aquaporin 4


Summary: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.

Top Publications

  1. Potokar M, Stenovec M, Jorgacevski J, Holen T, Kreft M, Ottersen O, et al. Regulation of AQP4 surface expression via vesicle mobility in astrocytes. Glia. 2013;61:917-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain, expressed mainly in astrocytes and involved in water transport in physiologic and pathologic conditions...
  2. Varrin Doyer M, Spencer C, Schulze Topphoff U, Nelson P, Stroud R, Cree B, et al. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells in neuromyelitis optica exhibit a Th17 bias and recognize Clostridium ABC transporter. Ann Neurol. 2012;72:53-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, a T cell-dependent Ig subclass, indicating that AQP4-specific T cells participate in NMO pathogenesis...
  3. Kitley J, Woodhall M, Waters P, Leite M, Devenney E, Craig J, et al. Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in adults with a neuromyelitis optica phenotype. Neurology. 2012;79:1273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To report an association of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adults...
  4. Haj Yasein N, Jensen V, Østby I, Omholt S, Voipio J, Kaila K, et al. Aquaporin-4 regulates extracellular space volume dynamics during high-frequency synaptic stimulation: a gene deletion study in mouse hippocampus. Glia. 2012;60:867-74 pubmed publisher
    ..For both genotypes the ECS shrinkage was most pronounced in the pyramidal cell layer. Our data attribute a physiological role to AQP4 and indicate that this water channel regulates extracellular volume dynamics in the mammalian brain...
  5. Niino M, Uesugi H, Takahashi T, Fukazawa T, Minami N, Tashiro J, et al. Recurrent brainstem lesions mimicking infarctions in an elderly patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Intern Med. 2012;51:809-12 pubmed
    ..In patients with recurrent brainstem lesions, even in the elderly and those with symptoms mimicking infarction, NMO spectrum disorder should be considered as a differential diagnosis...
  6. Xie Y, Wen X, Jiang Z, Fu H, Han H, Dai L. Aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 4 are involved in invasion of lung cancer cells. Clin Lab. 2012;58:75-80 pubmed
    ..Although further details on the molecular function of AQP1 or 4 related to tumorigenesis remain to be elucidated, our results suggest a potential role of AQP1 or 4 as novel therapeutic targets for the management of lung cancer. ..
  7. Jarius S, Ruprecht K, Wildemann B, Kuempfel T, Ringelstein M, Geis C, et al. Contrasting disease patterns in seropositive and seronegative neuromyelitis optica: A multicentre study of 175 patients. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides an overview of the clinical and paraclinical features of NMOSD in Caucasians and demonstrates a number of distinct disease characteristics in seropositive and seronegative patients. ..
  8. Papadopoulos M, Verkman A. Aquaporin 4 and neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol. 2012;11:535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of circulating IgG1 antibodies against the astrocyte water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and the evidence that AQP4-IgG is involved in the development of neuromyelitis optica revolutionised our ..
  9. Saji E, Arakawa M, Yanagawa K, Toyoshima Y, Yokoseki A, Okamoto K, et al. Cognitive impairment and cortical degeneration in neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 2013;73:65-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to elucidate the characteristics and pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in NMOsd brains...

More Information


  1. Cheung S, Leung J, Lam A, Lam K, Chung S, Lo A, et al. Selective over-expression of endothelin-1 in endothelial cells exacerbates inner retinal edema and neuronal death in ischemic retina. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26184 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, over-expression of endothelial ET-1 in TET-1 mice may contribute to increased glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on neuronal cells and water accumulation in inner retina leading to edema. ..
  2. Eilert Olsen M, Haj Yasein N, Vindedal G, Enger R, Gundersen G, Hoddevik E, et al. Deletion of aquaporin-4 changes the perivascular glial protein scaffold without disrupting the brain endothelial barrier. Glia. 2012;60:432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also indicate that AQP4 and ?-syntrophin are mutually dependent upon each other for proper perivascular expression. ..
  3. Suzuki K, Nakamura T, Hashimoto K, Miyamoto M, Komagamine T, Nagashima T, et al. Hypothermia, hypotension, hypersomnia, and obesity associated with hypothalamic lesions in a patient positive for the anti-aquaporin 4 antibody: a case report and literature review. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:1355-9 pubmed
    To describe a patient positive for the anti-aquaporin 4 antibody with hypothalamic lesions showing hypothermia, hypotension, hypersomnia, and obesity.
