potassium channels


Summary: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Y, Brown M, Hyland C, Chen Y, Kronengold J, Fleming M, et al. Regulation of neuronal excitability by interaction of fragile X mental retardation protein with slack potassium channels. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15318-27 pubmed publisher
  2. Liu S, Lockless S. Equilibrium selectivity alone does not create K+-selective ion conduction in K+ channels. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2746 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the detailed architecture of the K(+) channel selectivity filter, and not only its equilibrium ion preference, is fundamental to the generation of selectivity during ion conduction. ..
  3. Pereira S, Pereira G, Pereira C, Carvalho F, Cordeiro M, Mota P, et al. Dioxin-induced acute cardiac mitochondrial oxidative damage and increased activity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in Wistar rats. Environ Pollut. 2013;180:281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that TCDD-induced oxidative stress may also interfere with mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP), which are known to regulate and to be regulated by mitochondrial redox state...
  4. Hoomann T, Jahnke N, Horner A, Keller S, Pohl P. Filter gate closure inhibits ion but not water transport through potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10842-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This questions the widely accepted hypothesis that multiple K(+) ions in the selectivity filter act to mutually destabilize binding. ..
  5. Iwamoto M, Oiki S. Amphipathic antenna of an inward rectifier K+ channel responds to changes in the inner membrane leaflet. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:749-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The M0 helix is thus a charge-sensitive "antenna," capturing temporary changes in lipid composition in the fluidic membrane. This unique type of sensory device may be shared by various types of membrane proteins. ..
  6. Adaixo R, Harley C, Castro Rodrigues A, MORAIS CABRAL J. Structural properties of PAS domains from the KCNH potassium channels. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59265 pubmed publisher
    KCNH channels form an important family of voltage gated potassium channels. These channels include a N-terminal Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain with unknown function...
  7. Weingarth M, Prokofyev A, van der Cruijsen E, Nand D, Bonvin A, Pongs O, et al. Structural determinants of specific lipid binding to potassium channels. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:3983-8 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated specific lipid binding to the pore domain of potassium channels KcsA and chimeric KcsA-Kv1...
  8. Wang J, Li Z, Feng M, Ren K, Shen G, Zhao C, et al. Opening of astrocytic mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels upregulates electrical coupling between hippocampal astrocytes in rat brain slices. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56605 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this effect is mainly via up-regulation of the Connexin43-constituted gap junction coupling by an ERK-dependent mechanism in the mitochondria. ..
  9. Tanano I, Nagaoka T, Omae T, Ishibazawa A, Kamiya T, Ono S, et al. Dilation of porcine retinal arterioles to cilostazol: roles of eNOS phosphorylation via cAMP/protein kinase A and AMP-activated protein kinase and potassium channels. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1443-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of cilostazol on the retinal microvascular diameter to determine its dependence on the endothelium and/or smooth muscle to reveal the signaling mechanisms involved in this vasomotor activity...

More Information


  1. Veale E, Hassan M, Walsh Y, Al Moubarak E, Mathie A. Recovery of current through mutated TASK3 potassium channels underlying Birk Barel syndrome. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:397-407 pubmed publisher
    TASK3 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel 3) potassium channels are members of the two-pore-domain potassium channel family. They are responsible for background leak potassium currents found in many cell types...
  2. Andersen A, Povlsen J, Bøtker H, Nielsen Kudsk J. Ischemic preconditioning reduces right ventricular infarct size through opening of mitochondrial potassium channels. Cardiology. 2012;123:177-80 pubmed publisher
    ..IPC reduces RV myocardial infarct size and improves postischemic RV contractile function in the isolated rat heart, possibly through opening of the mitochondrial K(ATP) channel. ..
  3. Liu S, Bian X, Lockless S. Preferential binding of K+ ions in the selectivity filter at equilibrium explains high selectivity of K+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2012;140:671-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that the equilibrium preference for K(+) ions originates in part through the optimal spacing between sites to accommodate multiple K(+) ions within the selectivity filter...
  4. Trono D, Soccio M, Laus M, Pastore D. The existence of phospholipase A(2) activity in plant mitochondria and its activation by hyperosmotic stress in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Plant Sci. 2013;199-200:91-102 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Exp. Bot. 62 (2011) 141-154] that, in turn, activate potassium channel and uncoupling protein, able to counteract hyperosmotic stress...
