snare proteins


Summary: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)

Top Publications

  1. Vennekate W, Schröder S, Lin C, van den Bogaart G, Grunwald M, Jahn R, et al. Cis- and trans-membrane interactions of synaptotagmin-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11037-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that trans-interactions of synaptotagmin considered to be essential for its function are controlled by a delicate balance between cis- and trans-binding, which may play an important modulatory role in synaptic transmission. ..
  2. Chang L, Chen S, Liu C, Pan X, Jiang J, Bai X, et al. Structural characterization of full-length NSF and 20S particles. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:268-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying disassembly of the SNARE complex by NSF. ..
  3. Shi L, Kümmel D, Coleman J, Melia T, Giraudo C. Dual roles of Munc18-1 rely on distinct binding modes of the central cavity with Stx1A and SNARE complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings lead us to propose a transition model between the two distinct binding modes by which Munc18 can control and assist in SNARE-complex assembly during neurotransmitter release. ..
  4. Darios F, Niranjan D, Ferrari E, Zhang F, Soloviev M, Rummel A, et al. SNARE tagging allows stepwise assembly of a multimodular medicinal toxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used SNARE proteins, namely, syntaxin, SNAP25, and synaptobrevin, which form stable tetrahelical complexes that drive fusion of ..
  5. Rodríguez F, Bustos M, Zanetti M, Ruete M, Mayorga L, Tomes C. ?-SNAP prevents docking of the acrosome during sperm exocytosis because it sequesters monomeric syntaxin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21925 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of this study are twofold: our findings explain the fertility defect of hyh mice and indicate that assembly of SNAREs in trans complexes is essential for docking...
  6. Diao J, Ishitsuka Y, Lee H, Joo C, Su Z, Syed S, et al. A single vesicle-vesicle fusion assay for in vitro studies of SNAREs and accessory proteins. Nat Protoc. 2012;7:921-34 pubmed
    ..These assays can be used to study the roles of various SNARE proteins, accessory proteins and effects of different lipid compositions on specific fusion steps...
  7. Nair U, Jotwani A, Geng J, Gammoh N, Richerson D, Yen W, et al. SNARE proteins are required for macroautophagy. Cell. 2011;146:290-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple SNARE-mediated fusion events are likely to be involved in autophagosome biogenesis. ..
  8. Aran V, Bryant N, Gould G. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c on residue 521 abrogates binding to Syntaxin 4. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane requires the SNARE proteins Syntaxin 4, VAMP2 and the regulatory Sec1/Munc18 protein, Munc18c...
  9. Smith E, Weisshaar J. Docking, not fusion, as the rate-limiting step in a SNARE-driven vesicle fusion assay. Biophys J. 2011;100:2141-50 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Pantazopoulou A, Peñalva M. Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans RabC/Rab6. Traffic. 2011;12:386-406 pubmed publisher
    ..tlg2? mutants grow normally but are synthetically lethal with rabC?, indicating that RabC plays Tlg2-independent roles...
  2. Laufman O, Hong W, Lev S. The COG complex interacts with multiple Golgi SNAREs and enhances fusogenic assembly of SNARE complexes. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1506-16 pubmed publisher
  3. Cipriano D, Jung J, Vivona S, Fenn T, Brunger A, Bryant Z. Processive ATP-driven substrate disassembly by the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) molecular machine. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23436-45 pubmed publisher
    b>SNARE proteins promote membrane fusion by forming a four-stranded parallel helical bundle that brings the membranes into close proximity...
  4. Diao J, Zhao M, Zhang Y, Kyoung M, Brunger A. Studying protein-reconstituted proteoliposome fusion with content indicators in vitro. Bioessays. 2013;35:658-65 pubmed publisher
    ..However, to date, most ensemble and single-vesicle experiments involving SNARE proteins have been performed only with lipid-mixing, but not content-mixing indicators...
