qa snare proteins


Summary: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.

Top Publications

  1. Furgason M, MacDonald C, Shanks S, Ryder S, Bryant N, Munson M. The N-terminal peptide of the syntaxin Tlg2p modulates binding of its closed conformation to Vps45p. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the Tlg2p N-peptide competes with the closed conformation for binding, suggesting a fundamental regulatory mechanism for SM-syntaxin interactions in SNARE assembly and membrane fusion. ..
  2. James D, Kowalchyk J, Daily N, Petrie M, Martin T. CAPS drives trans-SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion through syntaxin interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed an unexpected activity of a priming protein to accelerate fusion by efficiently promoting trans-SNARE complex formation. CAPS may function in priming by organizing SNARE complexes on the plasma membrane. ..
  3. Han L, Jiang T, Han G, Malintan N, Xie L, Wang L, et al. Rescue of Munc18-1 and -2 double knockdown reveals the essential functions of interaction between Munc18 and closed syntaxin in PC12 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4962-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies also indicate that the binding to the closed conformation of syntaxin is essential for Munc18-1 stimulatory action, whereas the binding to syntaxin N terminus plays a more limited role in neurosecretory cells. ..
  4. Rickman C, Medine C, Dun A, Moulton D, Mandula O, Halemani N, et al. t-SNARE protein conformations patterned by the lipid microenvironment. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results define spatially distinct t-SNARE intermediate states on the plasma membrane and how the conformation adopted can be patterned by the underlying lipid environment. ..
  5. Wiederhold K, Fasshauer D. Is assembly of the SNARE complex enough to fuel membrane fusion?. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13143-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy revealed that the N-terminal synaptobrevin coil binds reversibly with nanomolar affinity. This suggests that individual, membrane-bridging SNARE complexes can provide much less pulling force than previously claimed. ..
  6. Malintan N, Nguyen T, Han L, Latham C, Osborne S, Wen P, et al. Abrogating Munc18-1-SNARE complex interaction has limited impact on exocytosis in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21637-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The Munc18-1 hydrophobic pocket is therefore critical for SNARE complex binding. However, mutations abrogating this interaction have a limited impact on Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in PC12 cells. ..
  7. McMahon H, Sudhof T. Synaptic core complex of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP25 forms high affinity alpha-SNAP binding site. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:2213-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha-SNAP probably functions in a late step of the membrane fusion reaction after the formation of the synaptobrevin-syntaxin-SNAP25 core complex. ..
  8. Lee B, Jethwaney D, Schilling B, Clemens D, Gibson B, Horwitz M. The Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin phagosome proteome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:32-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our phagosome purification procedure and initial proteomics analyses set the stage for a quantitative comparative analysis of mycobacterial and latex bead phagosome proteomes. ..
  9. Chen L, Hu J, Yun Y, Wang T. Rab36 regulates the spatial distribution of late endosomes and lysosomes through a similar mechanism to Rab34. Mol Membr Biol. 2010;27:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the binding region for Rab36 is in the C-terminal region (aa199-401) of RILP. Our data suggested that Rab36 may regulate the spatial distribution of late endosomes and lysosomes through a similar mechanism to Rab34. ..

More Information


  1. Curtis L, Datta P, Liu X, Bogdanova N, Heidelberger R, Janz R. Syntaxin 3B is essential for the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in ribbon synapses of the retina. Neuroscience. 2010;166:832-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrate that syntaxin 3B is an important factor for synaptic vesicle exocytosis in ribbon synapses of the vertebrate retina. ..
  2. Woronowicz K, Dilks J, Rozenvayn N, Dowal L, Blair P, Peters C, et al. The platelet actin cytoskeleton associates with SNAREs and participates in alpha-granule secretion. Biochemistry. 2010;49:4533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that the platelet cytoskeleton interacts with select SNAREs and that actin polymerization facilitates alpha-granule release. ..