  5. Zarelli V, Dawid I. Inhibition of neural crest formation by Kctd15 involves regulation of transcription factor AP-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2870-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Kctd15 acts in the embryo at least in part by specifically binding to the activation domain of AP-2?, thereby blocking the function of this critical factor in the neural crest induction hierarchy. ..
  6. Kaur K, Zarzoso M, Ponce Balbuena D, Guerrero Serna G, Hou L, Musa H, et al. TGF-?1, released by myofibroblasts, differentially regulates transcription and function of sodium and potassium channels in adult rat ventricular myocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55391 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide new mechanistic insight into the electrical remodeling associated with myocardial injury. ..
  7. Skoblov M, Marakhonov A, Marakasova E, Guskova A, Chandhoke V, Birerdinc A, et al. Protein partners of KCTD proteins provide insights about their functional roles in cell differentiation and vertebrate development. Bioessays. 2013;35:586-96 pubmed publisher
    ..KCTD9 deserves experimental attention as the only eukaryotic protein with a DNA-like pentapeptide repeat domain. The value of manual curation of PPIs and analysis of existing high-throughput data should not be underestimated. ..
  8. Harnett M, Xu N, Magee J, Williams S. Potassium channels control the interaction between active dendritic integration compartments in layer 5 cortical pyramidal neurons. Neuron. 2013;79:516-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, KV channels dynamically tune the interaction between active dendritic integration compartments in layer 5B pyramidal neurons to shape behaviorally relevant neuronal computations. ..
  9. de Souza M, Bouskela E. Arteriolar diameter and spontaneous vasomotion: importance of potassium channels and nitric oxide. Microvasc Res. 2013;90:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results point to the existence of dissociation between vasomotion frequency and amplitude. ..
  10. Lacroix J, Campos F, Frezza L, Bezanilla F. Molecular bases for the asynchronous activation of sodium and potassium channels required for nerve impulse generation. Neuron. 2013;79:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers the molecular bases responsible for the differential activation of Nav versus Kv channels, a fundamental prerequisite for the genesis of action potentials. ..
  11. Trono D, Soccio M, Laus M, Pastore D. Potassium channel-oxidative phosphorylation relationship in durum wheat mitochondria from control and hyperosmotic-stressed seedlings. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:2093-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Anyway, if the stress significantly proceeds, the PmitoK(ATP) becomes fully activated by decrease of ATP concentration (25-40%) and increase of activators [free fatty acids (FFAs) and superoxide anion], thus impairing ATP synthesis. ..
  12. Marsh B, Acosta C, Djouhri L, Lawson S. Leak K? channel mRNAs in dorsal root ganglia: relation to inflammation and spontaneous pain behaviour. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;49:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..K2P channels and their altered expression are therefore associated with inflammation-induced pain. ..
  13. Enyedi P, Braun G, Czirják G. TRESK: the lone ranger of two-pore domain potassium channels. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;353:75-81 pubmed publisher
  14. Santoro B, Hu L, Liu H, Saponaro A, Pian P, Piskorowski R, et al. TRIP8b regulates HCN1 channel trafficking and gating through two distinct C-terminal interaction sites. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4074-86 pubmed publisher
  15. Ryu S, Yellen G. Charge movement in gating-locked HCN channels reveals weak coupling of voltage sensors and gate. J Gen Physiol. 2012;140:469-79 pubmed publisher
    ..3-2 kT per sensor. Such coupling is not only opposite in sign to the coupling in K(+) channels, but also much weaker. ..
  16. Lewis R, Feetham C, Barrett Jolley R. Cell volume regulation in chondrocytes. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;28:1111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..A critical question is whether disturbances of volume regulation mechanisms lead to, result from or are simply coincidental to cartilage damage. ..
  17. Stradleigh T, Ogata G, Partida G, Oi H, Greenberg K, Krempely K, et al. Colocalization of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel subunits in rat retinal ganglion cells. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:2546-73 pubmed publisher
  18. Szabo I, Leanza L, Gulbins E, Zoratti M. Physiology of potassium channels in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Pflugers Arch. 2012;463:231-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This review gives an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the functions of the mitochondrial potassium channels identified so far...
