Genomes and Genes
myelin p2 protein
Summary: A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system MYELIN. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)
- Sedzik J, Carlone G, Fasano A, Liuzzi G, Riccio P. Crystals of P2 myelin protein in lipid-bound form. J Struct Biol. 2003;142:292-300 pubmed..0 degrees ). It is important that P2 has been crystallized with specifically bound lipids; therefore, solving this new crystal structure will reveal details of this protein's behavior and role in the myelin sheath. ..
- Richieri G, Ogata R, Zimmerman A, Veerkamp J, Kleinfeld A. Fatty acid binding proteins from different tissues show distinct patterns of fatty acid interactions. Biochemistry. 2000;39:7197-204 pubmed..The results demonstrate that thermodynamic parameters are quite different for paralogous but are quite similar for orthologous FABP, suggesting tissue-specific differences in FABP function that may be conserved across species. ..
- Stienekemeier M, Falk K, Rotzschke O, Weishaupt A, Schneider C, Toyka K, et al. Vaccination, prevention, and treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) by an oligomerized T cell epitope. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13872-7 pubmedUsing a polypeptide oligomer harboring 16 repeats of the neuritogenic epitope (aa 58-73) of myelin P2 protein separated by spacers, enhancement of the immune response to the P2 protein, an important neuritogenic autoantigen in ..
- Inglis H, Csurhes P, McCombe P. Antibody responses to peptides of peripheral nerve myelin proteins P0 and P2 in patients with inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:419-22 pubmed
- Polverini E, Fornabaio M, Fasano A, Carlone G, Riccio P, Cavatorta P. The pH-dependent unfolding mechanism of P2 myelin protein: an experimental and computational study. J Struct Biol. 2006;153:253-63 pubmed..The opening of the lid, together with a barrel relaxation, could regulate the ligand exchanges near the cell membrane, supporting the hypothesis that the P2 protein may transport fatty acids between Schwann cells and peripheral myelin. ..
- Rostami A, Gregorian S. Peptide 53-78 of myelin P2 protein is a T cell epitope for the induction of experimental autoimmune neuritis. Cell Immunol. 1991;132:433-41 pubmed..Examination of the surface phenotype of the cells that were used for the passive transfer of EAN by FACS analysis, showed majority of the cells to be CD4+, Ia+ cells. ..
- Bernlohr D, Angus C, Lane M, Bolanowski M, Kelly T. Expression of specific mRNAs during adipose differentiation: identification of an mRNA encoding a homologue of myelin P2 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:5468-72 pubmed..These observations strongly suggest that the 422 protein is a structural, and possibly functional, analog of myelin P2. ..
- Trapp B, Dubois Dalcq M, Quarles R. Ultrastructural localization of P2 protein in actively myelinating rat Schwann cells. J Neurochem. 1984;43:944-8 pubmed..These results demonstrate that P2 protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of compact myelin membranes and are consistent with biochemical studies demonstrating P2 to be a peripheral membrane protein. ..
- Olee T, Powell H, Brostoff S. New minimum length requirement for a T cell epitope for experimental allergic neuritis. J Neuroimmunol. 1990;27:187-90 pubmed..Adding a threonine at the NH2 terminus of this peptide reproduces residues 60-70 of the P2 protein sequence and significantly enhances the neuritogenic capability of this peptide. ..
- Jones T, Bergfors T, Sedzik J, Unge T. The three-dimensional structure of P2 myelin protein. EMBO J. 1988;7:1597-604 pubmed..This beta-barrel shows some similarity to, but is different from, the retinol binding protein family of structures. The relationship of the P2 structure to a family of cytoplasmic, lipid binding proteins is described. ..
- Aartsen W, Pelsers M, Hermens W, Glatz J, Daemen M, Smits J. Heart fatty acid binding protein and cardiac troponin T plasma concentrations as markers for myocardial infarction after coronary artery ligation in mice. Pflugers Arch. 2000;439:416-22 pubmed..In conclusion, plasma cTnT concentration at 48 h after infarction can be used to distinguish MI from sham mice, whereas H-FABP concentration at 4 h can be used for stratification of animals according to infarct size. ..
- Ishizuya Oka A, Ueda S, Damjanovski S, Li Q, Liang V, Shi Y. Anteroposterior gradient of epithelial transformation during amphibian intestinal remodeling: immunohistochemical detection of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein. Dev Biol. 1997;192:149-61 pubmed..Therefore, it seems that, in addition to TH, an endogenous factor(s) localized in the intestine itself with an anteroposterior gradient participates in the development of the adult epithelium during amphibian metamorphosis. ..
