vesicle associated membrane protein 2


Summary: A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. Fernandez Alfonso T, Ryan T. A heterogeneous "resting" pool of synaptic vesicles that is dynamically interchanged across boutons in mammalian CNS synapses. Brain Cell Biol. 2008;36:87-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantitative parameters that can be extracted with the approaches outlined here should help elucidate the potential functional role of the resting vesicle pool. ..
  2. Andreyeva A, Leshchyns ka I, Knepper M, Betzel C, Redecke L, Sytnyk V, et al. CHL1 is a selective organizer of the presynaptic machinery chaperoning the SNARE complex. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12018 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we reveal a novel role for a cell adhesion molecule in selective activation of the presynaptic chaperone machinery...
  3. Liu Y, Ye Z, Yang H, Zhou L, Fan D, He S, et al. Disturbances of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins in hippocampal synaptosomes contribute to cognitive impairment after repetitive formaldehyde inhalation in male rats. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1248-54 pubmed publisher
  4. Abdulreda M, Bhalla A, Rico F, Berggren P, Chapman E, Moy V. Pulling force generated by interacting SNAREs facilitates membrane hemifusion. Integr Biol (Camb). 2009;1:301-10 pubmed publisher
  5. Li J, Han Y, Plummer M, Herrup K. Cytoplasmic ATM in neurons modulates synaptic function. Curr Biol. 2009;19:2091-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, cytoplasmic ATM physically associates with the homologous PI 3-kinase, ATR. The neurological symptoms of ataxia-telangiectasia may thus result from defective nonnuclear functions of ATM not associated with DNA repair...
  6. Cohen D, Segal M. Homeostatic presynaptic suppression of neuronal network bursts. J Neurophysiol. 2009;101:2077-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus a long-lasting increase in activity downregulates neurotransmitter release to prevent over-excitation of the network and, consequently, blocks the generation of network bursts. ..
  7. Di Giovanni J, Boudkkazi S, Mochida S, Bialowas A, Samari N, Leveque C, et al. V-ATPase membrane sector associates with synaptobrevin to modulate neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2010;67:268-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, V-ATPase may ensure two independent functions: proton transport by a fully assembled V-ATPase and a role in SNARE-dependent exocytosis by the V0 sector...
  8. Song A, Wang D, Chen G, Li Y, Luo J, Duan S, et al. A selective filter for cytoplasmic transport at the axon initial segment. Cell. 2009;136:1148-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This selective AIS filtering may contribute to preferential trafficking and segregation of cellular components in polarized neurons. ..
  9. Honma S, Taki K, Lei S, Niwa H, Wakisaka S. Immunohistochemical localization of SNARE proteins in dental pulp and periodontal ligament of the rat incisor. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1070-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Because those proteins participate in docking and exocytosis of synapse vesicles in the central nervous system, they might also contribute to vesicle exocytosis at receptive fields where apparent synapses are not present. ..

More Information


  1. Zhao P, Yang L, Lopez J, Fan J, Burchfield J, Bai L, et al. Variations in the requirement for v-SNAREs in GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate a plasticity in the requirement for v-SNAREs in GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane and further define an important role for the v-SNARE proteins in pre-fusion docking of vesicles. ..
  2. Halemani N, Bethani I, Rizzoli S, Lang T. Structure and dynamics of a two-helix SNARE complex in live cells. Traffic. 2010;11:394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a zippered Q(a)Q(b)-SNARE complex represents a short-lived SNARE intermediate in intact cells, most likely providing an initial molecular platform toward membrane fusion. ..
  3. Bragina L, Giovedi S, Barbaresi P, Benfenati F, Conti F. Heterogeneity of glutamatergic and GABAergic release machinery in cerebral cortex: analysis of synaptogyrin, vesicle-associated membrane protein, and syntaxin. Neuroscience. 2010;165:934-43 pubmed publisher
  4. James D, Kowalchyk J, Daily N, Petrie M, Martin T. CAPS drives trans-SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion through syntaxin interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed an unexpected activity of a priming protein to accelerate fusion by efficiently promoting trans-SNARE complex formation. CAPS may function in priming by organizing SNARE complexes on the plasma membrane. ..
