r snare proteins


Summary: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).

Top Publications

  1. Wen W, Yu J, Pan L, Wei Z, Weng J, Wang W, et al. Lipid-Induced conformational switch controls fusion activity of longin domain SNARE Ykt6. Mol Cell. 2010;37:383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that the posttranslationally attached farnesyl group can actively regulate Ykt6 fusion activity in addition to its anticipated membrane-anchoring role. ..
  2. Wiederhold K, Fasshauer D. Is assembly of the SNARE complex enough to fuel membrane fusion?. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy revealed that the N-terminal synaptobrevin coil binds reversibly with nanomolar affinity. This suggests that individual, membrane-bridging SNARE complexes can provide much less pulling force than previously claimed. ..
  3. Darios F, Niranjan D, Ferrari E, Zhang F, Soloviev M, Rummel A, et al. SNARE tagging allows stepwise assembly of a multimodular medicinal toxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that the SNARE tetrahelical coiled-coil allows controlled linking of various building blocks into multifunctional assemblies. ..
  4. Kreda S, Seminario Vidal L, van Heusden C, O NEAL W, Jones L, Boucher R, et al. Receptor-promoted exocytosis of airway epithelial mucin granules containing a spectrum of adenine nucleotides. J Physiol. 2010;588:2255-67 pubmed publisher
  5. Siddiqi S, Mahan J, Siddiqi S, Gorelick F, Mansbach C. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 is expressed in intestinal ER. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that VAMP7 is enriched in intestinal ER and that it plays a functional role in the delivery of triacylglycerol from the ER to the Golgi...
  6. Loo L, Hwang L, Ong Y, Tay H, Wang C, Hong W. A role for endobrevin/VAMP8 in CTL lytic granule exocytosis. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:3520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results clearly show that VAMP8 is one of the v-SNARE that regulate the lytic ability of CTL by influencing the ability of the lytic granules to fuse with the plasma membrane and release its contents. ..
  7. Burgo A, Sotirakis E, Simmler M, Verraes A, Chamot C, Simpson J, et al. Role of Varp, a Rab21 exchange factor and TI-VAMP/VAMP7 partner, in neurite growth. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:1117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the mutant form of Rab21, defective in GTP hydrolysis, enhances neurite growth. We conclude that Varp is a positive regulator of neurite growth through both its GEF activity and its interaction with TI-VAMP. ..
  8. Wang C, Ng C, Shi H, Liew H, Guo K, Zeng Q, et al. A role for VAMP8/endobrevin in surface deployment of the water channel aquaporin 2. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:333-43 pubmed publisher
  9. Gray L, Dean B, Kronsbein H, Robinson P, Scarr E. Region and diagnosis-specific changes in synaptic proteins in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010;178:374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the notion that there are complex and region-specific alterations in presynaptic proteins that may lead to alterations in synaptic activity in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ..

More Information


  1. Furuta N, Fujita N, Noda T, Yoshimori T, Amano A. Combinational soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins VAMP8 and Vti1b mediate fusion of antimicrobial and canonical autophagosomes with lysosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1001-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly suggest that the combinational SNARE proteins VAMP8 and Vti1b mediate the fusion of antimicrobial and canonical autophagosomes with lysosomes, an essential event for autophagic degradation. ..
  2. Schilde C, Schönemann B, Sehring I, Plattner H. Distinct subcellular localization of a group of synaptobrevin-like SNAREs in Paramecium tetraurelia and effects of silencing SNARE-specific chaperone NSF. Eukaryot Cell. 2010;9:288-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct distributions of these SNAREs emphasize the considerable differentiation of membrane trafficking, particularly along the endo-/phagocytic pathway, in this protozoan...
  3. Ho Y, Cai D, Huang D, Wang C, Wong S. Caspases regulate VAMP-8 expression and phagocytosis in dendritic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;387:371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results highlight the role of caspases in regulating VAMP-8 expression and subsequently phagocytosis during maturation of DC. ..
  4. Verhage M, van Meer G. Synaptobrevin, sphingolipids, and secretion: lube 'n' go at the synapse. Neuron. 2009;62:603-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Neuron, a study by Darios et al. paints the opposite picture: a lipid metabolite stimulates the reluctant vSNARE synaptobrevin to engage in fusogenic protein complexes. ..
  5. Vetrivel K, Cheng H, Lin W, Sakurai T, Li T, Nukina N, et al. Association of gamma-secretase with lipid rafts in post-Golgi and endosome membranes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44945-54 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the localization of gamma-secretase in lipid raft microdomains of post-Golgi and endosomes, organelles previously implicated in amyloidogenic processing of APP. ..
