aquaporin 1


Summary: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.

Top Publications

  1. Benga G. The first discovered water channel protein, later called aquaporin 1: molecular characteristics, functions and medical implications. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:518-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In 1992 the Agre group identified CHIP28's water transport property. One year later CHIP28 was named aquaporin 1, abbreviated as AQP1. In this review the molecular structure-function relationships of AQP1 are presented...
  2. Li X, Kong H, Wu W, Xiao M, Sun X, Hu G. Aquaporin-4 maintains ependymal integrity in adult mice. Neuroscience. 2009;162:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight a key role of AQP4 in maintaining the structure and function of the ependyma. In addition, variable profiles of ventricle system in adult AQP4 null mice indicate functional AQP4 polymorphisms. ..
  3. Yool A, Brown E, Flynn G. Roles for novel pharmacological blockers of aquaporins in the treatment of brain oedema and cancer. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In both cancer and brain oedema, current therapies are limited and new pharmacological approaches focused on AQPs offer exciting potential for clinical advances. ..
  4. Bouley R, Palomino Z, Tang S, Nunes P, Kobori H, LU H, et al. Angiotensin II and hypertonicity modulate proximal tubular aquaporin 1 expression. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1575-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is the major water channel in the renal proximal tubule (PT) and thin descending limb of Henle, but its regulation remains elusive...
  5. Larsen H, Ruus A, Galtung H. Aquaporin expression patterns in the developing mouse salivary gland. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study demonstrates that AQP presentation varies and has a specific expression pattern during the development of mouse SMG. This feature may be important for glandular anatomical and physiological development. ..
  6. Pan X, Guo H, Han J, Hao F, An Y, Xu Y, et al. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates cell migration via inhibition of aquaporin 1 expression in PC-3M prostate cancer cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneously, exposure to Rg3 suppressed expression of the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel protein, which has previously been reported to be involved in cell migration...
  7. Kaneko K, Yagui K, Tanaka A, Yoshihara K, Ishikawa K, Takahashi K, et al. Aquaporin 1 is required for hypoxia-inducible angiogenesis in human retinal vascular endothelial cells. Microvasc Res. 2008;75:297-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) was first purified from red blood cell membranes and is now known to be an osmolarity-driven water transporter that is widely expressed in many epithelial and endothelial cells outside the brain...
  8. Liu H, Song X, Hao R. [Expression of aquaporin 1 in human placenta and fetal membranes]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2008;28:333-6 pubmed
    ..The presence of AQP1 expression in the placenta and fetal membranes suggest that AQP1 may play an important role in maternal-fetal fluid exchange and amniotic fluid balance. ..
  9. Wang F, Huang H, Lu F, Chen Y. Acute lung injury and change in expression of aquaporins 1 and 5 in a rat model of acute pancreatitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2010;57:1553-62 pubmed
    ..001). Decreased lung AQP1 and 5 expression may be related to pulmonary edema de velopment and increased severity of lung injury and pulmonary edema, which provides an additional mechanism for pancreatitis-associated lung injury. ..

More Information


  1. Tewari N, Kalkunte S, Murray D, Sharma S. The water channel aquaporin 1 is a novel molecular target of polychlorinated biphenyls for in utero anomalies. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, our results identify aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a potent effector of fluid volume regulation and angiogenic activity, as a novel placental target of ..
  2. Otterbach F, Callies R, Adamzik M, Kimmig R, Siffert W, Schmid K, et al. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression is a novel characteristic feature of a particularly aggressive subgroup of basal-like breast carcinomas. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results strongly suggest that AQP1 expression is a new characteristic feature of a particularly aggressive subgroup of basal-like breast carcinomas. ..
  3. Leggett K, Maylor J, Undem C, Lai N, Lu W, Schweitzer K, et al. Hypoxia-induced migration in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells requires calcium-dependent upregulation of aquaporin 1. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;303:L343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing AQP1 via siRNA also prevented hypoxia-induced migration of PASMCs. Our results suggest that hypoxia induces a PASMC-specific increase in [Ca(2+)](i) that results in increased AQP1 protein levels and cell migration. ..
