aquaporin 3


Summary: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.

Top Publications

  1. Kafé H, Verbavatz J, Cochand Priollet B, Castagnet P, Vieillefond A. Collecting duct carcinoma: an entity to be redefined?. Virchows Arch. 2004;445:637-40 pubmed
    ..The following markers were evaluated: ulex europeus aglutinin (UEA), peanuts aglutinin, vimentin and aquaporin 3 (AQP-3), a membrane component of normal collecting duct and urothelial cells...
  2. Itoh A, Tsujikawa T, Yasuoka T, Nakahara T, Sasaki M, Fujiyama Y. Natriuretic peptides up-regulate aquaporin 3 in a human colonic epithelial cell line. Int J Mol Med. 2004;14:621-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ANP and BNP up-regulated the expression of AQP3 mRNA and protein, and both PK-A and PK-G dependent pathways mediated this effect. ..
  3. Klein J, Sands J, Qian L, Wang X, Yang B. Upregulation of urea transporter UT-A2 and water channels AQP2 and AQP3 in mice lacking urea transporter UT-B. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:1161-7 pubmed
    ..However, UT-B null mice have a selective increase in UT-A2 protein abundance. This may be an adaptive response to the loss of UT-B, because UT-B and UT-A2 are involved in different intrarenal urea recycling pathways. ..
  4. Hara Chikuma M, Verkman A. Prevention of skin tumorigenesis and impairment of epidermal cell proliferation by targeted aquaporin-3 gene disruption. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:326-32 pubmed
    ..AQP3 may thus be an important determinant in skin tumorigenesis and hence a novel target for tumor prevention and therapy. ..
  5. Barcroft L, Offenberg H, Thomsen P, Watson A. Aquaporin proteins in murine trophectoderm mediate transepithelial water movements during cavitation. Dev Biol. 2003;256:342-54 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that aquaporins mediate trans-trophectodermal water movements during cavitation. ..
  6. Spector D, Wade J, Dillow R, Steplock D, Weinman E. Expression, localization, and regulation of aquaporin-1 to -3 in rat urothelia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;282:F1034-42 pubmed
    ..AQPs in genitourinary tract urothelia likely play a role in the regulation of epithelial cell volume and osmolality and may play a role in bulk water movement across urothelia. ..
  7. Tsang K, Leung J, Tipoe G, Leung R, Yan C, Ooi G, et al. Down-regulation of aquaporin 3 in bronchiectatic airways in vivo. Respir Med. 2003;97:59-64 pubmed
    ..b>Aquaporin 3 (AQP3), a recently described water channel that is also found in large airway cell membrane, could play a role ..
  8. Cao C, Sun Y, Healey S, Bi Z, Hu G, Wan S, et al. EGFR-mediated expression of aquaporin-3 is involved in human skin fibroblast migration. Biochem J. 2006;400:225-34 pubmed
    ..We have provided evidence for a novel role of AQP3 in human skin fibroblast cell migration, which occurs during normal wound healing. ..
  9. Hara Chikuma M, Verkman A. Roles of aquaporin-3 in the epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..AQP3 is thus a key player in epidermal biology and a potential target for drug development. ..

More Information


  1. Song X, Xu A, Pan W, Wallin B, Kivlin R, Lu S, et al. Nicotinamide attenuates aquaporin 3 overexpression induced by retinoic acid through inhibition of EGFR/ERK in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:229-36 pubmed
    ..Our previous studies showed that atRA upregulates aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts...
  2. Huang Y, Zhu Z, Sun M, Wang J, Guo R, Shen L, et al. Critical role of aquaporin-3 in the human epidermal growth factor-induced migration and proliferation in the human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9:1000-7 pubmed
    ..These finds provide evidence for a novel role of AQP3 in human gastric carcinoma as a potentially important determinant of tumor growth and spread. ..
  3. Kim N, Lee A. Reduced aquaporin3 expression and survival of keratinocytes in the depigmented epidermis of vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, AQP3 knockdown induced no increase in differentiating markers at high calcium concentrations and reduced survival of KCs, suggesting that reduced AQP3 in vitiliginous KCs might be responsible for their reduced survival. ..