  6. Graham G, Ren Q, Dilks J, Blair P, Whiteheart S, Flaumenhaft R. Endobrevin/VAMP-8-dependent dense granule release mediates thrombus formation in vivo. Blood. 2009;114:1083-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of dense granule release even in the earliest phases of thrombus formation and validate the distal platelet secretory machinery as a potential target for antiplatelet therapies. ..
  7. Gordon D, Mirza M, Sahlender D, Jakovleska J, Peden A. Coiled-coil interactions are required for post-Golgi R-SNARE trafficking. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:851-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when the dileucine motif is mutated, the construct can still be internalized potentially through coiled-coil interactions with Q-SNAREs. ..
  8. Agarwal R, Schmidt J, Stafford R, Swaminathan S. Mode of VAMP substrate recognition and inhibition of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin F. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Arg133 and Arg171, which form part of two separate exosites, are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. ..
  9. Guo X, Shen J, Xia Z, Zhang R, Zhang P, Zhao C, et al. Proteomic analysis of proteins involved in spermiogenesis in mouse. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:1246-56 pubmed publisher
  10. Yamamoto Y, Fujikura K, Sakaue M, Okimura K, Kobayashi Y, Nakamura T, et al. The tail domain of tomosyn controls membrane fusion through tomosyn displacement by VAMP2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:24-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we propose here a novel mechanism of tomosyn that controls synaptic vesicle fusion positively by serving as a placeholder for VAMP2. ..
  11. Gulshan K, Shahi P, Moye Rowley W. Compartment-specific synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine is required for normal heavy metal resistance. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:443-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Disturbance of this regulation of intracellular phospholipid balance leads to selective loss of membrane protein function in the vacuole. ..
  12. Okayama M, Arakawa T, Tanimura A, Mizoguchi I, Tajima Y, Takuma T. Role of VAMP8/endobrevin in constitutive exocytotic pathway in HeLa cells. Cell Struct Funct. 2009;34:115-25 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that VAMP8 is not essential for constitutive exocytosis, although it can be involved in the exocytosis. ..
  13. Ellena J, Liang B, Wiktor M, Stein A, Cafiso D, Jahn R, et al. Dynamic structure of lipid-bound synaptobrevin suggests a nucleation-propagation mechanism for trans-SNARE complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20306-11 pubmed publisher
  14. Feldmann A, Winterstein C, White R, Trotter J, Krämer Albers E. Comprehensive analysis of expression, subcellular localization, and cognate pairing of SNARE proteins in oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1760-72 pubmed publisher
  15. Wiederhold K, Kloepper T, Walter A, Stein A, Kienle N, Sørensen J, et al. A coiled coil trigger site is essential for rapid binding of synaptobrevin to the SNARE acceptor complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21549-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the point mutations severely inhibited secretion from chromaffin cells. Altogether, this demonstrates that the trigger site in synaptobrevin is crucial for productive SNARE zippering. ..
  16. Siddiqi S, Saleem U, Abumrad N, Davidson N, Storch J, Siddiqi S, et al. A novel multiprotein complex is required to generate the prechylomicron transport vesicle from intestinal ER. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1918-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support the conclusion that the PCTV budding complex in intestinal ER is composed of VAMP7, apoB48, CD36, and L-FABP, plus the COPII proteins. ..
  17. Racchetti G, Lorusso A, Schulte C, Gavello D, Carabelli V, D Alessandro R, et al. Rapid neurite outgrowth in neurosecretory cells and neurons is sustained by the exocytosis of a cytoplasmic organelle, the enlargeosome. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its properties and its physiological and pathological role remain to be investigated. ..
  18. Watanabe T, Iwasaki K, Takasaki K, Yamagata N, Fujino M, Nogami A, et al. Dynamin 1 depletion and memory deficits in rats treated with Abeta and cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Abeta oligomers induce memory impairment via dynamin 1 degradation, which may imply that dynamin 1 degradation is one of the causes of synaptic dysfunction in AD. ..
  19. Zhao P, Yang L, Lopez J, Fan J, Burchfield J, Bai L, et al. Variations in the requirement for v-SNAREs in GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate a plasticity in the requirement for v-SNAREs in GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane and further define an important role for the v-SNARE proteins in pre-fusion docking of vesicles. ..
  20. Domanska M, Kiessling V, Stein A, Fasshauer D, Tamm L. Single vesicle millisecond fusion kinetics reveals number of SNARE complexes optimal for fast SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This might be interpreted by fusion sites consisting of eight SNARE complexes that each activate in a single rate-limiting step in 8 ms. ..
  21. Burston H, Maldonado Baez L, Davey M, Montpetit B, Schluter C, Wendland B, et al. Regulators of yeast endocytosis identified by systematic quantitative analysis. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1097-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the conserved machinery and reveal novel mechanisms that underlie endocytic internalization. ..