  3. Jakovljevic G, Kardum Skelin I, Rogosić S, Culić S, Stepan J, Gagro A, et al. Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a 6-week-old male infant. Coll Antropol. 2010;34:631-4 pubmed
    ..Familiar HLH is generally a progressive and fatal disease. Early diagnosis with molecular genetic analysis and chemoimmunotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the best approach. ..
  4. Vetrivel K, Cheng H, Lin W, Sakurai T, Li T, Nukina N, et al. Association of gamma-secretase with lipid rafts in post-Golgi and endosome membranes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44945-54 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the localization of gamma-secretase in lipid raft microdomains of post-Golgi and endosomes, organelles previously implicated in amyloidogenic processing of APP. ..
  5. Rao S, Huynh C, Proux Gillardeaux V, Galli T, Andrews N. Identification of SNAREs involved in synaptotagmin VII-regulated lysosomal exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20471-9 pubmed
  6. Leznicki P, Clancy A, Schwappach B, High S. Bat3 promotes the membrane integration of tail-anchored proteins. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2170-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Mathieson E, Schwartz C, Neiman A. Membrane assembly modulates the stability of the meiotic spindle-pole body. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest an architectural rearrangement of the MOP coincident with vesicle fusion. ..
  8. Evesson F, Peat R, Lek A, Brilot F, Lo H, Dale R, et al. Reduced plasma membrane expression of dysferlin mutants is attributed to accelerated endocytosis via a syntaxin-4-associated pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28529-39 pubmed publisher
  9. Brown C, Dunton D, Chiang H. The vacuole import and degradation pathway utilizes early steps of endocytosis and actin polymerization to deliver cargo proteins to the vacuole for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:1516-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Following the fusion of endosomes with the vacuole, cargo proteins are then degraded in the vacuole. ..
  10. Liu Y, Schirra C, Edelmann L, Matti U, Rhee J, Hof D, et al. Two distinct secretory vesicle-priming steps in adrenal chromaffin cells. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:1067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that CAPS functions downstream of Munc13s but also interacts functionally with Munc13s in the LDCV-priming process. ..
  11. Boström P, Andersson L, Li L, Perkins R, Højlund K, Boren J, et al. The assembly of lipid droplets and its relation to cellular insulin sensitivity. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009;37:981-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus both SNAP-23 and syntaxin-5 are highly involved in the development of insulin resistance. ..
  12. Low S, Miura M, Roche P, Valdez A, Mostov K, Weimbs T. Intracellular redirection of plasma membrane trafficking after loss of epithelial cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3045-60 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a fundamental shift in plasma membrane traffic toward intracellular compartments while protein sorting is preserved when epithelial cells lose their cell polarity. ..
  13. Hatsuzawa K, Hashimoto H, Hashimoto H, Arai S, Tamura T, Higa Nishiyama A, et al. Sec22b is a negative regulator of phagocytosis in macrophages. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4435-43 pubmed publisher
  14. Wang L, Peng R, Hu X, Gao Y, Wang S, Zhao L, et al. Abnormality of synaptic vesicular associated proteins in cerebral cortex and hippocampus after microwave exposure. Synapse. 2009;63:1010-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The perturbation could induce the deposit of synaptic vesicle, which might be relative to the dysfunction of the synaptic transmission, even the cognition deficit. ..
  15. Feldmann A, Winterstein C, White R, Trotter J, Krämer Albers E. Comprehensive analysis of expression, subcellular localization, and cognate pairing of SNARE proteins in oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1760-72 pubmed publisher
  16. Murray D, Tamm L, Kiessling V. Supported double membranes. J Struct Biol. 2009;168:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SPT experiments with reconstituted syntaxin-1A show that the mobility of transmembrane proteins was not improved when compared with solid supported membranes. ..
