syntaxin 16


Summary: A ubiquitously expressed member of the syntaxin subfamily of SNARE proteins that localizes to the GOLGI APPARATUS.

Top Publications

  1. Gee H, Tang B, Kim K, Lee M. Syntaxin 16 binds to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and regulates its membrane trafficking in epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:35519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we demonstrate the biochemical and functional association between CFTR and syntaxin 16 (STX16) that mediates vesicle transport within the early/late endosomes and trans-Golgi network...
  2. Akbar M, Ray S, KRAMER H. The SM protein Car/Vps33A regulates SNARE-mediated trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1705-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with a role in Car-mediated fusion, dSyntaxin16 is not restricted to Golgi membranes but also present on lysosomes. ..
  3. Ganley I, Espinosa E, Pfeffer S. A syntaxin 10-SNARE complex distinguishes two distinct transport routes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi in human cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:159-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, our data provide a clear molecular distinction between the transport of MPRs and TGN46 to the trans-Golgi. ..
  4. Tang B, Low D, Lee S, Tan A, Hong W. Molecular cloning and localization of human syntaxin 16, a member of the syntaxin family of SNARE proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:673-9 pubmed
    We have cloned a new member of the syntaxin family of proteins, designated human syntaxin 16 (hsyn16)...
  5. Mallard F, Tang B, Galli T, Tenza D, Saint Pol A, Yue X, et al. Early/recycling endosomes-to-TGN transport involves two SNARE complexes and a Rab6 isoform. J Cell Biol. 2002;156:653-64 pubmed
    ..We identified interactions between the TGN-localized putative t-SNAREs syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a, and two early/recycling endosomal v-SNAREs, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP4...
  6. Struthers M, Shanks S, MacDonald C, Carpp L, Drozdowska A, Kioumourtzoglou D, et al. Functional homology of mammalian syntaxin 16 and yeast Tlg2p reveals a conserved regulatory mechanism. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the mammalian SNARE protein syntaxin 16 (Sx16, also known as Syn16) is a functional homologue of the yeast SNARE Tlg2p, in that its expression fully ..
  7. Amessou M, Fradagrada A, Falguières T, Lord J, Smith D, Roberts L, et al. Syntaxin 16 and syntaxin 5 are required for efficient retrograde transport of several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1457-68 pubmed
    ..Here, we have used RNA interference against the SNARE proteins syntaxin 5 and syntaxin 16, combined with recently developed quantitative trafficking assays, morphological approaches and cell ..
  8. Simonsen A, Bremnes B, Rønning E, Aasland R, Stenmark H. Syntaxin-16, a putative Golgi t-SNARE. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:223-31 pubmed
    ..Syntaxin-16A associates posttranslationally with microsomes, and appears to be transported to the Golgi via the endoplasmic reticulum. The three syntaxin-16 forms may have differential roles in intracellular trafficking. ..
  9. Dulubova I, Yamaguchi T, Gao Y, Min S, Huryeva I, Sudhof T, et al. How Tlg2p/syntaxin 16 'snares' Vps45. EMBO J. 2002;21:3620-31 pubmed
    ..The Tlg2p/Vps45p binding mode is shared by the mammalian syntaxin 16, confirming that it is a Tlg2p homolog, and resembles the mode of interaction between the SM protein Sly1p and ..