  22. Duan C, Xu L, Chen Q. [Association of the polymorphism of synaptobrevins/vesicle-associated membrane proteins 8 gene with coronary heart disease in Chinese Han population]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2010;27:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..969,95% CI: 1.032-3.755. The VAMP8 rs1010 polymorphism was associated with CHD risk in Chinese Han population, the A allele might serve as a genetic risk factor of coronary heart disease. ..
  23. Johard H, Yoishii T, Dircksen H, Cusumano P, Rouyer F, Helfrich Forster C, et al. Peptidergic clock neurons in Drosophila: ion transport peptide and short neuropeptide F in subsets of dorsal and ventral lateral neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2009;516:59-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings emphasize that the LN(d)s are heterogeneous both anatomically and with respect to content of neuropeptides, cryptochrome, and other markers and suggest diverse functions of these neurons. ..
  24. Ghahremanpour M, Mehrnejad F, Moghaddam M. Structural studies of SNARE complex and its interaction with complexin by molecular dynamics simulation. Biopolymers. 2010;93:560-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the alpha-accessory helix of complexin can be an inhibiting factor for membrane fusion by competing with synaptobrevin for binding to the Q-SNARE complex. ..
  25. Siddiqi S, Mani A, Siddiqi S. The identification of the SNARE complex required for the fusion of VLDL-transport vesicle with hepatic cis-Golgi. Biochem J. 2010;429:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies against each SNARE component significantly inhibited VTV-Golgi fusion. We conclude that the SNARE complex required for VTV-Golgi fusion is composed of Sec22b, syntaxin 5, rBet1 and GOS28. ..
  26. Gupton S, Gertler F. Integrin signaling switches the cytoskeletal and exocytic machinery that drives neuritogenesis. Dev Cell. 2010;18:725-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These regulated changes and coordination of cytoskeletal and exocytic machinery may be used in other physiological contexts involving cell motility and morphogenesis. ..
  27. Weng N, Baumler M, Thomas D, Falkowski M, Swayne L, Braun J, et al. Functional role of J domain of cysteine string protein in Ca2+-dependent secretion from acinar cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G1030-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a role for CSP-alpha in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and suggest that CSP-alpha and Hsc70 modulate specific soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment receptor interactions necessary for exocytosis. ..
  28. McMahon H, Sudhof T. Synaptic core complex of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP25 forms high affinity alpha-SNAP binding site. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2213-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha-SNAP probably functions in a late step of the membrane fusion reaction after the formation of the synaptobrevin-syntaxin-SNAP25 core complex. ..
  29. Ndjamen B, Kang B, Hatsuzawa K, Kima P. Leishmania parasitophorous vacuoles interact continuously with the host cell's endoplasmic reticulum; parasitophorous vacuoles are hybrid compartments. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:1480-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This implied that molecules that traffic to the ER are transferred to PVs. Moreover the results show that PVs are hybrid compartments that are composed of both host ER and endocytic pathway components. ..
  30. Behrensdorf Nicol H, Bonifas U, Kegel B, Silberbach K, Kramer B, Weisser K. In vitro determination of tetanus toxicity by an endopeptidase assay linked to a ganglioside-binding step. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:988-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the assay concept could also be useful for in vitro toxicity measurements of other toxins with similar subunit structures. ..
  31. Newell Litwa K, Chintala S, Jenkins S, Pare J, McGaha L, Smith Y, et al. Hermansky-Pudlak protein complexes, AP-3 and BLOC-1, differentially regulate presynaptic composition in the striatum and hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2010;30:820-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that anatomically restricted mechanisms within the brain diversify the biogenesis and composition of synaptic vesicles. ..
  32. Xu Y, Su L, Rizo J. Binding of Munc18-1 to synaptobrevin and to the SNARE four-helix bundle. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1568-76 pubmed publisher
  33. Rose A, Jeppesen J, Kiens B, Richter E. Effects of contraction on localization of GLUT4 and v-SNARE isoforms in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that VAMP2, VAMP5, and VAMP7 may be involved in translocation of GLUT4 during muscle contractions. ..
  34. Harms K, Craig A. Synapse composition and organization following chronic activity blockade in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2005;490:72-84 pubmed
    ..Subcellular enrichment of synaptic proteins into specialized domains also appears intact. These data indicate that global activity inhibition is insufficient to disrupt central synapse formation or organization. ..
  35. Thomas D, Martin C, Weng N, Byrne J, Groblewski G. Tumor protein D52 expression and Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation modulates lysosomal membrane protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C725-39 pubmed publisher
  36. Wu C, Xu B, Yuan P, Ott J, Guan Y, Liu Y, et al. Genome-wide examination of genetic variants associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2010;20:389-95 pubmed publisher
    ..2 containing BTBD3, STXBP5, and BCR genes. Germline genetic variations influence the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy of SCLC and further studies are needed to test the value of these findings for personalized chemotherapy. ..