  4. Roudier N, Verbavatz J, Maurel C, Ripoche P, Tacnet F. Evidence for the presence of aquaporin-3 in human red blood cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:8407-12 pubmed
  5. Miller E, Dickinson B, Chang C. Aquaporin-3 mediates hydrogen peroxide uptake to regulate downstream intracellular signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15681-6 pubmed publisher
  6. Echevarria M, Windhager E, Tate S, Frindt G. Cloning and expression of AQP3, a water channel from the medullary collecting duct of rat kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:10997-1001 pubmed
    ..The open reading frame of 876 bp coded for a protein of 292 amino acids (M(r), 31,431). Aquaporin 3 (AQP3; 31.4-kDa water channel protein) is a newly discovered member of the MIP family...
  7. Liu Y, Matsuzaki T, Nakazawa T, Murata S, Nakamura N, Kondo T, et al. Expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in normal and neoplastic lung tissues. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:171-8 pubmed
    b>Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) acts as the membrane channel of water and other small solutes and plays a major role in fluid homeostasis...
  8. Cutler C, Phillips C, Hazon N, Cramb G. Cortisol regulates eel (Anguilla anguilla) aquaporin 3 (AQP3) mRNA expression levels in gill. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;152:310-3 pubmed
    Previous studies in eel (Anguilla anguilla) gill have shown that the expression of the aquaporin 3 (AQP3) water and small solute channel is dramatically decreased (mRNA abundance decreased by up to 97%) when these euryhaline fish are ..
  9. Zelenina M, Tritto S, Bondar A, Zelenin S, Aperia A. Copper inhibits the water and glycerol permeability of aquaporin-3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51939-43 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a better understanding of processes that occur in severe copper metabolism defects such as Wilson disease and in copper poisoning. ..
  10. Mobasheri A, Shakibaei M, Marples D. Immunohistochemical localization of aquaporin 10 in the apical membranes of the human ileum: a potential pathway for luminal water and small solute absorption. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;121:463-71 pubmed
    ..The presence of AQP10 in the apical membrane of intestinal villi suggests that this protein may represent an entry pathway for water and small solutes from the lumen across to the mucosal side. ..
  11. Campos E, Moura T, Oliva A, Leandro P, Soveral G. Lack of Aquaporin 3 in bovine erythrocyte membranes correlates with low glycerol permeation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;408:477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, lack of AQP3 in bovine erythrocytes points to the lipid pathway as responsible for glycerol permeation and explains the low glycerol permeability and high E(a) for transport observed in ruminants...
  12. Moon C, Soria J, Jang S, Lee J, Obaidul Hoque M, Sibony M, et al. Involvement of aquaporins in colorectal carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2003;22:6699-703 pubmed
    ..These novel observations suggest that multiple AQP expression may be advantageous to tumorigenesis, which may lead to a better understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  13. Melis M, Hernandez J, Siegel E, McLoughlin J, Ly Q, Nair R, et al. Gene expression profiling of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinomas. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010;53:936-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that mucinous adenocarcinomas represent a genetically distinct variant of colorectal adencarcinoma and have implications for the development of targeted therapies. ..
  14. Wang J, Gui Z, Deng L, Sun M, Guo R, Zhang W, et al. c-Met upregulates aquaporin 3 expression in human gastric carcinoma cells via the ERK signalling pathway. Cancer Lett. 2012;319:109-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and c-Met are both overexpressed in human gastric carcinoma and highly associated with its metastasis and invasion. However, it still remains unknown whether c-Met and AQP3 correlate with each other...
  15. O Neill H, Lebeck J, Collins P, Kwon T, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S. Aldosterone-mediated apical targeting of ENaC subunits is blunted in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:1546-55 pubmed
  16. Li A, Lu D, Zhang Y, Li J, Fang Y, Li F, et al. Critical role of aquaporin-3 in epidermal growth factor-induced migration of colorectal carcinoma cells and its clinical significance. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that AQP3 overexpression could facilitate colorectal carcinoma cell migration and AQP3 may be considered a potential indicator and therapeutic target for colon tumor metastasis and prognosis. ..