  4. Zhang Q, Liu C, Gao X, Hu Y, Guo W, Sun J, et al. Expression pattern of aquaporin 1 in the middle ear of the guinea pig with secretory otitis media. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2009;71:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..water homeostasis in the secretory otitis media (SOM) middle ear, we observed the expression and regulation of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in the SOM middle ear cavity...
  5. Huang Y, Murakami T, Sano F, Kondo K, Nakaigawa N, Kishida T, et al. Expression of aquaporin 1 in primary renal tumors: a prognostic indicator for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2009;56:690-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a water channel expressed in many epithelial tissues and endothelium, including the proximal nephron of the kidney...
  6. Moftakhar P, Lynch M, Pomakian J, Vinters H. Aquaporin expression in the brains of patients with or without cerebral amyloid angiopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:1201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in 24 human autopsy brains consisting of 18 with AD and varying degrees of CAA ..
  7. Li J, Xu M, Fan Q, Xie X, Zhang Y, Mu D, et al. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates seawater exposure-induced lung injury by inhibiting aquaporins (AQP) 1 and AQP5 expression in lung. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011;176:39-49 pubmed publisher
  8. Ko S, Mizuno N, Yatabe Y, Yoshikawa T, Ishiguro H, Yamamoto A, et al. Aquaporin 1 water channel is overexpressed in the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. J Med Invest. 2009;56 Suppl:318-21 pubmed
    ..Among them aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a predominant water channel expressed in the plasma membranes of human pancreatic ducts...
  9. Zhang H, Verkman A. Aquaporin-1 tunes pain perception by interaction with Na(v)1.8 Na+ channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5896-906 pubmed publisher
    ..8-dependent membrane Na(+) current. AQP1 is, thus, a novel target for pain management. ..
  10. Freeman A, Hetzel U, Cripps P, Mobasheri A. Expression of the plasma membrane markers aquaporin 1 (AQP1), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and Na, K-ATPase in canine mammary glands and mammary tumours. Vet J. 2010;185:90-3 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated the expression of the plasma membrane markers aquaporin 1 (AQP1), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the alpha1 subunit of Na, K-ATPase in normal canine mammary glands and in benign and malignant mammary tumours, ..
  11. McCoy E, Sontheimer H. MAPK induces AQP1 expression in astrocytes following injury. Glia. 2010;58:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This induction could be blocked by inhibition of MEK1/2 using U0126, and suggests that AQP1 is specifically induced in reactive astrocytes via the mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway. ..
  12. Zhu X, Jiang S, Zhu X, Zou S, Wang Y, Hu Y. Expression of aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 3 in fetal membranes and placenta in human term pregnancies with oligohydramnios. Placenta. 2009;30:670-6 pubmed publisher
    To explore the pathophysiology of oligohydramnios, the association between the expression of aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 3 in fetal membranes and placenta and oligohydramnios was investigated...
  13. Benfenati V, Caprini M, Dovizio M, Mylonakou M, Ferroni S, Ottersen O, et al. An aquaporin-4/transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (AQP4/TRPV4) complex is essential for cell-volume control in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that astrocytes contain a TRPV4/AQP4 complex that constitutes a key element in the brain's volume homeostasis by acting as an osmosensor that couples osmotic stress to downstream signaling cascades. ..
  14. Nesic O, Lee J, Unabia G, Johnson K, Ye Z, Vergara L, et al. Aquaporin 1 - a novel player in spinal cord injury. J Neurochem. 2008;105:628-40 pubmed publisher
    The role of water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP-1) in uninjured or injured spinal cords is unknown...
  15. Hildenbrand A, Stavreus Evers A, Lalitkumar P, Nielsen S, Mints M, Gemzell Danielsson K. Aquaporin 1 is expressed in the human endometrium during normal cycle and increases after mifepristone treatment. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:49-53 pubmed
    ..The presence of AQP1 was also confirmed using RT-PCR. The changes in AQP1 expression could contribute to the reduced bleeding seen following mifepristone treatment and could be an effect of either antagonizing progesterone or cortisol. ..