  17. Csaba Z, Lelouvier B, Viollet C, El Ghouzzi V, Toyama K, Videau C, et al. Activated somatostatin type 2 receptors traffic in vivo in central neurons from dendrites to the trans Golgi before recycling. Traffic. 2007;8:820-34 pubmed
  18. Carr C, Rizo J. At the junction of SNARE and SM protein function. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2010;22:488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The available data suggest sequential models that describe how the soluble SM protein might first regulate SNARE complex assembly and then cooperate with SNAREs to stimulate membrane fusion. ..
  19. Gray L, Dean B, Kronsbein H, Robinson P, Scarr E. Region and diagnosis-specific changes in synaptic proteins in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010;178:374-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the notion that there are complex and region-specific alterations in presynaptic proteins that may lead to alterations in synaptic activity in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ..
  20. Xie L, Calafat J, Janssen H, de la Iglesia Vicente J, Mollinedo F. Intracellular location of syntaxin 7 in human neutrophils. Immunol Lett. 2010;129:72-7 pubmed publisher
  21. Walter A, Wiederhold K, Bruns D, Fasshauer D, Sørensen J. Synaptobrevin N-terminally bound to syntaxin-SNAP-25 defines the primed vesicle state in regulated exocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:401-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are consistent with a model in which the N terminus of the SNARE complex assembles during vesicle priming, followed by Ca(2+)-triggered C-terminal assembly and membrane fusion...
  22. Ghahremanpour M, Mehrnejad F, Moghaddam M. Structural studies of SNARE complex and its interaction with complexin by molecular dynamics simulation. Biopolymers. 2010;93:560-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that the alpha-accessory helix of complexin can be an inhibiting factor for membrane fusion by competing with synaptobrevin for binding to the Q-SNARE complex. ..
  23. Zhang Y, Kang Y, Chang N, Lam P, Liu Y, Olkkonen V, et al. Cab45b, a Munc18b-interacting partner, regulates exocytosis in pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20840-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a mechanism for Cab45b action that involves regulating the dynamic association of Munc18b with SNAREs to impact beta-cell granule exocytosis. ..
  24. Mendonsa R, Engebrecht J. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate and phospholipase D-generated phosphatidic acid specify SNARE-mediated vesicle fusion for prospore membrane formation. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:1094-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that PLD-generated PA and PI(4,5)P(2) collaborate at multiple levels to promote SNARE-mediated fusion for PSM formation. ..
  25. Rahajeng J, Caplan S, Naslavsky N. Common and distinct roles for the binding partners Rabenosyn-5 and Vps45 in the regulation of endocytic trafficking in mammalian cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:859-74 pubmed publisher
  26. Perreault S, Bousquet O, Lauzon M, Paiement J, Leclerc N. Increased association between rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes and mitochondria in transgenic mice that express P301L tau. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009;68:503-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that more contacts between RER membranes and mitochondria resulting from the accumulation of tau at the surface of RER membranes might contribute to tau-induced neurodegeneration...
  27. Albayrak M, Kaya Z, Yilmaz Keskin E, Stadt U, Kocak U, Gursel T. Fatal Epstein-Barr virus infection in a case of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with syntaxin-11 mutation. Turk J Pediatr. 2009;51:371-4 pubmed
    ..The role of EBV infection in the prognosis of FHL is discussed. ..
  28. Mistry A, Mallick R, Klein J, Weimbs T, Sands J, Fröhlich O. Syntaxin specificity of aquaporins in the inner medullary collecting duct. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Snapin plays an important role as a linker between the water channel and the t-SNARE complex, leading to the fusion event, and the pairing with specific t-SNAREs is essential for the specificity of membrane recognition and fusion. ..
  29. Hamaji K, Nagira M, Yoshida K, Ohnishi M, Oda Y, Uemura T, et al. Dynamic aspects of ion accumulation by vesicle traffic under salt stress in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:2023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of vesicle traffic under salt stress is discussed. ..
  30. Gonçalves J, Baptista S, Martins T, Milhazes N, Borges F, Ribeiro C, et al. Methamphetamine-induced neuroinflammation and neuronal dysfunction in the mice hippocampus: preventive effect of indomethacin. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated that METH triggers an inflammatory process and leads to neuronal dysfunction in the hippocampus, which can be prevented by an anti-inflammatory treatment. ..