  5. Kim J, Cook M, Carey M, Shen C, Regehr W, Dymecki S. Linking genetically defined neurons to behavior through a broadly applicable silencing allele. Neuron. 2009;63:305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence for separability by genetic lineage of serotonin-modulated behaviors; collectively, these findings demonstrate broad utility of RC::PFtox for dissecting neuron functions. ..
  6. Rubino T, Realini N, Braida D, Guidi S, Capurro V, Vigano D, et al. Changes in hippocampal morphology and neuroplasticity induced by adolescent THC treatment are associated with cognitive impairment in adulthood. Hippocampus. 2009;19:763-72 pubmed publisher
  7. Hasan N, Hu C. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival. ..
  8. Lu B, Song S, Shin Y. Accessory alpha-helix of complexin I can displace VAMP2 locally in the complexin-SNARE quaternary complex. J Mol Biol. 2010;396:602-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show the possibility that the balance between the activities of the accessory alpha-helix and the N-terminal domain might determine the final outcome of the complexin function, either stimulatory or inhibitory. ..
  9. Fdez E, Martínez Salvador M, Beard M, Woodman P, Hilfiker S. Transmembrane-domain determinants for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, structural length requirements, largely confined to the C-terminal half of the VAMP2 TMD, seem to be essential for SNARE-mediated membrane-fusion events in cells. ..
  10. Ghiani C, Starcevic M, Rodriguez Fernandez I, Nazarian R, Cheli V, Chan L, et al. The dysbindin-containing complex (BLOC-1) in brain: developmental regulation, interaction with SNARE proteins and role in neurite outgrowth. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:115, 204-15 pubmed publisher
  11. Yoshida T, Uchida S, Mishina M. Regulation of synaptic vesicle accumulation and axon terminal remodeling during synapse formation by distinct Ca signaling. J Neurochem. 2009;111:160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+)/calmodulin signaling stimulates synaptic vesicle accumulation and subsequent neuronal activity-dependent Ca(2+)/calmodulin signaling induces the morphological remodeling of axon terminals. ..
  12. Hikida T, Kimura K, Wada N, Funabiki K, Nakanishi S. Distinct roles of synaptic transmission in direct and indirect striatal pathways to reward and aversive behavior. Neuron. 2010;66:896-907 pubmed publisher
    ..These two pathways thus have distinct roles: the direct pathway critical for distinguishing associative rewarding stimuli from nonassociative ones and the indirect pathway for rapid memory formation to avoid aversive stimuli. ..
  13. Yamamoto Y, Fujikura K, Sakaue M, Okimura K, Kobayashi Y, Nakamura T, et al. The tail domain of tomosyn controls membrane fusion through tomosyn displacement by VAMP2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we propose here a novel mechanism of tomosyn that controls synaptic vesicle fusion positively by serving as a placeholder for VAMP2. ..
  14. Chung L, Hosaka T, Harada N, Jambaldorj B, Fukunaga K, Nishiwaki Y, et al. Myosin IIA participates in docking of Glut4 storage vesicles with the plasma membrane in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:995-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that myosin IIA plays a role in insulin-stimulated docking of GSVs to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through SNARE complex formation...
  15. Wang L, Peng R, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang S, Zhao L, et al. Abnormality of synaptic vesicular associated proteins in cerebral cortex and hippocampus after microwave exposure. Synapse. 2009;63:1010-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The perturbation could induce the deposit of synaptic vesicle, which might be relative to the dysfunction of the synaptic transmission, even the cognition deficit. ..
  16. Tsirulnikov K, Abuladze N, Koag M, Newman D, Scholz K, Bondar G, et al. Transport of N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, a metabolite of trichloroethylene, by mouse multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;244:218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that Mrp2 may be involved in the renal secretion of Ac-DCVC. ..
  17. Moghaddam M, Mousavi L, Shokrgozar M, Amani J, Nazariyan S, Azari S. Cloning and expression of a region of vesicle associated membrane protein2 (VAMP2) gene and its use as a recombinant peptide substrate for assaying clostridial neurotoxins in contaminated biologicals. Biologicals. 2010;38:113-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Imai A, Yoshie S, Nashida T, Fukuda M, Shimomura H. Redistribution of small GTP-binding protein, Rab27B, in rat parotid acinar cells after stimulation with isoproterenol. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:224-30 pubmed publisher
  19. Kim S, Ryan T. CDK5 serves as a major control point in neurotransmitter release. Neuron. 2010;67:797-809 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies thus pinpoint CDK5 as a major control point for modulation of neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons. ..