  16. Musa Aziz R, Chen L, Pelletier M, Boron W. Relative CO2/NH3 selectivities of AQP1, AQP4, AQP5, AmtB, and RhAG. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5406-11 pubmed publisher
    The water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and certain Rh-family members are permeable to CO(2) and NH(3). Here, we use changes in surface pH (pH(S)) to assess relative CO(2) vs...
  17. Misu T, Hoftberger R, Fujihara K, Wimmer I, Takai Y, Nishiyama S, et al. Presence of six different lesion types suggests diverse mechanisms of tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:815-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Around active NMO lesions AQP4 may selectively be lost in the absence of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) loss or other structural damage (lesion type 4)...
  18. An K, Kim N, Choi C. Cloning and expression of aquaporin 1 and arginine vasotocin receptor mRNA from the black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli: effect of freshwater acclimation. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2008;34:185-94 pubmed publisher
    We cloned complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and arginine vasotocin receptor (AVT-R) from gill and kidney tissue of the black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli), respectively...
  19. Bin K, Shi Peng Z. Acetazolamide inhibits aquaporin-1 expression and colon cancer xenograft tumor growth. Hepatogastroenterology. 2011;58:1502-6 pubmed publisher
    ..01). AQP-1, VEGF and CD34 expression in experimental group were positively correlated between each other (p<0.01). Acetazolamide can suppress the xenograft tumor growth by inhibiting the expression of AQP-1. ..
  20. Mobasheri A, Moskaluk C, Marples D, Shakibaei M. Expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in human synovitis. Ann Anat. 2010;192:116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that human chondrocytes and synoviocytes express aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channels and that AQP1 is upregulated in RA cartilage...
  21. Conner M, Conner A, Bland C, Taylor L, Brown J, Parri H, et al. Rapid aquaporin translocation regulates cellular water flow: mechanism of hypotonicity-induced subcellular localization of aquaporin 1 water channel. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:11516-25 pubmed publisher
  22. Zhang Y, Bi L, Hou S, Zhao X, Song Y, Ma T. Reduced lung water transport rate associated with downregulation of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-5 in aged mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticosteroid-induced AQP-1 upregulation may contribute to the role of corticosteroids in accelerating oedema clearance in aged lung. ..
  23. Baetz N, Hoffman E, Yool A, Stamer W. Role of aquaporin-1 in trabecular meshwork cell homeostasis during mechanical strain. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..7780). Taken together, AQP1 in human TM appears to serve a protective role by facilitating improved cell viability during conditions of mechanical strain. ..
  24. Lucero M, Mirarchi F, Goldstein J, Silberstein C. Intraperitoneal administration of Shiga toxin 2 induced neuronal alterations and reduced the expression levels of aquaporin 1 and aquaporin 4 in rat brain. Microb Pathog. 2012;53:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal damage, as well as significant decrease in aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression levels were observed in the brain of rats, 2 days after sStx2 ..
  25. Monzani E, Bazzotti R, Perego C, La Porta C. AQP1 is not only a water channel: it contributes to cell migration through Lin7/beta-catenin. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6167 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a role of AQP1 is the same in human melanoma and endothelial cells, suggesting that AQP1 plays a global physiological role. A model is presented. ..
  26. Ruiz Ederra J, Verkman A. Aquaporin-1-facilitated keratocyte migration in cell culture and in vivo corneal wound healing models. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate AQP1 water permeability as a new determinant of keratocyte migration in cornea. ..
  27. Jiang Y. Expression and functional characterization of NPA motif-null aquaporin-1 mutations. IUBMB Life. 2009;61:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that NPA motifs are important for water permeation but not essential for the expression, intracellular processing and the basic structure of human aquaporin 1.
  28. Brunelli E, Mauceri A, Salvatore F, Giannetto A, Maisano M, Tripepi S. Localization of aquaporin 1 and 3 in the gills of the rainbow wrasse Coris julis. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed the immunolocalisation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in the gills using confocal microscopy...