- Singer S, Henkels K, Deucher A, Barker M, Singer J, Trulzsch D. Growth hormone and aging change rat liver fatty acid binding protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr. 1996;15:169-74 pubmed..FABP levels in 12-13.5 month old females also dropped significantly compared to 4-6 month old females. The importance of the data to metabolism, growth, and aging is discussed. ..
- Andre M, Ando S, Ballagny C, Durliat M, Poupard G, Briancon C, et al. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene expression reveals the cephalocaudal patterning during zebrafish gut morphogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2000;44:249-52 pubmed..This gene could be used as a marker for screening for mutations that affect the events of intestinal epithelial differentiation, cephalocaudal patterning, and asymmetric gut looping morphogenesis. ..
- Richieri G, Ogata R, Kleinfeld A. Thermodynamic and kinetic properties of fatty acid interactions with rat liver fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31068-74 pubmed
- Smith E, Storch J. The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein binds to membranes by electrostatic interactions. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35325-30 pubmed
- Madsen L, Rustan A, Vaagenes H, Berge K, Dyrøy E, Berge R. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid affect mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in relation to substrate preference. Lipids. 1999;34:951-63 pubmed..The present study strongly supports the hypothesis that EPA, and not DHA, lowers plasma triacylglycerol by increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. ..
- Thumser A, Storch J. Liver and intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins obtain fatty acids from phospholipid membranes by different mechanisms. J Lipid Res. 2000;41:647-56 pubmed..In summary, the results suggest that I-FABP, but not L-FABP, can directly extract fatty acids from membranes, supporting the concept that I-FABP may increase the cytosolic flux of fatty acids via intermembrane transfer. ..
- Wang Y, Liang Q, Ramkalawan H, Zhang W, Zhou W, Xiao B, et al. Inactivation of TLR9 by a suppressive oligodeoxynucleotides can ameliorate the clinical signs of EAN. Immunol Invest. 2012;41:171-82 pubmed publisher..Our study suggests that TLR9 may be involved in the pathogenesis of EAN. ..
- Woolf T, Tychko M. Simulations of fatty acid-binding proteins. II. Sites for discrimination of monounsaturated ligands. Biophys J. 1998;74:694-707 pubmed..An importance scale, based on motional correlation and interaction energy between protein and ligand, is proposed, to help identify amino acids involved with the discrimination of ligand saturation state or geometric isomerization. ..
- Kane C, Coe N, Vanlandingham B, Krieg P, Bernlohr D. Expression, purification, and ligand-binding analysis of recombinant keratinocyte lipid-binding protein (MAL-1), an intracellular lipid-binding found overexpressed in neoplastic skin cells. Biochemistry. 1996;35:2894-900 pubmed
- Fraser H, Coles S, Woodford J, Frolov A, Murphy E, Schroeder F, et al. Fatty acid uptake in diabetic rat adipocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 1997;167:51-60 pubmed..Thus, diabetic status dramatically altered adipocyte fatty acid uptake, plasma membrane structure, lipid composition, and cytosolic fatty acid binding protein. ..
- Li W, Krasinski S, Verhave M, Montgomery R, Grand R. Three distinct messenger RNA distribution patterns in human jejunal enterocytes. Gastroenterology. 1998;115:86-92 pubmed..This study also reveals for the first time that dichotomies may occur between the distribution patterns of sorted mRNAs and their encoded proteins. ..
- Schmidt J, Elflein K, Stienekemeier M, Rodriguez Palmero M, Schneider C, Toyka K, et al. Treatment and prevention of experimental autoimmune neuritis with superagonistic CD28-specific monoclonal antibodies. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;140:143-52 pubmed..We demonstrate preventive and therapeutic effects of a "superagonistic" mAb-mediated, TCR-independent CD28 stimulation in EAN, possibly with implications for therapy of autoimmune-inflammatory disorders. ..
- Götz F, Thole H. Smooth muscle fatty acid binding protein: a regulator of smooth muscle contraction?. Biol Chem. 1996;377:633-8 pubmed..This is the first fatty acid binding protein isolated from smooth muscle. It may be involved in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction by transporting polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g. arachidonic acid). ..
- Qi D, Kuang H, Distefano M. Effects of metal ions on the rates and enantioselectivities of reactions catalyzed by a series of semisynthetic transaminases created by site directed mutagenesis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1998;8:875-80 pubmed..This limits their utility as a practical means of increasing reaction rate. The results reported here, for four independent systems, should be considered in future designs of artificial transaminases. ..