  4. Ogaki K, Hirayama T, Chijiiwa K, Fukae J, Furuya T, Noda K, et al. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive definite neuromyelitis optica in a patient with thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Neurologist. 2012;18:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a rare coexistence of NMO and myasthenia gravis (MG) has been documented. Here, we provide further evidence of the association of these 2 immunologic disorders and review the literature...
  5. Sepramaniam S, Ying L, Armugam A, Wintour E, Jeyaseelan K. MicroRNA-130a represses transcriptional activity of aquaporin 4 M1 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12006-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo studies revealed that LNA(TM) anti-miR-130a could up-regulate the AQP4 M1 transcript and its protein to bring about a reduction in cerebral infarct and promote recovery. ..
  6. Kleiter I, Hellwig K, Berthele A, Kümpfel T, Linker R, Hartung H, et al. Failure of natalizumab to prevent relapses in neuromyelitis optica. Arch Neurol. 2012;69:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..given to patients with suspected relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) who were later diagnosed with aquaporin 4-positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Retrospective case series...
  7. Matsushita T, Masaki K, Suzuki S, Matsuoka T, Yonekawa T, Wu X, et al. [Astrocytopathy in neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis and Baló's disease]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2011;51:898-900 pubmed
    ..These features suggest astrocyte damages resulting in the loss of connexin 43 cause demyelination through the impairment of interaction between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and the pathomechanism involves a T cell reaction...
  8. Kitada M, Suzuki H, Ichihashi J, Inada R, Miyamoto K, Takahashi T, et al. Acute combined central and peripheral demyelination showing anti-aquaporin 4 antibody positivity. Intern Med. 2012;51:2443-7 pubmed
    ..optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is characterized by optic neuritis or transverse myelitis with anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies (1)...
  9. Jin B, Zhang H, Binder D, Verkman A. Aquaporin-4-dependent K(+) and water transport modeled in brain extracellular space following neuroexcitation. J Gen Physiol. 2013;141:119-32 pubmed publisher
  10. Rauch S, Huen K, Miller M, Chaudry H, Lau M, Sanes J, et al. Changes in brain ?-amyloid deposition and aquaporin 4 levels in response to altered agrin expression in mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:1124-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice lacking endothelial cell expression of Agrn, the BBB remained intact but aquaporin 4 levels were reduced, indicating that the loss of AGRIN affects BBB-associated components...
  11. Kim Y, Jung S, Kim Y, Park Y, Han K, Oh E. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica: comparison of tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays and ELISA. J Clin Lab Anal. 2012;26:184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In summary, we observed an increased prevalence of NMO-IgG in patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorders. ELISA-AQP4 may be more sensitive and specific when confirmed by IIF-AQP4. ..
  12. Igarashi H, Tsujita M, Suzuki Y, Kwee I, Nakada T. Inhibition of aquaporin-4 significantly increases regional cerebral blood flow. Neuroreport. 2013;24:324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..50 ± 9.75 and 138.52 ± 9.76%, respectively, P<0.01 compared with baseline or saline-treated control mice). The study demonstrated that AQP-4 plays a role in regulation of rCBF. ..
  13. Leite M, Coutinho E, Lana Peixoto M, Apostolos S, Waters P, Sato D, et al. Myasthenia gravis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a multicenter study of 16 patients. Neurology. 2012;78:1601-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe 16 patients with a coincidence of 2 rare diseases: aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-mediated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-NMOSD) and acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab)-mediated myasthenia gravis (AChR-MG)...
  14. Rossi A, Moritz T, Ratelade J, Verkman A. Super-resolution imaging of aquaporin-4 orthogonal arrays of particles in cell membranes. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..OAP area was not altered by anti-AQP4 IgG autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) that cause the neurological disease neuromyelitis optica. Super-resolution imaging allowed elucidation of novel nanoscale structural and dynamic features of OAPs. ..
  15. Iorio R, Fryer J, Hinson S, Fallier Becker P, Wolburg H, Pittock S, et al. Astrocytic autoantibody of neuromyelitis optica (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 extracellular loops, monomers, tetramers and high order arrays. J Autoimmun. 2013;40:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The relative abundance and localization of AQP4 high order arrays in distinct CNS regions may explain the variability in clinical phenotype of NMO spectrum disorders. ..