  29. Musumeci G, Leonardi R, Carnazza M, Cardile V, Pichler K, Weinberg A, et al. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) expression in experimentally induced osteoarthritic knee menisci: an in vivo and in vitro study. Tissue Cell. 2013;45:145-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a specific protein channels for water transport; it is expressed in articular chondrocytes, human ..
  30. Arnaoutova I, Cawley N, Patel N, Kim T, Rathod T, Loh Y. Aquaporin 1 is important for maintaining secretory granule biogenesis in endocrine cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AQP1 is important for maintaining DCSG biogenesis and normal levels of hormone secretion in pituitary endocrine cells. ..
  31. Higa K, Kato N, Yoshida S, Ogawa Y, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K, et al. Aquaporin 1-positive stromal niche-like cells directly interact with N-cadherin-positive clusters in the basal limbal epithelium. Stem Cell Res. 2013;10:147-55 pubmed publisher
  32. Jiang Q, Cao C, Lu S, Kivlin R, Wallin B, Chu W, et al. MEK/ERK pathway mediates UVB-induced AQP1 downregulation and water permeability impairment in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:771-7 pubmed
    ..Our results further support the notion that all-trans retinoic acid might be useful for protection against UV or oxidative stress-induced eye cell damage...
  33. Stamer W, Chan D, Conley S, Coons S, Ethier C. Aquaporin-1 expression and conventional aqueous outflow in human eyes. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..2+/-11.2%. Taken together, these results indicate that a transcellular pathway, mediated by aquaporin-1, does not contribute significantly to bulk outflow through the conventional aqueous outflow tract of human eyes. ..
  34. Otterbach F, Callies R, Kimmig R, Schmid K, Bankfalvi A. [Aquaporin 1 expression in invasive breast carcinomas]. Pathologe. 2008;29 Suppl 2:357-62 pubmed publisher
    ..AQP1 expression in invasive breast carcinomas is associated with a basal-like phenotype and poor prognosis. ..
  35. Borsani E, Bernardi S, Albertini R, Rezzani R, Rodella L. Alterations of AQP2 expression in trigeminal ganglia in a murine inflammation model. Neurosci Lett. 2009;449:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from this, the AQP1 expression remained unaltered. On the whole, these data support the hypothesis that AQP2 is involved in pain transmission in the peripheral nervous system. ..
  36. McCoy E, Haas B, Sontheimer H. Water permeability through aquaporin-4 is regulated by protein kinase C and becomes rate-limiting for glioma invasion. Neuroscience. 2010;168:971-81 pubmed publisher
    ..AQP4 expressing glioma cells showed significantly reduced invasion compared to AQP1 and S180 expressing tumors as determined by quantitative stereology, consistent with a differential role for AQP1 and AQP4 in this process. ..
  37. Conner M, Conner A, Brown J, Bill R. Membrane trafficking of aquaporin 1 is mediated by protein kinase C via microtubules and regulated by tonicity. Biochemistry. 2010;49:821-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the increased level of water transport following osmotic change may be due a phosphorylation-dependent increase in the level of AQP1 trafficking resulting in membrane localization. ..
  38. Tanimura Y, Hiroaki Y, Fujiyoshi Y. Acetazolamide reversibly inhibits water conduction by aquaporin-4. J Struct Biol. 2009;166:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..AZA may thus serve as a lead compound for the development of AQP4-specific inhibitors for clinical applications. ..
  39. Tingaud Sequeira A, Chauvigné F, Fabra M, Lozano J, Raldua D, Cerdà J. Structural and functional divergence of two fish aquaporin-1 water channels following teleost-specific gene duplication. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:259 pubmed publisher
  40. Migliati E, Meurice N, DuBois P, Fang J, Somasekharan S, Beckett E, et al. Inhibition of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 water permeability by a derivative of the loop diuretic bumetanide acting at an internal pore-occluding binding site. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of AQP-selective pharmacological agents opens opportunities for breakthrough strategies in the treatment of edema and other fluid imbalance disorders. ..