  17. Seki S, Kouya T, Hara T, Valdez D, Jin B, Kasai M, et al. Exogenous expression of rat aquaporin-3 enhances permeability to water and cryoprotectants of immature oocytes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Reprod Dev. 2007;53:597-604 pubmed
    ..Thus, the permeability of immature zebrafish oocytes to water and cryoprotectants was enhanced by exogenous expression of aquaporin-3. Cryopreservation of teleost oocytes may be realized through a further increase in permeability. ..
  18. Tancharoen S, Matsuyama T, Abeyama K, Matsushita K, Kawahara K, Sangalungkarn V, et al. The role of water channel aquaporin 3 in the mechanism of TNF-alpha-mediated proinflammatory events: Implication in periodontal inflammation. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:338-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is the predominant water channel protein in human keratinocytes and acts as an inflammatory mediator in some lesions...
  19. Ismail M, Bokaee S, Morgan R, Davies J, Harrington K, Pandha H. Inhibition of the aquaporin 3 water channel increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:1889-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of AQP3 increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to freezing. This strategy may be exploited in the clinic to improve the efficacy of prostate cryotherapy. ..
  20. Hara M, Ma T, Verkman A. Selectively reduced glycerol in skin of aquaporin-3-deficient mice may account for impaired skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier recovery. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46616-21 pubmed
    ..The selective reduction in epidermal and SC glycerol content in AQP3 null mice may account for these defects, providing the first functional evidence for physiologically important glycerol transport by an aquaporin. ..
  21. Ma T, Hara M, Sougrat R, Verbavatz J, Verkman A. Impaired stratum corneum hydration in mice lacking epidermal water channel aquaporin-3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17147-53 pubmed
    ..Modulation of AQP3 expression or function may thus alter epidermal moisture content and water loss in skin diseases. ..
  22. Zelenina M, Bondar A, Zelenin S, Aperia A. Nickel and extracellular acidification inhibit the water permeability of human aquaporin-3 in lung epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30037-43 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that nickel and extracellular pH may modulate lung water clearance and that defective water clearance may be an early component of nickel-induced lung disease. ..
  23. Nakakoshi M, Morishita Y, Usui K, Ohtsuki M, Ishibashi K. Identification of a keratinocarcinoma cell line expressing AQP3. Biol Cell. 2006;98:95-100 pubmed
    AQP3 (aquaporin 3) in the skin is important for skin moisture as demonstrated by the studies of AQP3-null mice, which have accelerated skin drying...
  24. Valdez D, Hara T, Miyamoto A, Seki S, Jin B, Kasai M, et al. Expression of aquaporin-3 improves the permeability to water and cryoprotectants of immature oocytes in the medaka (Oryzias latipes). Cryobiology. 2006;53:160-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the permeability of medaka oocytes to water and cryoprotectants was improved by the artificial expression of aquaporin-3, and the oocytes retained the ability to develop to term. ..
  25. Kwon T, Nielsen J, Masilamani S, Hager H, Knepper M, Frokiaer J, et al. Regulation of collecting duct AQP3 expression: response to mineralocorticoid. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F1403-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in the collecting duct aldosterone may regulate, at least in part, AQP3 expression in addition to regulating Na and K transport. ..
  26. Kakigi A, Nishimura M, Takeda T, Taguchi D, Nishioka R. Expression of aquaporin1, 3, and 4, NKCC1, and NKCC2 in the human endolymphatic sac. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To locate aquaporin (AQP) 1, 3, and 4, Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and 2 in the human endolymphatic sac (ES)...
  27. Fernandez Llama P, Turner R, Dibona G, Knepper M. Renal expression of aquaporins in liver cirrhosis induced by chronic common bile duct ligation in rats. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10:1950-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, dysregulation of multiple water channels and ion transporters may play a role in water balance abnormalities associated with CBDL-induced cirrhosis in rats. ..
