, et al. Role of C. elegans TAT-1 protein in maintaining plasma membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry. Science. 2008;320:528-31 pubmed publisher..Thus, tat-1 appears to function in preventing appearance of PS in the outer leaflet of plasma membrane, and ectopic exposure of PS on the cell surface may result in removal of living cells by neighboring phagocytes. ..
- Cockcroft S. Trafficking of phosphatidylinositol by phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins. Biochem Soc Symp. 2007;:259-71 pubmed..Biological roles of PITPs include their ability to couple phospholipase C signalling to neurite outgrowth, cell division and stem cell growth. ..
- Lyssenko N, Miteva Y, Gilroy S, Hanna Rose W, Schlegel R. An unexpectedly high degree of specialization and a widespread involvement in sterol metabolism among the C. elegans putative aminophospholipid translocases. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:96 pubmed publisher..These findings uncover an unexpectedly high degree of specialization and a widespread involvement in sterol metabolism among the genes encoding the putative aminophospholipid translocases. ..
- Curwin A, Fairn G, McMaster C. Phospholipid transfer protein Sec14 is required for trafficking from endosomes and regulates distinct trans-Golgi export pathways. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7364-75 pubmed publisher..The combined genetic and cell biology data are consistent with regulation of endosome trafficking being a major role for Sec14. We further determined that lipid ligand occupancy differentially regulates Sec14 functions. ..
- Muthusamy B, Natarajan P, Zhou X, Graham T. Linking phospholipid flippases to vesicle-mediated protein transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:612-9 pubmed publisher..Here, we discuss the physiological requirements for yeast P4-ATPases in phospholipid translocase activity, transport vesicle budding and ergosterol metabolism, with an emphasis on Drs2p and its noncatalytic subunit, Cdc50p. ..
- Cavusoglu E, Marmur J, Chhabra S, Chopra V, Eng C, Jiang X. Relation of baseline plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity to left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients referred for coronary angiography. Atherosclerosis. 2009;207:261-5 pubmed publisher..39, 95% CI 1.18-4.86, p=0.0161 and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.05-1.89, p=0.0206, respectively). In conclusion, PLTP activity may represent a novel marker of LV systolic dysfunction in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. ..
- Wirtz K. Phospholipid transfer proteins in perspective. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:5436-41 pubmed..3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase, also denoted as SCP-X and the 80-kDa D-bifunctional protein). Further I will summarize the most recent studies pertaining to the physiological function of these soluble phospholipid transfer proteins in metazoa.
- Pomorski T, Menon A. Lipid flippases and their biological functions. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2908-21 pubmed..This review summarizes recent progress on the identification and characterization of the various flippases and the demonstration of their biological functions...
- Züllig S, Neukomm L, Jovanovic M, Charette S, Lyssenko N, Halleck M, et al. Aminophospholipid translocase TAT-1 promotes phosphatidylserine exposure during C. elegans apoptosis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:994-9 pubmed..tat-1(RNAi) also reduced the efficiency of cell-corpse clearance, suggesting that PS exposure acts as an "eat-me" signal in worms. We propose that tat-1 homologs might also play an important role in PS exposure in mammals. ..