  41. Hayashi S, Takahashi N, Kurata N, Yamaguchi A, Matsui H, Kato S, et al. Involvement of aquaporin-1 in gastric epithelial cell migration during wound repair. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386:483-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest for the first time that AQP1 plays a crucial role in gastric epithelial cell migration during wound healing. ..
  42. Gao J, Tan M, Gu M, Marshall C, Ding J, Hu G, et al. Cellular localization of aquaporin-1 in the human and mouse trigeminal systems. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46379 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective expression of AQP1 in the trigeminal neurons innervating the oral mucosa indicates an involvement of AQP1 in oral sensory transduction. ..
  43. Wakayama Y, Inoue M, Takahashi J. Aquaporin 1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine: a hypothesis. Headache. 2007;47:1457-8 pubmed
  44. Magni F, Chinello C, Raimondo F, Mocarelli P, Kienle M, Pitto M. AQP1 expression analysis in human diseases: implications for proteomic characterization. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2008;5:29-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the relevance of AQP1 in human diseases is also explained. Its role in human tumors and, in particular, those of the kidney (e.g., clear cell renal carcinoma) is discussed. ..
  45. Campbell E, Birdsell D, Yool A. The activity of human aquaporin 1 as a cGMP-gated cation channel is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation in the carboxyl-terminal domain. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;81:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings advance resolution of a standing controversy and expand our understanding of AQP1 as a multifunctional regulated channel. ..
  46. Zelenina M. Regulation of brain aquaporins. Neurochem Int. 2010;57:468-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the data concerning structure, permeability, role in the brain, short-term and long-term regulation of the three AQPs. ..
  47. Arciszewski M, Stefaniak M, Zacharko Siembida A, Ca ka J. Aquaporin 1 water channel is expressed on submucosal but not myenteric neurons from the ovine duodenum. Ann Anat. 2011;193:81-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing evidence indicates that an aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel is present on the surface of discrete neuronal classes of the central as well peripheral ..
  48. Shields S, Moore K, Phelps P, Basbaum A. Olfactory ensheathing glia express aquaporin 1. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4329-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide evidence through anatomical colocalization studies that OEG express the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1), both in vivo and in vitro...
  49. Loreto C, Lo Castro E, Musumeci G, Loreto F, Rapisarda G, Rezzani R, et al. Aquaporin 1 expression in human temporomandibular disc. Acta Histochem. 2012;114:744-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that AQP1 is normally expressed in the TMJ disc and confirm a role for it in the maintenance of TMJ homeostasis. Further studies are needed to elucidate expression patterns of aquaporins in diseased TMJ discs. ..
  50. Dong C, Wang G, Li B, Xiao K, Ma Z, Huang H, et al. Anti-asthmatic agents alleviate pulmonary edema by upregulating AQP1 and AQP5 expression in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;181:21-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-asthmatic agents could alleviate pulmonary edema through upregulating the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 in mouse lungs that have OVA-induced asthma. ..
  51. Rehn K, Wong K, Balciunas D, Sumanas S. Zebrafish enhancer trap line recapitulates embryonic aquaporin 1a expression pattern in vascular endothelial cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:613-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 1 (Aqp1) is a water channel protein, expressed widely in microvascular endothelial cells and implicated in mammalian tumor angiogenesis. However, its developmental expression has not yet been characterized in great detail...
  52. Sepramaniam S, Armugam A, Lim K, Karolina D, Swaminathan P, Tan J, et al. MicroRNA 320a functions as a novel endogenous modulator of aquaporins 1 and 4 as well as a potential therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in aquaporin 1 and 4 expression in the brain are associated with cerebral edema, and the lack of water channel modulators is ..
  53. Xun W, Liu Y, Qing G, Xun X, Dongqing Z, Haixiang W. Aquaporin 1 expression in retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2009;39:208-17 pubmed publisher
    Recently, it was found that Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is expressed strongly in proliferating microvessels, but the role of AQP1 in retinal neovascularization remains unknown...