myelin proteins


Summary: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.

Top Publications

  1. Raiker S, Lee H, Baldwin K, Duan Y, Shrager P, Giger R. Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein and Nogo negatively regulate activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci. 2010;30:12432-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, myelin inhibitors and their receptors may coordinate structural and functional neuronal plasticity in CNS health and disease. ..
  2. Petrinovic M, Hourez R, Aloy E, Dewarrat G, Gall D, Weinmann O, et al. Neuronal Nogo-A negatively regulates dendritic morphology and synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1083-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Nogo-A appears as a negative regulator of PC input synapses, which orchestrates cerebellar connectivity through regulation of synapse morphology and the size of the PC dendritic tree. ..
  3. Karlsson T, Karlén A, Olson L, Josephson A. Neuronal overexpression of Nogo receptor 1 in APPswe/PSEN1(?E9) mice impairs spatial cognition tasks without influencing plaque formation. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;33:145-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus high levels of membrane-bound NgR1 present since early postnatal life does not influence the development of plaques in mice carrying the two human plaque-causing mutations APPswe and PSEN1(?E9). ..
  4. Winzeler A, Mandemakers W, Sun M, Stafford M, Phillips C, Barres B. The lipid sulfatide is a novel myelin-associated inhibitor of CNS axon outgrowth. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6481-92 pubmed publisher
  5. Tong D, Heinze G, Pils D, Wolf A, Singer C, Concin N, et al. Gene expression of PMP22 is an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:682 pubmed publisher
    ..Including it into a model with established prognostic factors will increase the accuracy of prognosis. ..
  6. Dickendesher T, Baldwin K, Mironova Y, Koriyama Y, Raiker S, Askew K, et al. NgR1 and NgR3 are receptors for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results identify NgR1 and NgR3 as CSPG receptors, suggest that there is functional redundancy among CSPG receptors, and provide evidence for shared mechanisms of MAI and CSPG inhibition. ..
  7. Peng X, Kim J, Zhou Z, Fink D, Mata M. Neuronal Nogo-A regulates glutamate receptor subunit expression in hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem. 2011;119:1183-93 pubmed publisher
  8. Grau López L, Raich D, Ramo Tello C, Naranjo Gomez M, Davalos A, Pujol Borrell R, et al. Specific T-cell proliferation to myelin peptides in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:1101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this mix may be useful as a source of antigen in the development of protocols aimed at inducing specific tolerance in MS. ..
  9. Schwab M. Functions of Nogo proteins and their receptors in the nervous system. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010;11:799-811 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, Nogo proteins interact with various intracellular components and may have roles in the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure, processing of amyloid precursor protein and cell survival. ..

More Information


  1. Di Lorenzo A, Manes T, Davalos A, Wright P, Sessa W. Endothelial reticulon-4B (Nogo-B) regulates ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte transmigration and acute inflammation. Blood. 2011;117:2284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel role of endothelial Nogo-B in basic immune functions and provide a key link in the molecular network governing endothelial-cell regulation of diapedesis. ..
  2. Murakami K, Jiang Y, Tanaka T, Bando Y, Mitrovic B, Yoshida S. In vivo analysis of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) function in oligodendrocyte development and the expression of myelin proteins. Neuroscience. 2013;236:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the functions of KLK6 in oligodendrocyte lineage cell development and the production of myelin proteins using KLK6-deficient (KLK6(-/-)) mice...
  3. Zhang L, Kuang X, Zhang J. Nogo receptor 3, a paralog of Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1), may function as a NgR1 co-receptor for Nogo-66. J Genet Genomics. 2011;38:515-23 pubmed publisher
  4. Carmosino M, Rizzo F, Procino G, Basco D, Valenti G, Forbush B, et al. MAL/VIP17, a new player in the regulation of NKCC2 in the kidney. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3985-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the involvement of MAL/VIP17 in the activation and surface expression of NKCC2 could play an important role in the regulated absorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney. ..