  31. Petukhova L, Duvic M, Hordinsky M, Norris D, Price V, Shimomura Y, et al. Genome-wide association study in alopecia areata implicates both innate and adaptive immunity. Nature. 2010;466:113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have defined the genetic underpinnings of AA, placing it within the context of shared pathways among autoimmune diseases, and implicating a novel disease mechanism, the upregulation of ULBP ligands, in triggering autoimmunity. ..
  32. Hong S, So J, Lee J, Min K, Son H, Park C, et al. Functional analyses of two syntaxin-like SNARE genes, GzSYN1 and GzSYN2, in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae. Fungal Genet Biol. 2010;47:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that syntaxins have key roles in fungal development and virulence in G. zeae...
  33. Williamson W, Wang D, Haberman A, Hiesinger P. A dual function of V0-ATPase a1 provides an endolysosomal degradation mechanism in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:885-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that V100 exerts a temporally integrated dual function that increases neuronal degradative capacity. ..
  34. Ghiani C, Starcevic M, Rodriguez Fernandez I, Nazarian R, Cheli V, Chan L, et al. The dysbindin-containing complex (BLOC-1) in brain: developmental regulation, interaction with SNARE proteins and role in neurite outgrowth. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:115, 204-15 pubmed publisher
  35. Smyth A, Rickman C, Duncan R. Vesicle fusion probability is determined by the specific interactions of munc18. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that interaction with the syntaxin N-peptide can confer differential release probabilities to secretory vesicles and may contribute to the delineation of secretory vesicle pools. ..
  36. Williams D, Novick P. Analysis of SEC9 suppression reveals a relationship of SNARE function to cell physiology. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5449 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, Sro7p acts to promote SNARE complex formation. Finally, Sec9p function and SNARE complex formation are tightly coupled to the physiological state of the cell. ..
  37. Pham E, Crews L, Ubhi K, Hansen L, Adame A, Cartier A, et al. Progressive accumulation of amyloid-beta oligomers in Alzheimer's disease and in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice is accompanied by selective alterations in synaptic scaffold proteins. FEBS J. 2010;277:3051-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study suggests that the presence of a subpopulation of amyloid-beta oligomers in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease might be related to alterations in selected synaptic proteins and cognitive impairment. ..
  38. Iinuma T, Aoki T, Arasaki K, Hirose H, Yamamoto A, Samata R, et al. Role of syntaxin 18 in the organization of endoplasmic reticulum subdomains. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1680-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that syntaxin 18 has an important role in ER subdomain organization by mediating the fusion of retrograde membrane carriers with the ER membrane...
  39. Meyer D, Pajonk S, Micali C, O Connell R, Schulze Lefert P. Extracellular transport and integration of plant secretory proteins into pathogen-induced cell wall compartments. Plant J. 2009;57:986-99 pubmed publisher
  40. Stierhof Y, El Kasmi F. Strategies to improve the antigenicity, ultrastructure preservation and visibility of trafficking compartments in Arabidopsis tissue. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss possibilities to improve membrane contrast, e.g., of transport vesicles like COPI, COPII and clathrin-coated vesicles, and of compartments of endosomal trafficking like the trans-Golgi network. ..
  41. Pieren M, Schmidt A, Mayer A. The SM protein Vps33 and the t-SNARE H(abc) domain promote fusion pore opening. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that SM proteins promote fusion pore opening by enhancing the fusogenic activity of a SNARE complex. They should thus be considered integral parts of the fusion machinery. ..
  42. Kawasaki F, Ordway R. Molecular mechanisms determining conserved properties of short-term synaptic depression revealed in NSF and SNAP-25 conditional mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14658-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results reported here establish in vivo contributions of SNAP-25 and NSF to synaptic vesicle trafficking and define molecular mechanisms determining conserved functional properties of short-term depression. ..