- Fransen E, Maessen J, Hermens W, Glatz J, Buurman W. Peri-operative myocardial tissue injury and the release of inflammatory mediators in coronary artery bypass graft patients. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;45:853-9 pubmed..Perioperative myocardial injury resulting from CPB and aortic cross-clamping in low-risk CABG patients does not contribute to the release of inflammatory mediators in these patients. ..
- Estuningsih S, Smooker P, Wiedosari E, Widjajanti S, Vaiano S, Partoutomo S, et al. Evaluation of antigens of Fasciola gigantica as vaccines against tropical fasciolosis in cattle. Int J Parasitol. 1997;27:1419-28 pubmed..This is the first report of vaccination of cattle against F. gigantica with a purified protein. ..
- Dyck D, Miskovic D, Code L, Luiken J, Bonen A. Endurance training increases FFA oxidation and reduces triacylglycerol utilization in contracting rat soleus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000;278:E778-85 pubmed..The enhanced FFA uptake subsequent to training appears to be independent of altered maximal transport rates of FFA into the muscle cell...
- Bisgrove D, Godbout R. Differential expression of AP-2alpha and AP-2beta in the developing chick retina: repression of R-FABP promoter activity by AP-2. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:195-206 pubmed..Repression of the R-FABP gene in these cells may be an important component of their developmental program. ..
- Li Y, Wu J, Jin Z, Huang F, Hou Y. [Genetic polymorphisms of FABP2 and F13A1 loci in Han population]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 1998;15:24-6 pubmed..On the other hand, more studies need to be done to understand the polymorphism at F13A1 locus in Chinese population because a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium has been observed in this Han population. ..
- Zimmerman A, Rademacher M, Rüterjans H, Lucke C, Veerkamp J. Functional and conformational characterization of new mutants of heart fatty acid-binding protein. Biochem J. 1999;344 Pt 2:495-501 pubmed..In conclusion, no relationship was observed between fatty acid-binding affinity and conformational stability. ..
- de Lemos J, Antman E, Morrow D, Llevadot J, Giugliano R, Coulter S, et al. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein as a marker of reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy. Clin Chim Acta. 2000;298:85-97 pubmed..Despite a favorable kinetic profile, however, H-FABP does not appear to represent a significant advance over myoglobin in the noninvasive detection of reperfusion after thrombolysis. ..
- Offenhäusser M, Herr A, Hartkamp J, Wauben M, Magnus T, Grauer O, et al. Truncation of the neuritogenic peptide bP2(60-70) results in the generation of altered peptide ligands with the potential to interfere with T cell activation. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;129:97-105 pubmed..Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that peptide bP2(62-69) can favorably modulate the antigen-induced response of neuritogenic T cells. ..
- Yamaki T, Tsu ura Y, Watanabe K, Fukuda T, Suzuki T. Acute and reversible fatty metamorphosis of cultured rat hepatocytes. Pathol Int. 1997;47:103-11 pubmed..These results indicate that fatty acid itself is directly incorporated in cultured rat hepatocytes and expelled 3 days later without apparent cell degeneration. ..
- Robers M, Rensink I, Hack C, Aarden L, Reutelingsperger C, Glatz J, et al. A new principle for rapid immunoassay of proteins based on in situ precipitate-enhanced ellipsometry. Biophys J. 1999;76:2769-76 pubmed..A possible future application of the method in the development of a one-step ELISA is discussed. ..
- Myers Payne S, Hubbell T, Pu L, Schnutgen F, Borchers T, Wood W, et al. Isolation and characterization of two fatty acid binding proteins from mouse brain. J Neurochem. 1996;66:1648-56 pubmed..Brain B-FABP and brain H-FABP represented 0.1% and 0.01% of brain total cytosolic protein, respectively. In summary, mouse brain contains two native fatty acid binding proteins, brain H-FABP and brain B-FABP. ..
- Bernlohr D, Coe N, Simpson M, Hertzel A. Regulation of gene expression in adipose cells by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;422:145-56 pubmed..Intracellular lipid binding proteins therefore are negative elements in polyunsaturated fatty acid control of gene expression. ..
- Kersten S, Seydoux J, Peters J, Gonzalez F, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha mediates the adaptive response to fasting. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1489-98 pubmed..By modulating gene expression, PPARalpha stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation to supply substrates that can be metabolized by other tissues. ..
- Kaptein W, Korf J, Cheng S, Yang M, Glatz J, Renneberg R. On-line flow displacement immunoassay for fatty acid-binding protein. J Immunol Methods. 1998;217:103-11 pubmed..The system permits detection of both physiological (2-12 microg l(-1)) and pathological concentrations (12-2000 microg l(-1)) of fatty acid-binding protein in an on-line flow system. ..