  19. Payandeh J, Scheuer T, Zheng N, Catterall W. The crystal structure of a voltage-gated sodium channel. Nature. 2011;475:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This structure provides the template for understanding electrical signalling in excitable cells and the actions of drugs used for pain, epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia at the atomic level. ..
  20. Uysal S, Cuello L, Cortes D, Koide S, Kossiakoff A, Perozo E. Mechanism of activation gating in the full-length KcsA K+ channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11896-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that by limiting the extent to which the inner gate can open, the cytoplasmic domain also modulates the level of inactivation occurring at the selectivity filter. ..
  21. Maîtrejean M, Wudick M, Voelker C, Prinsi B, Mueller Roeber B, Czempinski K, et al. Assembly and sorting of the tonoplast potassium channel AtTPK1 and its turnover by internalization into the vacuole. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1783-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Turnover of the fusion protein involves internalization into the vacuole where the GFP domain is released. This indicates a possible mechanism for the turnover of tonoplast proteins. ..
  22. Hao S, Bao Y, An L, Cheng W, Zhao R, Bi J, et al. Effects of Resibufogenin and Cinobufagin on voltage-gated potassium channels in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:1644-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that IK is probably a target of bufadienolides, which may explain the mechanisms of bufadienolides' pathological effects on central nervous system. ..
  23. Ying S, Tibbs G, Picollo A, Abbas S, Sanford R, Accardi A, et al. PIP2-mediated HCN3 channel gating is crucial for rhythmic burst firing in thalamic intergeniculate leaflet neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:10412-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the IGL is a major input to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, regulation of pacemaking function by PIP(2) in the IGL may influence sleep and circadian rhythms. ..
  24. Emery E, Young G, Berrocoso E, Chen L, McNaughton P. HCN2 ion channels play a central role in inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Science. 2011;333:1462-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After a nerve lesion, these mice showed no neuropathic pain in response to thermal or mechanical stimuli. Neuropathic pain is therefore initiated by HCN2-driven action potential firing in Na(V)1.8-expressing nociceptors. ..
  25. Nakagawa I, Wajima D, Tamura K, Nishimura F, Park Y, Nakase H. The neuroprotective effect of diazoxide is mediated by mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels in a rat model of acute subdural hematoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20:144-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5-HD alone increased infarct volume. These data suggest that the mitoK(ATP) channel is an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of cerebral preconditioning in a rat model of ASDH. ..
  26. Shimizu W, Horie M. Phenotypic manifestations of mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac potassium channels. Circ Res. 2011;109:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..gene), now referred to as KCNH2, encoding the rapid component of cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels was identified as being responsible for type 2 congenital long-QT syndrome, a number of potassium channel ..
  27. Ma B, Xie M, Zhou M. Bicarbonate efflux via GABA(A) receptors depolarizes membrane potential and inhibits two-pore domain potassium channels of astrocytes in rat hippocampal slices. Glia. 2012;60:1761-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, HCO(3) (-) efflux through activated GABA(A) -R depolarizes astrocyte V(m) and induces a delayed inhibition of K2Ps K(+) channels via intracellular acidification. ..
  28. Garg P, Sanguinetti M. Structure-activity relationship of fenamates as Slo2.1 channel activators. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;82:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that fenamates bind to two sites on Slo2.1 channels: an extracellular accessible site to activate and a cytoplasmic accessible site in the pore to inhibit currents...
  29. Foster D, Ho A, Rucker J, Garlid A, Chen L, Sidor A, et al. Mitochondrial ROMK channel is a molecular component of mitoK(ATP). Circ Res. 2012;111:446-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings support ROMK as the pore-forming subunit of the cytoprotective mitoK(ATP) channel...
  30. Gao L, McMullan S, Djouhri L, Acosta C, Harper A, Lawson S. Expression and properties of hyperpolarization-activated current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons with known sensory function. J Physiol. 2012;590:4691-705 pubmed publisher
    ..g. in chronic/pathological pain states) may influence both nociceptor and LTM excitability.expression and/or properties (e.g. in chronic/pathological pain states) may influence both nociceptor and LTM excitability. ..