  16. Chang K, Lyu R, Chen C, Wu Y, Chang H, Huang C, et al. Distinct features between longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis presenting with and without anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies. Mult Scler. 2013;19:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody, a sensitive biomarker of NMO, in the conversion of LETM to NMO remains uncertain...
  17. Iacovetta C, Rudloff E, Kirby R. The role of aquaporin 4 in the brain. Vet Clin Pathol. 2012;41:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigation of AQP expression in the canine and feline brain should be pursued so that clinically relevant comparisons between findings in mice, rats, and people and animal patients can be made. ..
  18. Long Y, Qiu W, Lu Z, Bao J, Wu A, Wang Y, et al. Aquaporin 4 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid are helpful in diagnosing Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2012;19:96-102 pubmed publisher
    It was the aim of this study to compare the diagnostic efficiency of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody detection between serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples in Chinese patients with central nervous system demyelinating diseases.
  19. Shi W, Zhao C, Zhao B, Zheng X, Fang S, Lu Y, et al. Aquaporin-4 deficiency attenuates acute lesions but aggravates delayed lesions and microgliosis after cryoinjury to mouse brain. Neurosci Bull. 2012;28:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..AQP4 deficiency ameliorates acute lesions, but worsens delayed lesions, perhaps due to the microgliosis in the late phase. ..
  20. Tradtrantip L, Ratelade J, Zhang H, Verkman A. Enzymatic deglycosylation converts pathogenic neuromyelitis optica anti-aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G into therapeutic antibody. Ann Neurol. 2013;73:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..EndoS treatment of blood may be beneficial in NMO, and may be accomplished, for example, by therapeutic apheresis using surface-immobilized EndoS. ..
  21. Ratelade J, Asavapanumas N, Ritchie A, Wemlinger S, Bennett J, Verkman A. Involvement of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in inflammatory demyelination in a mouse model of neuromyelitis optica. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;126:699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence for the central involvement of ADCC in NMO pathology and suggest ADCC as a new therapeutic target in NMO. ..
  22. Zhang H, Verkman A. Eosinophil pathogenicity mechanisms and therapeutics in neuromyelitis optica. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2306-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate the involvement of eosinophils in NMO pathogenesis by ADCC and CDCC mechanisms and suggest the therapeutic utility of approved eosinophil-stabilizing drugs...
  23. Tradtrantip L, Zhang H, Anderson M, Saadoun S, Phuan P, Papadopoulos M, et al. Small-molecule inhibitors of NMO-IgG binding to aquaporin-4 reduce astrocyte cytotoxicity in neuromyelitis optica. FASEB J. 2012;26:2197-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Small-molecule blockers may also be useful for other autoimmune diseases caused by binding of pathogenic autoantibodies to defined targets...
  24. Höfinger S, Yamamoto E, Hirano Y, Zerbetto F, Narumi T, Yasuoka K, et al. Structural features of aquaporin 4 supporting the formation of arrays and junctions in biomembranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:2234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aquaporin 4 was found to be markedly different from the non-junction forming aquaporin 1...
  25. Lucero M, Mirarchi F, Goldstein J, Silberstein C. Intraperitoneal administration of Shiga toxin 2 induced neuronal alterations and reduced the expression levels of aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 4 in rat brain. Microb Pathog. 2012;53:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal damage, as well as significant decrease in aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression levels were observed in the brain of rats, 2 days after sStx2 injection, compared to controls...
  26. Fukuda A, Badaut J. Aquaporin 4: a player in cerebral edema and neuroinflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:279 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocytes express aquaporin 4, the water channel protein, involved in water homeostasis and edema formation...
  27. Hinson S, Romero M, Popescu B, Lucchinetti C, Fryer J, Wolburg H, et al. Molecular outcomes of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG binding to aquaporin-4 in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1245-50 pubmed publisher
  28. Pittock S, Lennon V, McKeon A, Mandrekar J, Weinshenker B, Lucchinetti C, et al. Eculizumab in AQP4-IgG-positive relapsing neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: an open-label pilot study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:554-62 pubmed publisher
    Complement activation after binding of an IgG autoantibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is thought to be a major determinant of CNS inflammation and astrocytic injury in neuromyelitis optica...