  20. Choi D, Radziszewska A, Schroer S, Liadis N, Liu Y, Zhang Y, et al. Deletion of Fas in the pancreatic beta-cells leads to enhanced insulin secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E1304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..However, beta-cell Fas is critical in the regulation of glucose homeostasis through regulation of the exocytosis machinery. ..
  21. Vinet J, de Jong E, Boddeke H, Stanulovic V, Brouwer N, Granic I, et al. Expression of CXCL10 in cultured cortical neurons. J Neurochem. 2010;112:703-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a possible role of neuronal CXCL10 in recruitment and homing of glial cells during embryogenesis. ..
  22. Huang S, Brown B, Craft C. Visual Arrestin 1 acts as a modulator for N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor in the photoreceptor synapse. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9381-91 pubmed publisher
  23. Kawaguchi T, Tamori Y, Kanda H, Yoshikawa M, Tateya S, Nishino N, et al. The t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 but not v-SNARE VAMP2 are indispensable to tether GLUT4 vesicles at the plasma membrane in adipocyte. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1336-41 pubmed publisher
  24. Rose A, Jeppesen J, Kiens B, Richter E. Effects of contraction on localization of GLUT4 and v-SNARE isoforms in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that VAMP2, VAMP5, and VAMP7 may be involved in translocation of GLUT4 during muscle contractions. ..
  25. Shi X, Curran J, Liao Z, Gordon R. The biological activity of ubiquitinated BoNT/B light chain in vitro and in human SHSY-5Y neuronal cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:660-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubiquitination in vitro and in cells decreased the biological activity of BoNT/B light chain. These results further elucidate BoNT protein degradation pathways in intoxicated neuronal cells and mechanisms to enhance toxin removal. ..
  26. Shi X, Garcia G, Neill R, Gordon R. TCEP treatment reduces proteolytic activity of BoNT/B in human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:1021-30 pubmed publisher
    ..g., ricin, snake venom, and all BoNT serotypes, this suggests that TCEP is a promising means to protect against these toxins by preventing cell penetration. ..
  27. Pham E, Crews L, Ubhi K, Hansen L, Adame A, Cartier A, et al. Progressive accumulation of amyloid-beta oligomers in Alzheimer's disease and in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice is accompanied by selective alterations in synaptic scaffold proteins. FEBS J. 2010;277:3051-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study suggests that the presence of a subpopulation of amyloid-beta oligomers in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease might be related to alterations in selected synaptic proteins and cognitive impairment. ..
  28. Mistry A, Mallick R, Klein J, Weimbs T, Sands J, Fröhlich O. Syntaxin specificity of aquaporins in the inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Snapin plays an important role as a linker between the water channel and the t-SNARE complex, leading to the fusion event, and the pairing with specific t-SNAREs is essential for the specificity of membrane recognition and fusion. ..
  29. Stein A, Weber G, Wahl M, Jahn R. Helical extension of the neuronal SNARE complex into the membrane. Nature. 2009;460:525-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the final phase of SNARE assembly is directly coupled to membrane merger. ..
  30. Cheng Z, Singh R, Wang T, Holicky E, Wheatley C, Bernlohr D, et al. Stimulation of GLUT4 (glucose transporter isoform 4) storage vesicle formation by sphingolipid depletion. Biochem J. 2010;427:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a mechanistic basis for recent studies showing that inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis improves glycaemic control and enhances insulin sensitivity in animal models of Type 2 diabetes. ..
  31. Oh E, Thurmond D. Munc18c depletion selectively impairs the sustained phase of insulin release. Diabetes. 2009;58:1165-74 pubmed publisher
  32. Williams D, Vicogne J, Zaitseva I, McLaughlin S, Pessin J. Evidence that electrostatic interactions between vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 and acidic phospholipids may modulate the fusion of transport vesicles with the plasma membrane. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4910-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which the positively charged VAMP and syntaxin juxtamembrane regions facilitate fusion by bridging the negatively charged vesicle and plasma membrane leaflets. ..