  5. Yang X, Kaeser Woo Y, Pang Z, Xu W, Sudhof T. Complexin clamps asynchronous release by blocking a secondary Ca(2+) sensor via its accessory ? helix. Neuron. 2010;68:907-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, complexin performs mechanistically distinct activation and clamping functions that operate in conjunction with synaptotagmin-1 by controlling trans-SNARE-complex assembly. ..
  6. Epp N, Rethmeier R, Krämer L, Ungermann C. Membrane dynamics and fusion at late endosomes and vacuoles--Rab regulation, multisubunit tethering complexes and SNAREs. Eur J Cell Biol. 2011;90:779-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge on the mechanisms and regulation of endosome and vacuole membrane dynamics, and their role in organelle physiology. ..
  7. Meijer M, Burkhardt P, de Wit H, Toonen R, Fasshauer D, Verhage M. Munc18-1 mutations that strongly impair SNARE-complex binding support normal synaptic transmission. EMBO J. 2012;31:2156-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a prevailing role of Munc18-1 before/during SNARE-complex assembly, while its continued association to assembled SNARE complexes is dispensable for synaptic transmission. ..
  8. Brown F, Pfeffer S. An update on transport vesicle tethering. Mol Membr Biol. 2010;27:457-61 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction at a distance (tethering), followed by a closer interaction that leads to pairing of vesicle SNARE proteins (v-SNAREs) with target membrane SNAREs (t-SNAREs), thereby catalyzing vesicle fusion...
  9. Weber Boyvat M, Aro N, Chernov K, Nyman T, Jantti J. Sec1p and Mso1p C-terminal tails cooperate with the SNAREs and Sec4p in polarized exocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:230-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This association depends on the Sec4p guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p. Our results reveal a novel binding mode between the Sec1p C-terminal tail and the SNARE complex, and suggest a role for Mso1p as an effector of Sec4p. ..
  10. Yamamoto Y, Mochida S, Miyazaki N, Kawai K, Fujikura K, Kurooka T, et al. Tomosyn inhibits synaptotagmin-1-mediated step of Ca2+-dependent neurotransmitter release through its N-terminal WD40 repeats. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40943-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the interplay between tomosyn and synaptotagmin-1 underlies inhibitory control of Ca(2+)-dependent neurotransmitter release. ..
  11. Wesolowski J, Paumet F. SNARE motif: a common motif used by pathogens to manipulate membrane fusion. Virulence. 2010;1:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins are structurally and functionally similar to the SNARE proteins known to be involved in eukaryotic membrane fusion...
  12. Brewer K, Li W, Horne B, Rizo J. Reluctance to membrane binding enables accessibility of the synaptobrevin SNARE motif for SNARE complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12723-8 pubmed publisher
    b>SNARE proteins play a critical role in intracellular membrane fusion by forming tight complexes that bring two membranes together and involve sequences called SNARE motifs...
  13. Kyoung M, Srivastava A, Zhang Y, Diao J, Vrljic M, Grob P, et al. In vitro system capable of differentiating fast Ca2+-triggered content mixing from lipid exchange for mechanistic studies of neurotransmitter release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E304-13 pubmed publisher
  14. Offenh user C, Lei N, Roy S, Collins B, Stow J, Murray R. Syntaxin 11 binds Vti1b and regulates late endosome to lysosome fusion in macrophages. Traffic. 2011;12:762-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that by regulating the availability of Vti1b, Stx11 regulates trafficking steps between late endosomes, lysosomes and the cell surface in macrophages...
  15. Oh E, Kalwat M, Kim M, Verhage M, Thurmond D. Munc18-1 regulates first-phase insulin release by promoting granule docking to multiple syntaxin isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25821-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that Munc18-1 does not pair with syntaxin 4, these data suggest a novel indirect role for Munc18-1 in facilitating syntaxin 4-mediated granule pre-docking to support first-phase insulin exocytosis...