  29. Apiwattanakul M, Asawavichienjinda T, Pulkes T, Tantirittisak T, Hemachudha T, Horta E, et al. Diagnostic utility of NMO/AQP4-IgG in evaluating CNS inflammatory disease in Thai patients. J Neurol Sci. 2012;320:118-20 pubmed publisher
  30. Sato D, Callegaro D, Lana Peixoto M, Waters P, de Haidar Jorge F, Takahashi T, et al. Distinction between MOG antibody-positive and AQP4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorders. Neurology. 2014;82:474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with NMOSD with MOG antibodies have distinct clinical features, fewer attacks, and better recovery than patients with AQP4 antibodies or patients seronegative for both antibodies. ..
  31. Rossi A, Ratelade J, Papadopoulos M, Bennett J, Verkman A. Neuromyelitis optica IgG does not alter aquaporin-4 water permeability, plasma membrane M1/M23 isoform content, or supramolecular assembly. Glia. 2012;60:2027-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NMO-IgG does not: (i) inhibit AQP4 water permeability, (ii) cause preferential internalization of M1-AQP4, or (iii) cause intramembrane AQP4 clustering. ..
  32. Yoshimura S, Isobe N, Matsushita T, Yonekawa T, Masaki K, Sato S, et al. Distinct genetic and infectious profiles in Japanese neuromyelitis optica patients according to anti-aquaporin 4 antibody status. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:29-34 pubmed publisher
    To clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds are distinct, according to anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody status in Japanese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  33. Bhattacharya P, Pandey A, Paul S, Patnaik R. Neuroprotective potential of Piroxicam in cerebral ischemia: an in silico evaluation of the hypothesis to explore its therapeutic efficacy by inhibition of aquaporin-4 and acid sensing ion channel1a. Med Hypotheses. 2012;79:352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the mottos of our proposed hypothesis is to find out a successful modality of effective substantial treatment of brain stroke with other anti stroke therapeutics available till date. ..
  34. Fukuda A, Pop V, Spagnoli D, Ashwal S, Obenaus A, Badaut J. Delayed increase of astrocytic aquaporin 4 after juvenile traumatic brain injury: possible role in edema resolution?. Neuroscience. 2012;222:366-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Group differences were not observed for AQP9. Overall, our observations confirm that astrocyticAQP4 plays a more central role than AQP1 or AQP9 during the edema process in the young brain. ..
  35. Cui B, Sun J, Xiang F, Liu L, Li W. Aquaporin 4 knockdown exacerbates streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy through aggravating inflammatory response. Exp Eye Res. 2012;98:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes is known to alter the amount of retinal expression of the water-selective channels aquaporin 4 (AQP4). However, the function and impact of AQP4 in diabetic retinopathy is not well understood...
  36. Tradtrantip L, Zhang H, Saadoun S, Phuan P, Lam C, Papadopoulos M, et al. Anti-aquaporin-4 monoclonal antibody blocker therapy for neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 2012;71:314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocker therapy to prevent binding of pathogenic autoantibodies to their targets may be useful for treatment of other autoimmune diseases as well. ..
  37. Jarius S, Paul F, Franciotta D, de Seze J, Munch C, Salvetti M, et al. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis: ten new aquaporin-4 antibody positive cases and a review of the literature. Mult Scler. 2012;18:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A history of thymectomy could be a possible risk factor for the later development of NMOSD. We recommend testing for AQP4-Ab in MG patients presenting with atypical motor or optic symptoms. ..
  38. Misu T, Hoftberger R, Fujihara K, Wimmer I, Takai Y, Nishiyama S, et al. Presence of six different lesion types suggests diverse mechanisms of tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:815-27 pubmed publisher
    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disease targeting aquaporin 4 (AQP4), localized mainly at the astrocytic foot processes...
  39. Zavada J, Nytrova P, Wandinger K, Jarius S, Svobodova R, Probst C, et al. Seroprevalence and specificity of NMO-IgG (anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies) in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:259-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing for NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab positivity should be considered in patients presenting with SLE and TM. Non-longitudinally extensive lesions do no not exclude NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab in patients presenting with SLE and TM. ..