  5. Sato Y, Iketani M, Kurihara Y, Yamaguchi M, Yamashita N, Nakamura F, et al. Cartilage acidic protein-1B (LOTUS), an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist for axon tract formation. Science. 2011;333:769-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A defasciculated LOT was present in lotus-deficient mice but not in mice lacking both lotus- and ngr1. These findings suggest that endogenous antagonism of NgR1 by LOTUS is crucial for normal LOT formation. ..
  6. Zagrebelsky M, Schweigreiter R, Bandtlow C, Schwab M, Korte M. Nogo-A stabilizes the architecture of hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:13220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, although the majority of the activity of Nogo-A relies on a receptor-mediated mechanism involving NgR1, its cell-autonomous function plays a minor role...
  7. Delekate A, Zagrebelsky M, Kramer S, Schwab M, Korte M. NogoA restricts synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus on a fast time scale. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..NogoA could thus serve as an important negative regulator of functional and structural plasticity in mature neuronal networks. ..
  8. Patzig J, Jahn O, Tenzer S, Wichert S, De Monasterio Schrader P, Rosfa S, et al. Quantitative and integrative proteome analysis of peripheral nerve myelin identifies novel myelin proteins and candidate neuropathy loci. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16369-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore hypothesized that only a fraction of all relevant myelin proteins has been identified so far...
  9. Wright P, Yu J, Di Y, Homer R, Chupp G, Elias J, et al. Epithelial reticulon 4B (Nogo-B) is an endogenous regulator of Th2-driven lung inflammation. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2595-607 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify Nogo-B as a novel protective gene expressed in lung epithelia, and its expression regulates the levels of the antibacterial antiinflammatory protein PLUNC. ..
  10. Pröbstel A, Dornmair K, Bittner R, Sperl P, Jenne D, Magalhaes S, et al. Antibodies to MOG are transient in childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology. 2011;77:580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sera from 4/62 (6%) adult patients with MS had anti-MOG IgG at low levels. The persistence or disappearance of antibodies to MOG may have prognostic relevance for acute childhood demyelination. ..
  11. Zhou X, Hu X, He W, Tang X, Shi Q, Zhang Z, et al. Interaction between amyloid precursor protein and Nogo receptors regulates amyloid deposition. FASEB J. 2011;25:3146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..0.76% of total measured area in APP(swe)/PS1?E9 mice). Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of NgR expression is a potential approach for inhibiting amyloid deposition in AD patients. ..
  12. Di Pauli F, Mader S, Rostasy K, Schanda K, Bajer Kornek B, Ehling R, et al. Temporal dynamics of anti-MOG antibodies in CNS demyelinating diseases. Clin Immunol. 2011;138:247-54 pubmed publisher
  13. Akbik F, Bhagat S, Patel P, Cafferty W, Strittmatter S. Anatomical plasticity of adult brain is titrated by Nogo Receptor 1. Neuron. 2013;77:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NgR1 determines the low set point for synaptic turnover in adult cerebral cortex. ..
  14. Pernet V, Schwab M. The role of Nogo-A in axonal plasticity, regrowth and repair. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;349:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Function-blocking anti-Nogo-A antibodies are currently being tested in a clinical trial for improved outcome after spinal cord injury. ..
  15. Wills Z, Mandel Brehm C, Mardinly A, McCord A, Giger R, Greenberg M. The nogo receptor family restricts synapse number in the developing hippocampus. Neuron. 2012;73:466-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that NgR1, a receptor previously shown to restrict axon growth in the adult, also functions in the dendrite as a barrier that limits excitatory synapse number during brain development. ..
  16. Abe A, Numakura C, Kijima K, Hayashi M, Hashimoto T, Hayasaka K. Molecular diagnosis and clinical onset of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in Japan. J Hum Genet. 2011;56:364-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Low prevalence of PMP22 duplication is likely associated with the mild symptoms due to genetic and/or epigenetic modifying factors. ..
  17. McDonald C, Steinbach K, Kern F, Schweigreiter R, Martin R, Bandtlow C, et al. Nogo receptor is involved in the adhesion of dendritic cells to myelin. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:113 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction could be important in neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis in which peripheral immune cells come into contact with myelin debris. ..