  28. Mobasheri A, Wray S, Marples D. Distribution of AQP2 and AQP3 water channels in human tissue microarrays. J Mol Histol. 2005;36:1-14 pubmed
  29. Xu H, Xu Y, Zhang W, Shen L, Yang L, Xu Z. Aquaporin-3 positively regulates matrix metalloproteinases via PI3K/AKT signal pathway in human gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011;30:86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings showed that AQP3 might positively regulate MMPs proteins expression through PI3K/AKT signal pathway in human gastric carcinoma SGC7901 cells. ..
  30. Levin M, Verkman A. Aquaporin-3-dependent cell migration and proliferation during corneal re-epithelialization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4365-72 pubmed
    ..The results provide evidence for involvement of an aquaporin in cell proliferation and suggest AQP3 induction as a possible therapy to accelerate the resurfacing of corneal defects. ..
  31. Trigueros Motos L, Pérez Torras S, Casado F, Molina Arcas M, Pastor Anglada M. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) participates in the cytotoxic response to nucleoside-derived drugs. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:434 pubmed publisher
    ..5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR) trigger a transcriptomic response that involves the aquaglyceroporin aquaporin 3 along with other p53-dependent genes...
  32. Kreda S, Gynn M, Fenstermacher D, Boucher R, Gabriel S. Expression and localization of epithelial aquaporins in the adult human lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;24:224-34 pubmed
    ..This study describes an intricate network of AQP expression that mediates water transport across the human airway epithelium. ..
  33. Sougrat R, Morand M, Gondran C, Barre P, Gobin R, Bonté F, et al. Functional expression of AQP3 in human skin epidermis and reconstructed epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;118:678-85 pubmed
    ..We propose that the role of aquaporin-3 is to water-clamp viable layers of the epidermis in order to improve the hydration of the epidermis below the stratum corneum. ..
  34. Ikarashi N, Ushiki T, Mochizuki T, Toda T, Kudo T, Baba K, et al. Effects of magnesium sulphate administration on aquaporin 3 in rat gastrointestinal tract. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:238-42 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that the laxative effect of MgSO(4) is not simply caused by a change in the osmotic pressure in the intestinal tract, but could be a response to increased expression of AQP3. ..
  35. Hara Chikuma M, Chikuma S, Sugiyama Y, Kabashima K, Verkman A, Inoue S, et al. Chemokine-dependent T cell migration requires aquaporin-3-mediated hydrogen peroxide uptake. J Exp Med. 2012;209:1743-52 pubmed
    ..We therefore suggest that AQP3-mediated H(2)O(2) uptake is required for chemokine-dependent T cell migration in sufficient immune response. ..
  36. Edashige K, Tanaka M, Ichimaru N, Ota S, Yazawa K, Higashino Y, et al. Channel-dependent permeation of water and glycerol in mouse morulae. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:625-32 pubmed
    ..By immunocytochemical analysis, aquaporin 3, which transports not only water but also glycerol, was detected in the morulae but not in the oocytes...
  37. Bahamontes Rosa N, Tena Tomás C, Wolkow J, Kremsner P, Kun J. Genetic conservation of the GIL blood group determining aquaporin 3 gene in African and Caucasian populations. Transfusion. 2008;48:1164-8 pubmed publisher
    The human GIL blood group is encoded by the aquaporin 3 (AQP3), a water-glycerol channel present in human red cell (RBC) membranes. So far no molecular investigation of this gene has been performed in an African population...
  38. Yasui H, Kubota M, Iguchi K, Usui S, Kiho T, Hirano K. Membrane trafficking of aquaporin 3 induced by epinephrine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373:613-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PKC modulates the trafficking of AQP3. ..
  39. Yamaji Y, Valdez D, Seki S, Yazawa K, Urakawa C, Jin B, et al. Cryoprotectant permeability of aquaporin-3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Cryobiology. 2006;53:258-67 pubmed
    ..50 x 10(-3) cm/min). The value for DMSO (6.33 x 10(-3) cm/min) was relatively low, although higher than the value for control (0.79 x 10(-3) cm/min). This is the first reported observation of DMSO transport by aquaporin-3. ..
  40. Rai T, Sasaki S, Uchida S. Polarized trafficking of the aquaporin-3 water channel is mediated by an NH2-terminal sorting signal. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;290:C298-304 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we conclude that an NH2-terminal sorting signal mediates the basolateral targeting of AQP3. ..