  40. Kitley J, Waters P, Woodhall M, Leite M, Murchison A, George J, et al. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with aquaporin-4 and myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies: a comparative study. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71:276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, patients with MOG-Abs had more favorable outcomes. Patients with AQP4-Ab-negative NMO/NMOSD should be tested for MOG-Abs. ..
  41. Bruck W, Popescu B, Lucchinetti C, Markovic Plese S, Gold R, Thal D, et al. Neuromyelitis optica lesions may inform multiple sclerosis heterogeneity debate. Ann Neurol. 2012;72:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations plausibly explain the findings of Barnett and Prineas and further support the concept of interindividual heterogeneity in MS. ..
  42. Asgari N, Khorooshi R, Lillevang S, Owens T. Complement-dependent pathogenicity of brain-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;254:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of complement there was no pathology. Autoantibody and complement in CSF are thus sufficient to initiate a pathologic cascade. ..
  43. Enger R, Gundersen G, Haj Yasein N, Eilert Olsen M, Thorén A, Vindedal G, et al. Molecular scaffolds underpinning macroglial polarization: an analysis of retinal Müller cells and brain astrocytes in mouse. Glia. 2012;60:2018-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the molecular scaffolding in perivascular endfeet is more complex than previously assumed and that macroglia are heterogeneous with respect to the mechanisms that dictate their polarization. ..
  44. Ratelade J, Verkman A. Neuromyelitis optica: aquaporin-4 based pathogenesis mechanisms and new therapies. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:1519-30 pubmed publisher
  45. Jarius S, Franciotta D, Paul F, Bergamaschi R, Rommer P, Ruprecht K, et al. Testing for antibodies to human aquaporin-4 by ELISA: sensitivity, specificity, and direct comparison with immunohistochemistry. J Neurol Sci. 2012;320:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, many of these assays require sophisticated techniques and are thus only available at specialized laboratories. This is problematic since NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab testing has important prognostic and therapeutic implications...
  46. Wang Z, Meng C, Shen X, Shu Z, Ma C, Zhu G, et al. Potential contribution of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, aquaporin-4, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 to blood-brain barrier disruption and brain edema after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological intervention of this pathway in patients with SAH may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for early brain injury. ..
  47. Binder D, Nagelhus E, Ottersen O. Aquaporin-4 and epilepsy. Glia. 2012;60:1203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..While many questions remain unanswered, the available data indicate that AQP4 and its molecular partners may represent important new therapeutic targets. ..
  48. Tourdias T, Mori N, Dragonu I, Cassagno N, Boiziau C, Aussudre J, et al. Differential aquaporin 4 expression during edema build-up and resolution phases of brain inflammation. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the mechanisms of edema resolution remain poorly understood. Because the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) provides an important route for vasogenic edema resolution, we studied the time course of AQP4 ..
  49. Wachter B, Schürger S, Schmid A, Gröger A, Sadler R, Speidel A, et al. 6-Hydroxydopamine leads to T2 hyperintensity, decreased claudin-3 immunoreactivity and altered aquaporin 4 expression in the striatum. Behav Brain Res. 2012;232:148-58 pubmed publisher
    ..injection, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses revealed an altered expression of the water channel aquaporin 4 and the emergence of vasogenic edema, indicated by an increased perivascular space...
  50. Ibata K, Takimoto S, Morisaku T, Miyawaki A, Yasui M. Analysis of aquaporin-mediated diffusional water permeability by coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy. Biophys J. 2011;101:2277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the possibility of using CARS imaging to investigate the hydrodynamics of single mammalian cells as well as the regulation of AQPs. ..
  51. Chan K, Kwan J, Ho P, Ho J, Chu A, Ramsden D. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:50 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive than tissue-based IIFA in detection of AQP4 autoantibodies, which are highly specific for NMOSD. ..
  52. Takano R, Misu T, Takahashi T, Sato S, Fujihara K, Itoyama Y. Astrocytic damage is far more severe than demyelination in NMO: a clinical CSF biomarker study. Neurology. 2010;75:208-16 pubmed publisher
    Loss of aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with necrosis and demyelination is a prominent pathologic feature of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)...
  53. Mola M, Nicchia G, Svelto M, Spray D, Frigeri A. Automated cell-based assay for screening of aquaporin inhibitors. Anal Chem. 2009;81:8219-29 pubmed publisher