More Information


  1. Chen Y, Gan B, Tang B. Syntaxin 16: unraveling cellular physiology through a ubiquitous SNARE molecule. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:326-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Syntaxin 16 (Syx16) is member of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family of molecules that functions in membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells...
  2. Rahajeng J, Caplan S, Naslavsky N. Common and distinct roles for the binding partners Rabenosyn-5 and Vps45 in the regulation of endocytic trafficking in mammalian cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:859-74 pubmed publisher
  3. Proctor K, Miller S, Bryant N, Gould G. Syntaxin 16 controls the intracellular sequestration of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:433-8 pubmed
    ..These data support a model in which Stx16 is crucial in the sorting of Glut4 from the fast cycling to the slow cycling intracellular trafficking pathways in adipocytes. ..
  4. Neto H, Kaupisch A, Collins L, Gould G. Syntaxin 16 is a master recruitment factor for cytokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:3663-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that syntaxin 16 is a key regulator of cytokinesis, as it is required for recruitment of both recycling endosome-associated ..
  5. Chua C, Tang B. Syntaxin 16 is enriched in neuronal dendrites and may have a role in neurite outgrowth. Mol Membr Biol. 2008;25:35-45 pubmed
    ..We report here that the brain-enriched SNARE syntaxin 16 (Syn 16) is specifically enriched in neuronal dendrites and found at Golgi outposts, thus confirming that Golgi ..
  6. Jung J, Inamdar S, Tiwari A, Ye D, Lin F, Choudhury A. Syntaxin 16 regulates lumen formation during epithelial morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61857 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo studies establish a role for Stx16 in maintaining the integrity of cell-cell junctions, and thereby in morphogenesis of the kidney epithelial lumen. ..
  7. Smith D, Spooner R, Watson P, Murray J, Hodge T, Amessou M, et al. Internalized Pseudomonas exotoxin A can exploit multiple pathways to reach the endoplasmic reticulum. Traffic. 2006;7:379-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, unexpectedly, an ER-directed toxin with a proteinaceous receptor shows promiscuity in its intracellular trafficking pathways, exploiting routes controlled by both lipid- and protein-sorting signals. ..
  8. Xu H, Boulianne G, Trimble W. Drosophila syntaxin 16 is a Q-SNARE implicated in Golgi dynamics. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4447-55 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of the Drosophila homologue of syntaxin 16. dsyntaxin 16 binds SNAP in a concentration-dependent fashion and genetically interacts with NSF2...
  9. Shewan A, van Dam E, Martin S, Luen T, Hong W, Bryant N, et al. GLUT4 recycles via a trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain enriched in Syntaxins 6 and 16 but not TGN38: involvement of an acidic targeting motif. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:973-86 pubmed
  10. Wang Y, Tai G, Lu L, Johannes L, Hong W, Tang B. Trans-Golgi network syntaxin 10 functions distinctly from syntaxins 6 and 16. Mol Membr Biol. 2005;22:313-25 pubmed
    ..b>Syntaxin 16 knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) affects the TGN localization of syntaxin 6 but not syntaxin 10, ..
  11. Alsum Z, Abu Safieh L, Nygren A, Al Hamed M, Alkuraya F. Methylation-specific multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification as a rapid molecular diagnostic tool for pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1b. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010;14:135-9 pubmed publisher
  12. Lieu Z, Gleeson P. Identification of different itineraries and retromer components for endosome-to-Golgi transport of TGN38 and Shiga toxin. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In cells depleted of the TGN t-SNARE syntaxin 16, TGN38 accumulated predominantly in early endosomes whereas Shiga toxin accumulated in Rab11-positive recycling ..
  13. Nagasaki K, Tsuchiya S, Saitoh A, Ogata T, Fukami M. Neuromuscular symptoms in a patient with familial pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib diagnosed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Endocr J. 2013;60:231-6 pubmed
  14. Roccisana J, Sadler J, Bryant N, Gould G. Sorting of GLUT4 into its insulin-sensitive store requires the Sec1/Munc18 protein mVps45. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:2389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..levels with its cognate target-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, syntaxin 16. Depletion of mVps45 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes results in decreased GLUT4 levels and impaired insulin-stimulated ..
  15. Fröhlich L, Bastepe M, Ozturk D, Abu Zahra H, Juppner H. Lack of Gnas epigenetic changes and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib in mice with targeted disruption of syntaxin-16. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2925-35 pubmed
  16. Buffart T, van Grieken N, Tijssen M, Coffa J, Ylstra B, Grabsch H, et al. High resolution analysis of DNA copy-number aberrations of chromosomes 8, 13, and 20 in gastric cancers. Virchows Arch. 2009;455:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..ZNF217 and TNFRSF6B are associated with important clinicopathological variables, including lymph node status. ..
  17. Moreau D, Kumar P, Wang S, Chaumet A, Chew S, Chevalley H, et al. Genome-wide RNAi screens identify genes required for Ricin and PE intoxications. Dev Cell. 2011;21:231-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are consistent with two intertwined pathways converging and diverging at multiple points and reveal the complexity of retrograde membrane trafficking in mammalian cells. ..
  18. Laufman O, Hong W, Lev S. The COG complex interacts directly with Syntaxin 6 and positively regulates endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:459-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Cog6 knockdown also affected the steady-state levels and/or subcellular distributions of Syntaxin 16, Vti1a, and VAMP4 and impaired the assembly of the Syntaxin 6-Syntaxin16-Vti1a-VAMP4 SNARE complex...
  19. Xiong Q, Rikihisa Y. Subversion of NPC1 pathway of cholesterol transport by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:560-76 pubmed publisher
    ..N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP4) and syntaxin 16, which are associated with NPC1 and LDL-derived cholesterol vesicular transport were recruited to A...