  18. Mi Y, Hou B, Liao Q, Ma Y, Luo Q, Dai Y, et al. Amino-Nogo-A antagonizes reactive oxygen species generation and protects immature primary cortical neurons from oxidative toxicity. Cell Death Differ. 2012;19:1175-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that neuronal Nogo-A might play a cell-autonomous role in improving neuronal survival against oxidative insult through interacting with Prdx2 and scavenging of ROS. ..
  19. Weinreb P, Wen D, Qian F, Wildes C, Garber E, Walus L, et al. Resolution of disulfide heterogeneity in Nogo receptor I fusion proteins by molecular engineering. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2010;57:31-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This modified NgRI-Fc molecule represents a significantly improved candidate for further pharmaceutical development, and may serve as a useful model for the optimization of other IgG fusion proteins made from LRR proteins. ..
  20. Karlsson T, Koczy J, Brene S, Olson L, Josephson A. Differential conserted activity induced regulation of Nogo receptors (1-3), LOTUS and Nogo mRNA in mouse brain. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60892 pubmed publisher
  21. Cao W, Zhang Z, Xu Q, Sun Q, Yan M, Zhang J, et al. Epigenetic silencing of MAL, a putative tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelium cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:296 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the epigenetic inactivation of MAL, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelial cell carcinoma and may be served as a biomarker in HNSCC. ..
  22. Lalive P, Häusler M, Maurey H, Mikaeloff Y, Tardieu M, Wiendl H, et al. Highly reactive anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies differentiate demyelinating diseases from viral encephalitis in children. Mult Scler. 2011;17:297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to their low sensitivity anti-MOG antibodies will not serve as disease-specific biomarkers, but could help to support the diagnosis of ADEM in difficult cases. ..
  23. Gori F, Mulinacci B, Massai L, Avolio C, Caragnano M, Peroni E, et al. IgG and IgM antibodies to the refolded MOG(1-125) extracellular domain in humans. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;233:216-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The far-UV Circular Dichroism (CD) spectra of rMOG(ED)(His)(6) showed a ?-sheet, a characteristic feature of the Ig-fold. However, in MS sera and controls we failed to detected IgM or IgG antibodies. ..
  24. Gess B, Schirmacher A, Boentert M, Young P. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes in a German neuromuscular center population. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013;23:647-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further data on frequencies of CMT genes and subtypes and points to the importance of a thorough clinical and electrophysiological work-up for the direction of genetic testing. ..
  25. Tsai S, Papadopoulos C, Schwab M, Kartje G. Delayed anti-nogo-a therapy improves function after chronic stroke in adult rats. Stroke. 2011;42:186-90 pubmed publisher
  26. Tawk M, Makoukji J, Belle M, Fonte C, Trousson A, Hawkins T, et al. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an essential and direct driver of myelin gene expression and myelinogenesis. J Neurosci. 2011;31:3729-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings attribute to Wnt/?-catenin pathway components an essential role in myelin gene expression and myelinogenesis. ..
  27. Brösamle C, Halpern M. Nogo-Nogo receptor signalling in PNS axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;40:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that localized Nogo expression defines inhibitory territories that through repulsion restrict axon growth to permissive regions. ..
  28. Budel S, Padukkavidana T, Liu B, Feng Z, Hu F, Johnson S, et al. Genetic variants of Nogo-66 receptor with possible association to schizophrenia block myelin inhibition of axon growth. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..For a restricted subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, the expression of dysfunctional NGR variants may contribute to increased disease risk. ..
  29. Buffart T, Overmeer R, Steenbergen R, Tijssen M, van Grieken N, Snijders P, et al. MAL promoter hypermethylation as a novel prognostic marker in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..03) and with downregulation of expression (P=0.01). These results indicate that MAL has a putative tumour-suppressor gene function in gastric cancer, and detection of promoter hypermethylation may be useful as a prognostic marker. ..