  37. Hummel E, Osterrieder A, Robinson D, Hawes C. Inhibition of Golgi function causes plastid starch accumulation. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:2603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility that starch accumulation is due either to elevated levels of cytosolic sugars because of loss of secretory Golgi activity or even to a blockage of amylase transport from the Golgi to the chloroplast is discussed. ..
  38. Fader C, Sánchez D, Mestre M, Colombo M. TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and VAMP3/cellubrevin: two v-SNARE proteins involved in specific steps of the autophagy/multivesicular body pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:1901-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, VAMP7 and ATPase NSF, a protein required for SNAREs disassembly, participate in the fusion between MVBs with the plasma membrane to release the internal vesicles (i.e., exosomes) into the extracellular medium. ..
  39. Buchanan R, Kaufman A, Kung Tran L, Miller E. Genetic analysis of yeast Sec24p mutants suggests cargo binding is not co-operative during ER export. Traffic. 2010;11:1034-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that co-operativity does not influence cargo capture at these sites, and that Sec22p rescue occurs via its function as a retrograde SNARE. ..
  40. Brito C, Danglot L, Galli T, Costa J. Subcellular localization of the carbohydrate Lewis(x) adhesion structure in hippocampus cell cultures. Brain Res. 2009;1287:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..At a later stage of differentiation, at 14 DIV, Le(x) appeared in extrasynaptic sites of GABAergic neurons, and in synaptic sites of glutamatergic neurons. ..
  41. Mazzolini J, Herit F, Bouchet J, Benmerah A, Benichou S, Niedergang F. Inhibition of phagocytosis in HIV-1-infected macrophages relies on Nef-dependent alteration of focal delivery of recycling compartments. Blood. 2010;115:4226-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that HIV-1 impairs optimal phagosome formation through Nef-dependent perturbation of the endosomal remodeling relying on AP1. We therefore identified a mechanism of macrophage function down-regulation in infected cells. ..
  42. Hasan N, Hu C. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of alpha5beta1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival. ..
  43. Danglot L, Chaineau M, Dahan M, Gendron M, Boggetto N, Perez F, et al. Role of TI-VAMP and CD82 in EGFR cell-surface dynamics and signaling. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:723-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the role of TI-VAMP in the secretory pathway of a tetraspanin, and support a model in which CD82 allows EGFR entry in microdomains that control its clathrin-dependent endocytosis and signaling. ..
  44. Kondkar A, Bray M, Leal S, Nagalla S, Liu D, Jin Y, et al. VAMP8/endobrevin is overexpressed in hyperreactive human platelets: suggested role for platelet microRNA. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a role for VAMP8/endobrevin in the heterogeneity of platelet reactivity, and suggest a role for microRNA-96 in the regulation of VAMP8 expression. ..
  45. García Román J, Ibarra Sanchez A, Lamas M, Gonzalez Espinosa C. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation. ..
  46. Kamikouchi A, Albert J, Gopfert M. Mechanical feedback amplification in Drosophila hearing is independent of synaptic transmission. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:697-703 pubmed publisher
  47. Fletcher P, Fletcher M, Weninger K, Anderson T, Martin B. Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) cleavage by a new metalloprotease from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We have isolated antarease, a metalloprotease from fraction nu that cleaves VAMP2, and report its amino acid sequence. ..
  48. Bragina L, Giovedi S, Barbaresi P, Benfenati F, Conti F. Heterogeneity of glutamatergic and GABAergic release machinery in cerebral cortex: analysis of synaptogyrin, vesicle-associated membrane protein, and syntaxin. Neuroscience. 2010;165:934-43 pubmed publisher
  49. Maekawa M, Inoue T, Kobuna H, Nishimura T, Gengyo Ando K, Mitani S, et al. Functional analysis of GS28, an intra-Golgi SNARE, in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genes Cells. 2009;14:1003-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that GS28 and Ykt6 act redundantly for the proper expression of Golgi-resident proteins in adult intestinal cells. This study reveals the in vivo importance of the Golgi-localized SNAREs GS28 and Ykt6. ..
  50. Ayong L, Raghavan A, Schneider T, Taraschi T, Fidock D, Chakrabarti D. The longin domain regulates the steady-state dynamics of Sec22 in Plasmodium falciparum. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the longin domain of PfSec22 exhibits major differences from the yeast and mammalian orthologs, perhaps indicative of a novel mechanism for Sec22 trafficking in malaria parasites. ..
  51. Rao S, Huynh C, Proux Gillardeaux V, Galli T, Andrews N. Identification of SNAREs involved in synaptotagmin VII-regulated lysosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20471-9 pubmed
  52. Yamamoto Y, Mochida S, Kurooka T, Sakisaka T. Reciprocal intramolecular interactions of tomosyn control its inhibitory activity on SNARE complex formation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12480-90 pubmed publisher