  41. Cutler C, Martinez A, Cramb G. The role of aquaporin 3 in teleost fish. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;148:82-91 pubmed
    ..There is no apparent change in the location or protein abundance of renal AQP3 following the acclimation of eels from freshwater to seawater. ..
  42. Bollag W, Xie D, Zheng X, Zhong X. A potential role for the phospholipase D2-aquaporin-3 signaling module in early keratinocyte differentiation: production of a phosphatidylglycerol signaling lipid. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2823-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results support the idea that AQP3 supplies PLD2 with glycerol for synthesizing PG, a lipid signal that promotes early keratinocyte differentiation. ..
  43. Ishibashi K, Sasaki S, Fushimi K, Uchida S, Kuwahara M, Saito H, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a member of the aquaporin family with permeability to glycerol and urea in addition to water expressed at the basolateral membrane of kidney collecting duct cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6269-73 pubmed
    ..We named this channel aquaporin 3 (AQP3) for its predominant water permeability...
  44. Tsukaguchi H, Shayakul C, Berger U, Mackenzie B, Devidas S, Guggino W, et al. Molecular characterization of a broad selectivity neutral solute channel. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24737-43 pubmed
  45. Edashige K, Ohta S, Tanaka M, Kuwano T, Valdez D, Hara T, et al. The role of aquaporin 3 in the movement of water and cryoprotectants in mouse morulae. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:365-75 pubmed
    ..that water and glycerol move across the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion, and we have suggested that aquaporin 3 plays an important role in their movement...
  46. Ji C, Yang Y, Yang B, Xia J, Sun W, Su Z, et al. Trans-Zeatin attenuates ultraviolet induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:257-63 pubmed
    ..MEK/ERK activation is involved in this process. tZ treatment attenuates UV-induced AQP3 loss, in vitro wound healing delay and water permeability decrease. This work provides a new explanation for the anti-photoaging potential of tZ. ..
  47. Hara M, Verkman A. Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7360-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings establish a scientific basis for the >200-yr-old empirical practice of including glycerol in cosmetic and medicinal skin formulations. ..
  48. Wang J, Tanji N, Kikugawa T, Shudou M, Song X, Yokoyama M. Expression of aquaporin 3 in the human prostate. Int J Urol. 2007;14:1088-92; discussion 1092 pubmed
    ..b>Aquaporin 3 mRNA was expressed in normal and cancerous prostate cells...
  49. Shen L, Zhu Z, Huang Y, Shu Y, Sun M, Xu H, et al. Expression profile of multiple aquaporins in human gastric carcinoma and its clinical significance. Biomed Pharmacother. 2010;64:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings of differential expressions of AQPs and their correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics implicated AQPs might play a role in human gastric carcinogenesis. ..
  50. Cutler C, Cramb G. Branchial expression of an aquaporin 3 (AQP-3) homologue is downregulated in the European eel Anguilla anguilla following seawater acclimation. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:2643-51 pubmed
    A cDNA encoding the homologue of mammalian aquaporin 3 (AQP-3) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the gill of the European eel...
  51. Ma T, Song Y, Yang B, Gillespie A, Carlson E, Epstein C, et al. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice lacking aquaporin-3 water channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:4386-91 pubmed
    ..Basolateral membrane aquaporins may thus provide blood-accessible targets for drug discovery of aquaretic inhibitors. ..
  52. Ramirez Lorca R, Vizuete M, Venero J, Revuelta M, Cano J, Ilundain A, et al. Localization of aquaporin-3 mRNA and protein along the gastrointestinal tract of Wistar rats. Pflugers Arch. 1999;438:94-100 pubmed
    ..The finding of AQP3 in the intestinal epithelia strongly suggests that this protein functions as a pathway for water transport in this epithelium. ..
  53. Cao C, Wan S, Jiang Q, Amaral A, Lu S, Hu G, et al. All-trans retinoic acid attenuates ultraviolet radiation-induced down-regulation of aquaporin-3 and water permeability in human keratinocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:506-16 pubmed
    ..This novel finding provides evidence to support possible involvement of AQP3 in UV induced skin dehydration. ..