  30. Shen S, Sandoval J, Swiss V, Li J, Dupree J, Franklin R, et al. Age-dependent epigenetic control of differentiation inhibitors is critical for remyelination efficiency. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:1024-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we suggest that inefficient epigenetic modulation of the oligodendrocyte differentiation program contributes to the age-dependent decline in remyelination efficiency. ..
  31. Montani L, Gerrits B, Gehrig P, Kempf A, Dimou L, Wollscheid B, et al. Neuronal Nogo-A modulates growth cone motility via Rho-GTP/LIMK1/cofilin in the unlesioned adult nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10793-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that in the unlesioned adult nervous system, neuronal Nogo-A can restrict neuronal growth through negative modulation of growth cone motility. ..
  32. Tian D, Liu J, Xie M, Zhan Y, Qu W, Yu Z, et al. Tamoxifen attenuates inflammatory-mediated damage and improves functional outcome after spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that tamoxifen provides neuroprotective effects for treatment of SCI-related pathology and disability, and is therefore a potential neuroprotectant for human spinal cord injury therapy. ..
  33. Thomas R, Favell K, Morante Redolat J, Pool M, Kent C, Wright M, et al. LGI1 is a Nogo receptor 1 ligand that antagonizes myelin-based growth inhibition. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that NgR1 and ADAM22 physically associate to form a receptor complex in which NgR1 facilitates LGI1 binding to ADAM22. ..
  34. Atwal J, Pinkston Gosse J, Syken J, Stawicki S, Wu Y, Shatz C, et al. PirB is a functional receptor for myelin inhibitors of axonal regeneration. Science. 2008;322:967-70 pubmed publisher
  35. Yu J, Fernandez Hernando C, Suarez Y, Schleicher M, Hao Z, Wright P, et al. Reticulon 4B (Nogo-B) is necessary for macrophage infiltration and tissue repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17511-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, endogenous Nogo coordinates macrophage-mediated inflammation with arteriogenesis, wound healing, and blood flow control. ..
  36. Zhang L, Zheng S, Wu H, Wu Y, Liu S, Fan M, et al. Identification of BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator), a non-myelin-associated protein, as a functional ligand for Nogo-66 receptor. J Neurosci. 2009;29:6348-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, BLyS can function independently of myelin-associated inhibitors and likely serves as a redundant NgR ligand that negatively influences axonal outgrowth in CNS. ..
  37. Pöllinger B, Krishnamoorthy G, Berer K, Lassmann H, Bösl M, Dunn R, et al. Spontaneous relapsing-remitting EAE in the SJL/J mouse: MOG-reactive transgenic T cells recruit endogenous MOG-specific B cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The secreted autoantibodies are pathogenic, enhancing demyelinating EAE episodes. RR mice constitute the first spontaneous animal model for the most common form of multiple sclerosis (MS), RR MS. ..
  38. Lau P, Verrier J, Nielsen J, Johnson K, Notterpek L, Hudson L. Identification of dynamically regulated microRNA and mRNA networks in developing oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11720-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that miR-9 interacts with the 3' untranslated region of PMP22 and downregulates its expression. Our results support models in which miRNAs can act as guardians of the transcriptome. ..
  39. Freund P, Schmidlin E, Wannier T, Bloch J, Mir A, Schwab M, et al. Anti-Nogo-A antibody treatment promotes recovery of manual dexterity after unilateral cervical lesion in adult primates--re-examination and extension of behavioral data. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:983-96 pubmed publisher
    ..008 and 0.005, respectively). Detailed analysis of the lesions excluded the possibility that this conclusion may have been caused by differences in lesion properties between the two groups of monkeys. ..
  40. Willi R, Weinmann O, Winter C, Klein J, Sohr R, Schnell L, et al. Constitutive genetic deletion of the growth regulator Nogo-A induces schizophrenia-related endophenotypes. J Neurosci. 2010;30:556-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first experimental demonstration that Nogo-A bears neuropsychiatric relevance, and alterations in its expression may be one etiological factor in schizophrenia and related disorders. ..