  16. Jorquera R, Huntwork Rodriguez S, Akbergenova Y, Cho R, Littleton J. Complexin controls spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release by regulating the timing and properties of synaptotagmin activity. J Neurosci. 2012;32:18234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate CPX regulates both spontaneous and evoked fusion by modulating the timing and properties of SYT activation during the synaptic vesicle cycle. ..
  17. Sudhof T. Calcium control of neurotransmitter release. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012;4:a011353 pubmed publisher mediated by the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of the synaptotagmin C2-domains with phospholipids and SNARE proteins. In triggering exocytosis, synaptotagmins do not act alone, but require an obligatory cofactor called ..
  18. Sharma M, Burr J, S dhof T. CSP? promotes SNARE-complex assembly by chaperoning SNAP-25 during synaptic activity. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of presynaptic SNARE complexes and the SNARE protein SNAP-25 are reduced, suggesting that CSP? may chaperone SNARE proteins, which catalyse synaptic vesicle fusion...
  19. van den Bogaart G, Jahn R. Counting the SNAREs needed for membrane fusion. J Mol Cell Biol. 2011;3:204-5 pubmed publisher
    b>SNARE proteins mediate most membrane fusion reactions in eukaryotic cells, and are thereby vital for many functions, including synaptic transmission, cell growth, and cytokinesis...
  20. Binz T, Sikorra S, Mahrhold S. Clostridial neurotoxins: mechanism of SNARE cleavage and outlook on potential substrate specificity reengineering. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:665-82 pubmed publisher
  21. Risselada H, Grubmuller H. How SNARE molecules mediate membrane fusion: recent insights from molecular simulations. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2012;22:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion by molecular simulations. ..
  22. Uemura T, Kim H, Saito C, Ebine K, Ueda T, Schulze Lefert P, et al. Qa-SNAREs localized to the trans-Golgi network regulate multiple transport pathways and extracellular disease resistance in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1784-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also reveal a plant cell-specific higher-order role of the SYP4 group in the protection of chloroplasts from salicylic acid-dependent biotic stress. ..
  23. Mohrmann R, Sørensen J. SNARE requirements en route to exocytosis: from many to few. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:387-94 pubmed
    ..the functional unit driving membrane fusion, our knowledge about the dynamical arrangement and organization of SNARE proteins and their complexes before and during vesicle exocytosis is still limited...
  24. Xu J, Brewer K, Perez Castillejos R, Rizo J. Subtle Interplay between synaptotagmin and complexin binding to the SNARE complex. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:3461-75 pubmed publisher
  25. Cheng K, Lam K, Wu D, Wang Y, Sweeney G, Hoo R, et al. APPL1 potentiates insulin secretion in pancreatic ? cells by enhancing protein kinase Akt-dependent expression of SNARE proteins in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8919-24 pubmed publisher
    ..islets and rat ? cells, APPL1 deficiency causes a marked reduction in expression of the exocytotic machinery SNARE proteins (syntaxin-1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2) and an obvious ..
  26. Davletov B, Ferrari E, Ushkaryov Y. Presynaptic neurotoxins: an expanding array of natural and modified molecules. Cell Calcium. 2012;52:234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, a number of research groups have already initiated a quest to harness the power of natural toxins with the aim of making them more specifically targeted and safer for future research and medical applications. ..
  27. Koo S, Markovic S, Puchkov D, Mahrenholz C, Beceren Braun F, Maritzen T, et al. SNARE motif-mediated sorting of synaptobrevin by the endocytic adaptors clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid leukemia (CALM) and AP180 at synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Defective SNARE endocytosis may also underlie the association of CALM and AP180 with neurodevelopmental and cognitive defects or neurodegenerative disorders...