  33. Selak S, Paternain A, Aller M, Aller I, Picó E, Rivera R, et al. A role for SNAP25 in internalization of kainate receptors and synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 2009;63:357-71 pubmed publisher
    ..As EPSC(KAR) LTD, SNAP25/PICK1/GluK5 interactions are dynamically regulated by PKC. ..
  34. González Jamett A, Báez Matus X, Hevia M, Guerra M, Olivares M, Martinez A, et al. The association of dynamin with synaptophysin regulates quantal size and duration of exocytotic events in chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10683-91 pubmed publisher
  35. Ngatchou A, Kisler K, Fang Q, Walter A, Zhao Y, Bruns D, et al. Role of the synaptobrevin C terminus in fusion pore formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to current models, the experiments suggest that fusion pore formation begins with molecular rearrangements at the intravesicular membrane leaflet and not between the apposed cytoplasmic leaflets. ..
  36. Burré J, Sharma M, Tsetsenis T, Buchman V, Etherton M, Südhof T. Alpha-synuclein promotes SNARE-complex assembly in vivo and in vitro. Science. 2010;329:1663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, synucleins may function to sustain normal SNARE-complex assembly in a presynaptic terminal during aging. ..
  37. Gorini G, Ponomareva O, Shores K, Person M, Harris R, Mayfield R. Dynamin-1 co-associates with native mouse brain BKCa channels: proteomics analysis of synaptic protein complexes. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel interactions offer valuable insight into the protein-protein interaction network in intact synapses that could advance understanding of vesicle trafficking, release, and recycling. ..
  38. Darios F, Wasser C, Shakirzyanova A, Giniatullin A, Goodman K, Munoz Bravo J, et al. Sphingosine facilitates SNARE complex assembly and activates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Neuron. 2009;62:683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further mechanistic insights suggest that sphingosine acts on the synaptobrevin/phospholipid interface, defining a novel function for this important lipid regulator. ..
  39. Shin L, Basi N, Jeremic A, Lee J, Cho W, Chen Z, et al. Involvement of vH(+)-ATPase in synaptic vesicle swelling. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Vesicle acidification is therefore a prerequisite for AQP-6-mediated gating of water into synaptic vesicles. ..
  40. Lvov A, Greitzer D, Berlin S, Chikvashvili D, Tsuk S, Lotan I, et al. Rearrangements in the relative orientation of cytoplasmic domains induced by a membrane-anchored protein mediate modulations in Kv channel gating. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28276-91 pubmed publisher
    ..1 cytoplasmic domains. We propose that VAMP2 modulates Kv2.1 inactivation by interfering with the interaction between the docking loop and C1a, a mechanism for gating regulation that may pertain also to other Kv channels. ..
  41. Fredj N, Burrone J. A resting pool of vesicles is responsible for spontaneous vesicle fusion at the synapse. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the spontaneous vesicles belonged to a 'resting pool' that is normally not mobilized by neuronal activity and whose function was previously unknown. ..
  42. Gupton S, Gertler F. Integrin signaling switches the cytoskeletal and exocytic machinery that drives neuritogenesis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:725-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These regulated changes and coordination of cytoskeletal and exocytic machinery may be used in other physiological contexts involving cell motility and morphogenesis. ..
  43. Asano Miyoshi M, Hamamichi R, Emori Y. Synaptophysin as a probable component of neurotransmission occurring in taste receptor cells. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the taste receptor cells have a neurotransmission system involving synaptophysin, which occurs alternatively or additionally to a recently shown hemichannel system...
  44. Guzman R, Schwarz Y, Rettig J, Bruns D. SNARE force synchronizes synaptic vesicle fusion and controls the kinetics of quantal synaptic transmission. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10272-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple SybII actions determine the exquisite temporal regulation of neuronal signaling. ..
  45. Gorg B, Morwinsky A, Keitel V, Qvartskhava N, Schror K, Haussinger D. Ammonia triggers exocytotic release of L-glutamate from cultured rat astrocytes. Glia. 2010;58:691-705 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that ammonia triggers a prostanoid- and Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate exocytosis, which is essential for induction of ammonia-induced RNA oxidation. ..
  46. Chen C, Fu Z, KIM J, Barbieri J, Baldwin M. Gangliosides as high affinity receptors for tetanus neurotoxin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that gangliosides are functional dual receptors for TeNT. ..