  41. Pool M, Niino M, Rambaldi I, Robson K, Bar Or A, Fournier A. Myelin regulates immune cell adhesion and motility. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NgR1 alters the motility of immune cells exposed to myelin and may thus impact their behaviour within the CNS, particularly under conditions when immune cell activation is heightened. ..
  42. McLaughlin K, Chitnis T, Newcombe J, Franz B, Kennedy J, McArdel S, et al. Age-dependent B cell autoimmunity to a myelin surface antigen in pediatric multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 2009;183:4067-76 pubmed publisher a large cohort of pediatric MS cases by flow cytometric labeling of transfectants that expressed different myelin proteins. Although Abs to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) were uncommon among adult-onset patients, a ..
  43. Yang Y, Harel N, Strittmatter S. Reticulon-4A (Nogo-A) redistributes protein disulfide isomerase to protect mice from SOD1-dependent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13850-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a novel intracellular role for reticulon proteins and support the hypothesis that modulation of PDI function is a potential therapeutic approach to ALS. ..
  44. Takei Y. Phosphorylation of Nogo receptors suppresses Nogo signaling, allowing neurite regeneration. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra14 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, in rat adult neurons, extracellular CK2 treatment overcomes inhibition of neurite outgrowth by the myelin-associated proteins. These findings provide new strategies to control Nogo signaling and hence neuronal regeneration. ..
  45. HORNE H, Lee P, Murphy S, Alonso M, Olson J, Marks J. Inactivation of the MAL gene in breast cancer is a common event that predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate MAL as a commonly altered gene in breast cancer with implications for response to chemotherapy. ..
  46. Buser A, Erne B, Werner H, Nave K, Schaeren Wiemers N. The septin cytoskeleton in myelinating glia. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;40:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that septins are intriguing candidates for membrane compartmentalization in myelin internodes. ..
  47. Magal L, Yaffe Y, Shepshelovich J, Aranda J, de Marco M, Gaus K, et al. Clustering and lateral concentration of raft lipids by the MAL protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3751-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data place MAL as a key component in the organization of membrane domains that could potentially serve as membrane sorting platforms. ..
  48. Yang Y, Liu Y, Wei P, Peng H, Winger R, Hussain R, et al. Silencing Nogo-A promotes functional recovery in demyelinating disease. Ann Neurol. 2010;67:498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing Nogo-A may be a therapeutic option for MS patients to prevent permanent functional deficits caused by immune-mediated axonal damage. ..
  49. Karlén A, Karlsson T, Mattsson A, Lundströmer K, Codeluppi S, Pham T, et al. Nogo receptor 1 regulates formation of lasting memories. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20476-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the molecular underpinnings of synaptic rearrangements that carry lasting memories may facilitate development of treatments for memory dysfunction. ..
  50. Brilot F, Dale R, Selter R, Grummel V, Kalluri S, Aslam M, et al. Antibodies to native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in children with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease. Ann Neurol. 2009;66:833-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Children may provide valuable insight into the earliest immune mechanisms of CNS demyelination. ..
  51. Feigenson K, Reid M, See J, Crenshaw E, Grinspan J. Wnt signaling is sufficient to perturb oligodendrocyte maturation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;42:255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that activating the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway delays the development of myelinating oligodendrocytes. ..
  52. Lee P, Teaberry V, Bland A, Huang Z, Whitaker R, Baba T, et al. Elevated MAL expression is accompanied by promoter hypomethylation and platinum resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:1378-89 pubmed publisher
    ..04). MAL methylation status may therefore serve as a marker of platinum sensitivity while MAL protein may be a target for development of novel therapies aimed at enhancing sensitivity to platinum-based drugs in ovarian cancer. ..
  53. Lee J, Geoffroy C, Chan A, Tolentino K, Crawford M, Leal M, et al. Assessing spinal axon regeneration and sprouting in Nogo-, MAG-, and OMgp-deficient mice. Neuron. 2010;66:663-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that while Nogo, MAG, and OMgp may modulate axon sprouting, they do not play a central role in CNS axon regeneration failure. ..