  31. Yan Y, Yang Y, Bian S, Sigworth F. Expression, purification and functional reconstitution of slack sodium-activated potassium channels. J Membr Biol. 2012;245:667-74 pubmed publisher
  32. Camargos T, Restano Cassulini R, Possani L, Peigneur S, Tytgat J, Schwartz C, et al. The new kappa-KTx 2.5 from the scorpion Opisthacanthus cayaporum. Peptides. 2011;32:1509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Kv1.2 complex...
  33. Bobak N, Bittner S, Andronic J, Hartmann S, Mühlpfordt F, Schneider Hohendorf T, et al. Volume regulation of murine T lymphocytes relies on voltage-dependent and two-pore domain potassium channels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1808:2036-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relative contribution of different potassium channels to the osmotic volume regulation and in particular to the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in T cells is far ..
  34. Prole D, Marrion N. Identification of putative potassium channel homologues in pathogenic protozoa. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32264 pubmed publisher
    ..These protozoan K(+) channel homologues represent novel targets for anti-parasitic drugs. Differences in the sequences and diversity of human and parasite proteins may allow pathogen-specific targeting of these K(+) channel homologues...
  35. Tulleuda A, Cokić B, Callejo G, Saiani B, Serra J, Gasull X. TRESK channel contribution to nociceptive sensory neurons excitability: modulation by nerve injury. Mol Pain. 2011;7:30 pubmed publisher
  36. Graham B, Tadros M, Schofield P, Callister R. Probing glycine receptor stoichiometry in superficial dorsal horn neurones using the spasmodic mouse. J Physiol. 2011;589:2459-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, future efforts to design therapies that target the ?3 subunit must consider the potential interaction between ?1 and ?3 subunits in the GlyR. ..
  37. Garlid K, Halestrap A. The mitochondrial K(ATP) channel--fact or fiction?. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..is the evidence for the presence of a K(ATP) channel in mitochondria? Are the pharmacological agents used to modulate mitoK(ATP) activity sufficiently specific to allow the role of these channels in cardioprotection to be established? ..
  38. Pan A, Cuello L, Perozo E, Roux B. Thermodynamic coupling between activation and inactivation gating in potassium channels revealed by free energy molecular dynamics simulations. J Gen Physiol. 2011;138:571-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Macroscopic current analysis shows that the I100A mutant indeed relieves inactivation in KcsA, but to a lesser extent than the F103A mutant. ..
  39. Jung S, Warner L, Pitsch J, Becker A, Poolos N. Rapid loss of dendritic HCN channel expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons following status epilepticus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results show that HCN1 channelopathy begins rapidly and persists after SE, involves both transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms, and may be an early contributor to epileptogenesis. ..
  40. Reid C, Phillips A, Petrou S. HCN channelopathies: pathophysiology in genetic epilepsy and therapeutic implications. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss what is known about the pharmacological manipulation of HCN channels in the context of epilepsy and how this may help future efforts in developing HCN-channel-based therapy. ..
  41. Neitz A, Mergia E, Eysel U, Koesling D, Mittmann T. Presynaptic nitric oxide/cGMP facilitates glutamate release via hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in the hippocampus. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we unravel a presynaptic role of NO/cGMP most likely in glutamate release and propose that HCN channels act as effectors for cGMP. ..
  42. Sheets P, Suter B, Kiritani T, Chan C, Surmeier D, Shepherd G. Corticospinal-specific HCN expression in mouse motor cortex: I(h)-dependent synaptic integration as a candidate microcircuit mechanism involved in motor control. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:2216-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that modulation of I(h) in corticospinal neurons could provide a microcircuit-level mechanism involved in translating action planning into action execution. ..
  43. Iwamoto M, Oiki S. Counting ion and water molecules in a streaming file through the open-filter structure of the K channel. J Neurosci. 2011;31:12180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we envisioned the permeation as queues of ion and water molecules and sequential transitions between different patterns of arrays. Under physiological conditions, we predicted that the knock-on mechanism may not be predominant. ..
  44. Dreyer I, Uozumi N. Potassium channels in plant cells. FEBS J. 2011;278:4293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..An essential role in potassium uptake and efflux is played by potassium channels. Since the first molecular characterization of K(+) channels from Arabidopsis thaliana in 1992, a large ..