  28. Gao Y, Zorman S, Gundersen G, Xi Z, Ma L, Sirinakis G, et al. Single reconstituted neuronal SNARE complexes zipper in three distinct stages. Science. 2012;337:1340-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This intermediate then rapidly and forcefully zippered, delivering free energy of 36 k(B)T (where k(B) is Boltzmann's constant and T is temperature) to mediate fusion. ..
  29. Vardjan N, Jorgacevski J, Zorec R. Fusion pores, SNAREs, and exocytosis. Neuroscientist. 2013;19:160-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, a more detailed insight into the molecular control of fusion pore stabilization and regulation will generate a better understanding of fusion pore physiology in health and disease. ..
  30. Lobingier B, Merz A. Sec1/Munc18 protein Vps33 binds to SNARE domains and the quaternary SNARE complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4611-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also strengthen the hypothesis that SNARE complex binding is a core attribute of SM protein function. ..
  31. Lai Y, Diao J, Liu Y, Ishitsuka Y, Su Z, Schulten K, et al. Fusion pore formation and expansion induced by Ca2+ and synaptotagmin 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1333-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also show that complexin 1 stimulates pore expansion significantly, which could put bias between two pathways of vesicle recycling. ..
  32. Moeller A, Zhao C, Fried M, Wilson Kubalek E, Carragher B, Whiteheart S. Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor (NSF) and their potential role in SNARE complex disassembly. J Struct Biol. 2012;177:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Mapping mutations onto our 3D models allows interpretation of the domain movement and suggests a mechanism for NSF binding to and disassembly of SNARE complexes...
  33. Burgalossi A, Jung S, Meyer G, Jockusch W, Jahn O, Taschenberger H, et al. SNARE protein recycling by ?SNAP and ?SNAP supports synaptic vesicle priming. Neuron. 2010;68:473-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of ?- and ?SNAP deletion mutant neurons shows that the two NSF cofactors support synaptic vesicle priming by determining the availability of free SNARE components, particularly during phases of high synaptic activity. ..
  34. Woska J, Gillespie M. Small-interfering RNA-mediated identification and regulation of the ternary SNARE complex mediating RBL-2H3 mast cell degranulation. Scand J Immunol. 2011;73:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have identified specific SNARE proteins and complexes that serve as novel targets for the development of siRNA therapies to treat allergic and ..
  35. Bryant N, Gould G. SNARE proteins underpin insulin-regulated GLUT4 traffic. Traffic. 2011;12:657-64 pubmed publisher
  36. Ma C, Li W, Xu Y, Rizo J. Munc13 mediates the transition from the closed syntaxin-Munc18 complex to the SNARE complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:542-9 pubmed publisher
  37. Hui E, Gaffaney J, Wang Z, Johnson C, Evans C, Chapman E. Mechanism and function of synaptotagmin-mediated membrane apposition. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..fusion assay, we observed that synaptotagmin-1 drove the assembly of otherwise non-fusogenic individual t-SNARE proteins into fusion-competent heterodimers, independently of aggregation...
  38. Moreau K, Ravikumar B, Renna M, Puri C, Rubinsztein D. Autophagosome precursor maturation requires homotypic fusion. Cell. 2011;146:303-17 pubmed publisher
  39. Li F, Pincet F, Perez E, Giraudo C, Tareste D, Rothman J. Complexin activates and clamps SNAREpins by a common mechanism involving an intermediate energetic state. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:941-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Stabilizing the activated-clamped state at separations of less than 9 nm requires the accessory helix of CPX, which prevents membrane-proximal assembly of SNAREpins. ..
  40. Morgera F, Sallah M, Dubuke M, Gandhi P, Brewer D, Carr C, et al. Regulation of exocytosis by the exocyst subunit Sec6 and the SM protein Sec1. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:337-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, upon vesicle arrival, Sec6 is proposed to release Sec9 in favor of Sec6-exocyst assembly and to simultaneously recruit Sec1 to sites of secretion for coordinated SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion. ..