  43. Patil S, Schlick F, Hoger H, Lubec G. Linkage of hippocampal proteins to spatial memory formation and strain-dependence in Apodemus sylvaticus, C57BL/6J and PWD/PhJ mice. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that the neuronal protein NeuN is able to discriminate between good and bad performers in the MWM may be of major interest and may open a new area in the search for protein markers of spatial memory performance. ..
  44. Boutté Y, Frescatada Rosa M, Men S, Chow C, Ebine K, Gustavsson A, et al. Endocytosis restricts Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin to the cell division plane during late cytokinesis. EMBO J. 2010;29:546-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, restriction of lateral diffusion by endocytosis may serve to maintain specificity of syntaxin localization during late cytokinesis. ..
  45. Chatre L, Wattelet Boyer V, Melser S, Maneta Peyret L, Brandizzi F, Moreau P. A novel di-acidic motif facilitates ER export of the syntaxin SYP31. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses indicate that we have identified a novel and transplantable di-acidic motif that facilitates ER export of SYP31 and may function for type I and type II proteins in plants. ..
  46. Song S, Kim S, Song M, Lim D. Aurora B-mediated phosphorylation of RASSF1A maintains proper cytokinesis by recruiting Syntaxin16 to the midzone and midbody. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8540-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate Aurora B-mediated phosphorylation of RASSF1A in the regulation of cytokinesis. ..
  47. Cognato G, Agostinho P, Hockemeyer J, Muller C, Souza D, Cunha R. Caffeine and an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist prevent memory impairment and synaptotoxicity in adult rats triggered by a convulsive episode in early life. J Neurochem. 2010;112:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that a single convulsive episode in early life causes a delayed memory deficit in adulthood accompanied by a glutamatergic synaptotoxicity that was prevented by caffeine or adenosine A(2A)R antagonists. ..
  48. Laufman O, Kedan A, Hong W, Lev S. Direct interaction between the COG complex and the SM protein, Sly1, is required for Golgi SNARE pairing. EMBO J. 2009;28:2006-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the mechanism by which SM proteins link tethering to SNAREpin assembly. ..
  49. Strömberg S, Agnarsdottir M, Magnusson K, Rexhepaj E, Bolander A, Lundberg E, et al. Selective expression of Syntaxin-7 protein in benign melanocytes and malignant melanoma. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:1639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The presented antibody-based proteomics approach can be used as an effective strategy to identify novel tumor markers and evaluate their potential clinical relevance. ..
  50. Sakashita N, Chang C, Lei X, Fujiwara Y, Takeya M, Chang T. Cholesterol loading in macrophages stimulates formation of ER-derived vesicles with elevated ACAT1 activity. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results show that macrophages cope with cholesterol loading by using a novel mechanism: they produce more ER-derived vesicles with elevated ACAT1 enzyme activity without having to produce more ACAT1 protein. ..
  51. Siddiqi S, Mani A, Siddiqi S. The identification of the SNARE complex required for the fusion of VLDL-transport vesicle with hepatic cis-Golgi. Biochem J. 2010;429:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies against each SNARE component significantly inhibited VTV-Golgi fusion. We conclude that the SNARE complex required for VTV-Golgi fusion is composed of Sec22b, syntaxin 5, rBet1 and GOS28. ..
  52. Stechmann B, Bai S, Gobbo E, Lopez R, Merer G, Pinchard S, et al. Inhibition of retrograde transport protects mice from lethal ricin challenge. Cell. 2010;141:231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work discovers the first small molecule that shows efficacy against ricin in animal experiments and identifies the retrograde route as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  53. Honsbein A, Sokolovski S, Grefen C, Campanoni P, Pratelli R, Paneque M, et al. A tripartite SNARE-K+ channel complex mediates in channel-dependent K+ nutrition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2859-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, it suggests a role in regulating K(+) uptake coordinately with membrane expansion for cell growth. ..