  45. Braun G, Nemcsics B, Enyedi P, Czirják G. TRESK background K(+) channel is inhibited by PAR-1/MARK microtubule affinity-regulating kinases in Xenopus oocytes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28119 pubmed publisher
    ..These results raise the possibility that microtubule dynamics is coupled to the regulation of excitability in the neurons, which express TRESK background potassium channel. ..
  46. Kwan D, Prole D, Yellen G. Structural changes during HCN channel gating defined by high affinity metal bridges. J Gen Physiol. 2012;140:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This facilitates a movement of the pore-lining S6 helices, which results in opening of the channel. This mechanism may underlie the unique voltage dependence of HCN channel gating...
  47. Morera F, Alioua A, Kundu P, Salazar M, Gonzalez C, Martinez A, et al. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of ?2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of ?-subunit in BK potassium channels. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:2287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein-protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the ?2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the ?-subunit. ..
  48. D Amico M, Gasparoli L, Arcangeli A. Potassium channels: novel emerging biomarkers and targets for therapy in cancer. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2013;8:53-65 pubmed
    ..Once taken into account these strategies, K+ channels may represent suitable and easily accessible cancer biomarkers and targets for therapy. The relevant patents related to K+ channels and cancer are discussed. ..
  49. Monteiro F, Silva A, Martins I, Correia A, Basílio I, Agra M, et al. Vasorelaxant action of the total alkaloid fraction obtained from Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae) involves NO/cGMP/PKG pathway and potassium channels. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:895-900 pubmed publisher
    ..jurubeba-roxa) is commonly used to treat hypertension as a substitute for Solanum paniculatum L. (jurubeba verdadeira). The total ethanolic extract from the root bark of Solanum paludosum have been found to cause hypotension in rats...
  50. Bolivar J, Smithers N, East J, Marsh D, Lee A. Multiple binding sites for fatty acids on the potassium channel KcsA. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2889-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, it is proposed that the EPR studies detect binding to the central hydrophobic cavity of the channel, with a binding constant in the range of ~0.1-1 ?M. ..
  51. Hage T, Salkoff L. Sodium-activated potassium channels are functionally coupled to persistent sodium currents. J Neurosci. 2012;32:2714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show an unanticipated role for I(NaP) in activating a negative feedback system countering the excitable effects I(NaP); the interrelatedness of I(NaP) and I(KNa) suggests new ways neurons can tune their excitability. ..
  52. Brohawn S, del Mármol J, MacKinnon R. Crystal structure of the human K2P TRAAK, a lipid- and mechano-sensitive K+ ion channel. Science. 2012;335:436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Two diagonally opposed gate-forming inner helices form membrane-interacting structures that may underlie this channel's sensitivity to chemical and mechanical properties of the cell membrane. ..
  53. Heck A, Vogler C, Gschwind L, Ackermann S, Auschra B, Spalek K, et al. Statistical epistasis and functional brain imaging support a role of voltage-gated potassium channels in human memory. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29337 pubmed publisher
    ..001) supporting the behavioral genetics finding. Our results demonstrate the importance of analytical approaches that go beyond single marker statistics of complex traits. ..
  54. Jiang K, Wang J, Zhao C, Feng M, Shen Z, Yu Z, et al. Regulation of gap junctional communication by astrocytic mitochondrial K(ATP) channels following neurotoxin administration in in vitro and in vivo models. Neurosignals. 2011;19:63-74 pubmed publisher
  55. Pirone L, Correale S, de Paola I, Zaccaro L, De Simone G, Vitagliano L, et al. Design, synthesis and characterization of a peptide able to bind proteins of the KCTD family: implications for KCTD-cullin 3 recognition. J Pept Sci. 2011;17:373-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that the tetrameric KCTD11 and the pentameric KCTD5 are endowed with a similar cavity at the subunit-subunit interface deputed to the Cul3 binding, despite their different oligomeric states. ..
  56. Mari S, Pessoa J, Altieri S, Hensen U, Thomas L, MORAIS CABRAL J, et al. Gating of the MlotiK1 potassium channel involves large rearrangements of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..7 nm, and adopt a structurally variable grouped conformation that closes the cytoplasmic vestibule. This fully reversible conformational change provides insight into how CNB domains rearrange when regulating the potassium channel. ..