- Chalmers A, Slack J. Development of the gut in Xenopus laevis. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:509-21 pubmed..Finally, we describe the histology of the cells of the various organs of the gut. This histological identification may be necessary for the identification of parts following experiments in which the normal pattern is disturbed. ..
- Murphy E, Prows D, Jefferson J, Schroeder F. Liver fatty acid-binding protein expression in transfected fibroblasts stimulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1301:191-8 pubmed..These results show in detail for the first time using an intact cell culture system that L-FABP expression not only stimulated fatty acid uptake, but also increased intracellular esterification of exogenously supplied fatty acids. ..
- Zou L, Zhu J, Deng G, Levi M, Wahren B, Diab A, et al. Treatment with P2 protein peptide 57-81 by nasal route is effective in Lewis rat experimental autoimmune neuritis. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;85:137-45 pubmed..Reduced CD4+ T cell and macrophage infiltrations within the PNS were also observed. Based on these observations, nasal autoantigen administration should be further evaluated, considering its possible future use in GBS. ..
- Man M, Hui T, Schaffer J, Lodish H, Bernlohr D. Regulation of the murine adipocyte fatty acid transporter gene by insulin. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:1021-8 pubmed
- Yamaguchi H, Yamamoto A, Watanabe R, Uchiyama N, Fujii H, Ono T, et al. High transepidermal water loss induces fatty acid synthesis and cutaneous fatty acid-binding protein expression in rat skin. J Dermatol Sci. 1998;17:205-13 pubmed..These results suggest that increase of TEWL itself stimulates C-FABP expression, leading to activation of fatty acid metabolism. ..
- Josephson R, Muller T, Pickel J, Okabe S, Reynolds K, Turner P, et al. POU transcription factors control expression of CNS stem cell-specific genes. Development. 1998;125:3087-100 pubmed..These data indicate that regulation by POU proteins and hormone receptors is a general mechanism for CNS stem cell-specific transcription. ..
- Stewart J, Dewling V, Wright T. Fatty acid binding to rat liver fatty acid-binding protein is modulated by early glycolytic intermediates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1391:1-6 pubmed..Binding decreased logarithmically with ionic strength. Glucose and glucose-6-phosphate increased fatty acid binding significantly with K0.5 within physiological ranges while glucose-1-phosphate and phosphate ion caused no effect. ..
- Kirk W, Kurian E, Prendergast F. Characterization of the sources of protein-ligand affinity: 1-sulfonato-8-(1')anilinonaphthalene binding to intestinal fatty acid binding protein. Biophys J. 1996;70:69-83 pubmed..We speculate that the observed change in heat capacity is produced mainly by the displacement of strongly hydrogen-bonded waters from the protein cavity...
- Frolov A, Woodford J, Murphy E, Billheimer J, Schroeder F. Fibroblast membrane sterol kinetic domains: modulation by sterol carrier protein-2 and liver fatty acid binding protein. J Lipid Res. 1996;37:1862-74 pubmed..Furthermore, both spontaneous and protein-mediated sterol transfer appeared vectorial and selective in nature. ..
- Richieri G, Low P, Ogata R, Kleinfeld A. Thermodynamics of fatty acid binding to engineered mutants of the adipocyte and intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:7397-405 pubmed..Finally, the A-FABP proteins, in contrast to the I-FABP proteins, reveal significant heat capacity changes (DeltaCp) upon FA binding, and substitutions at residues Arg106 and Arg126 reduce the magnitude of DeltaCp. ..
- Thumser A, Voysey J, Wilton D. Mutations of recombinant rat liver fatty acid-binding protein at residues 102 and 122 alter its structural integrity and affinity for physiological ligands. Biochem J. 1996;314 ( Pt 3):943-9 pubmed..The net result is that the ligand specificity of the R122Q mutant changes to that of a protein with enhanced affinity for acyl-CoA, lysophospholipids and mono-olein. ..
- Weishaupt A, Giegerich G, Jung S, Gold R, Enders U, Pette M, et al. T cell antigenic and neuritogenic activity of recombinant human peripheral myelin P2 protein. J Neuroimmunol. 1995;63:149-56 pubmed..Studies of human T cell autoreactivity as well as efforts to use hP2 as a tolerogen will be facilitated by the large-scale expression of rhP2. ..
- Prows D, Murphy E, Schroeder F. Intestinal and liver fatty acid binding proteins differentially affect fatty acid uptake and esterification in L-cells. Lipids. 1995;30:907-10 pubmed..These data show for the first time that distinct FABP differentially affect both fatty acid uptake and intracellular esterification. ..