  20. Cavaco B, Tomaz R, Fonseca F, Mascarenhas M, Leite V, Sobrinho L. Clinical and genetic characterization of Portuguese patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. Endocrine. 2010;37:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the first clinical and genetic study of Portuguese patients with PHP-Ib. The genetic identification of a hereditary form of this rare disease allowed an early diagnosis, and may prevent hypocalcemia-related complications. ..
  21. Turan S, Ignatius J, Moilanen J, Kuismin O, Stewart H, Mann N, et al. De novo STX16 deletions: an infrequent cause of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib that should be excluded in sporadic cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E2314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..De novo 3-kb STX16 deletions, reported only once previously, are infrequent but should be excluded in all cases of PHP-Ib, even when the family history is negative for an inherited form of this disorder. ..
  22. Neary N, El Maouche D, Hopkins R, Libutti S, Moses A, Weinstein L. Development and treatment of tertiary hyperparathyroidism in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3025-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgery is the treatment of choice in this setting. Cinacalcet may be a useful alternative in those who do not undergo surgery. ..
  23. Izzi B, de Zegher F, Francois I, Del Favero J, Goossens D, Wittevrongel C, et al. No evidence for GNAS copy number variants in patients with features of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy and abnormal platelet Gs activity. J Hum Genet. 2012;57:277-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies will be undertaken to find out whether these AHO patients with abnormal Gs function are characterized by GNAS coding or methylation defects. ..
  24. Prior M, Larance M, Lawrence R, Soul J, Humphrey S, Burchfield J, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the adipocyte plasma membrane. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:4970-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these studies provide a wealth of potential therapeutic targets for the manipulation of adipocyte function and a valuable resource for metabolic research and PM biology. ..
  25. Williamson W, Wang D, Haberman A, Hiesinger P. A dual function of V0-ATPase a1 provides an endolysosomal degradation mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:885-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that V100 exerts a temporally integrated dual function that increases neuronal degradative capacity. ..
  26. Richard N, Abeguile G, Coudray N, Kottler M. [Epigenetics and pseudohypoparathyroidism]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:367-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The phenotype is known as PHP1b. In the familial forms, these methylation anomalies are associated with a deletion of the syntaxine 16 gene in the maternal allele. This gene contains probably the imprinting center of the locus...
  27. Elli F, de Sanctis L, Peverelli E, Bordogna P, Pivetta B, Miolo G, et al. Autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib: a novel inherited deletion ablating STX16 causes loss of imprinting at the A/B DMR. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E724-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Grüters Kieslich A, Reyes M, Sharma A, Demirci C, DeClue T, Lankes E, et al. Early-Onset Obesity: Unrecognized First Evidence for GNAS Mutations and Methylation Changes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2670-2677 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, GNAS methylation abnormalities escape detection by targeted or genome-wide sequencing strategies, raising the question of whether epigenetic GNAS analyses should be considered for unexplained obesity. ..
  29. Mantovani G, de Sanctis L, Barbieri A, Elli F, Bollati V, Vaira V, et al. Pseudohypoparathyroidism and GNAS epigenetic defects: clinical evaluation of albright hereditary osteodystrophy and molecular analysis in 40 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:651-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Freson K, Izzi B, Labarque V, Van Helvoirt M, Thys C, Wittevrongel C, et al. GNAS defects identified by stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit signalling studies in platelets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4851-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The platelet-based test is a novel tool for establishing the diagnosis of Gsalpha defects, which may otherwise be quite challenging. ..
  31. Linglart A, Gensure R, Olney R, Juppner H, Bastepe M. A novel STX16 deletion in autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib redefines the boundaries of a cis-acting imprinting control element of GNAS. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76:804-14 pubmed
    ..4-kb deletion of STX16 and who had normal serum parathyroid hormone levels until the age of 21 mo...
  32. Takatani R, Molinaro A, Grigelioniene G, Tafaj O, Watanabe T, Reyes M, et al. Analysis of Multiple Families With Single Individuals Affected by Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type Ib (PHP1B) Reveals Only One Novel Maternally Inherited GNAS Deletion. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31:796-805 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic defect(s) leading in sporPHP1B to epigenetic GNAS changes and thus PTH-resistance remains unknown, but it seems unlikely that this disease variant is caused by heterozygous inherited or de novo mutations involving GNAS. ..
  33. Pruikkonen S, Kallio M. Excess of a Rassf1-targeting microRNA, miR-193a-3p, perturbs cell division fidelity. Br J Cancer. 2017;116:1451-1461 pubmed publisher
    ..In human cancer cells, excess of miR-193a-3p causes polyploidy through impairment of the Rassf1-Syntaxin 16 signalling pathway that is needed for completion of cytokinesis...
  34. Bastepe M, Pincus J, Juppner H. Two frequent tetra-nucleotide repeat polymorphisms between VAPB and STX16 on chromosome 20q13. Mol Cell Probes. 1999;13:449-51 pubmed
  35. Shitara A, Shibui T, Okayama M, Arakawa T, Mizoguchi I, Sakakura Y, et al. VAMP4 is required to maintain the ribbon structure of the Golgi apparatus. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;380:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of the cognate SNARE partners of VAMP4, syntaxin 6, syntaxin 16, and Vti1a also disrupted the Golgi ribbon structure...
  36. Cho S, Yoon Y, Ki C, Huh H, Yoo H, Lee B, et al. Clinical characterization and molecular classification of 12 Korean patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013;121:539-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the clinical characteristics and performed a molecular analysis of PHP and PPHP...