  41. Khodthong C, Kabachinski G, James D, Martin T. Munc13 homology domain-1 in CAPS/UNC31 mediates SNARE binding required for priming vesicle exocytosis. Cell Metab. 2011;14:254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The membrane fusion machinery consisting of vesicle and plasma membrane SNARE proteins needs to be assembled for Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle exocytosis...
  42. Walter A, Groffen A, Sørensen J, Verhage M. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion: teammates, competitors or autocrats?. Trends Neurosci. 2011;34:487-97 pubmed publisher
  43. Deng Q, Terunuma M, Fellin T, Moss S, Haydon P. Astrocytic activation of A1 receptors regulates the surface expression of NMDA receptors through a Src kinase dependent pathway. Glia. 2011;59:1084-93 pubmed publisher
  44. Hua Z, Leal Ortiz S, Foss S, Waites C, Garner C, Voglmaier S, et al. v-SNARE composition distinguishes synaptic vesicle pools. Neuron. 2011;71:474-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that different endocytic mechanisms generate synaptic vesicles with different proteins that can endow the vesicles with distinct properties. ..
  45. Jewell J, Oh E, Ramalingam L, Kalwat M, Tagliabracci V, Tackett L, et al. Munc18c phosphorylation by the insulin receptor links cell signaling directly to SNARE exocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:185-99 pubmed publisher
  46. Gadella B, Evans J. Membrane fusions during mammalian fertilization. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;713:65-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there is a block at the level of the oolemma (also known as the membrane block to polyspermy). ..
  47. Torregrosa Hetland C, Villanueva J, Garcia Mart nez V, Exp sito Romero G, Guti rrez L. Cortical F-actin affects the localization and dynamics of SNAP-25 membrane clusters in chromaffin cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:583-92 pubmed publisher
    It has been proposed recently that the F-actin cytoskeleton organizes the relative disposition of the SNARE proteins and calcium channels that form part of the secretory machinery in chromaffin cells, a neurosecretory model...
  48. Chat S, Layani S, Mahaut C, Henry C, Chanat E, Truchet S. Characterisation of the potential SNARE proteins relevant to milk product release by mouse mammary epithelial cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2011;90:401-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms governing casein exocytosis are, to date, not fully deciphered. SNARE proteins are known to take part in cellular membrane trafficking and in exocytosis events in many cell types and we ..
  49. Fischer A. Synchronized chaperone function of botulinum neurotoxin domains mediates light chain translocation into neurons. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2013;364:115-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses the individual functions of each module as well as the mechanisms by which each domain serves as a chaperone for the others, working in concert to achieve productive intoxication. ..
  50. Hu S, Christie M, Saez N, Latham C, Jarrott R, Lua L, et al. Possible roles for Munc18-1 domain 3a and Syntaxin1 N-peptide and C-terminal anchor in SNARE complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1040-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that Munc18-1 domain 3a undergoes a conformational change that may allow coiled-coil interactions with SNARE complexes. ..
  51. Ramirez D, Khvotchev M, Trauterman B, Kavalali E. Vti1a identifies a vesicle pool that preferentially recycles at rest and maintains spontaneous neurotransmission. Neuron. 2012;73:121-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results support the premise that in its native form vti1a selectively maintains spontaneous neurotransmitter release. ..
  52. Alpadi K, Kulkarni A, Comte V, Reinhardt M, Schmidt A, Namjoshi S, et al. Sequential analysis of trans-SNARE formation in intracellular membrane fusion. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001243 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the vacuolar Rab-GTPase, Ypt7, and HOPS restrict cis-SNARE disassembly and thereby bias trans-SNARE assembly into a preferred topology. ..
  53. Diao J, Su Z, Ishitsuka Y, Lu B, Lee K, Lai Y, et al. A single-vesicle content mixing assay for SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. Nat Commun. 2010;1:54 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the yeast SNARE complex alone without any accessory proteins can expand the fusion pore large enough to transmit ~11 kDa cargoes. ..