Summary: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.

Top Publications

  1. Rodríguez A, Catalan V, Gomez Ambrosi J, Fruhbeck G. Aquaglyceroporins serve as metabolic gateways in adiposity and insulin resistance control. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:1548-56 pubmed
    b>Aquaglyceroporins (AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10) encompass a subfamily of aquaporins that allow the movement of water and other small solutes, especially glycerol, through cell membranes...
  2. Bienert G, Desguin B, Chaumont F, Hols P. Channel-mediated lactic acid transport: a novel function for aquaglyceroporins in bacteria. Biochem J. 2013;454:559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have functionally analysed the largest set of bacterial MIPs and demonstrated that the lactic acid membrane permeability of bacteria can be regulated by aquaglyceroporins.
  3. Aponte Santamaría C, Hub J, de Groot B. Dynamics and energetics of solute permeation through the Plasmodium falciparum aquaglyceroporin. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:10246-54 pubmed publisher
  4. Hara Chikuma M, Verkman A. Physiological roles of glycerol-transporting aquaporins: the aquaglyceroporins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:1386-92 pubmed
    A subclass of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, termed aquaglyceroporins, are also able to transport glycerol and perhaps urea and other small solutes...
  5. Newby Z, O Connell J, Robles Colmenares Y, Khademi S, Miercke L, Stroud R. Crystal structure of the aquaglyceroporin PfAQP from the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The two Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) regions of PfAQP, which bear rare substitutions to Asn-Leu-Ala (NLA) and Asn-Pro-Ser (NPS), participate in preserving the orientation of the selectivity filter asparagines in the center of the channel. ..
  6. Zeuthen T, Wu B, Pavlovic Djuranovic S, Holm L, Uzcategui N, Duszenko M, et al. Ammonia permeability of the aquaglyceroporins from Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Trypansoma brucei. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1598-608 pubmed
    ..Ammonia permeability was similarly established for the aquaglyceroporins from Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma brucei...
  7. Promeneur D, Liu Y, Maciel J, Agre P, King L, Kumar N. Aquaglyceroporin PbAQP during intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate here that PbAQP plays an important role in the blood-stage development of the rodent malaria parasite during infection in mice and could be added to the list of targets for the design of antimalarial drugs...
  8. Hub J, de Groot B. Mechanism of selectivity in aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1198-203 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins form a family of pore proteins that facilitate the efficient and selective flux of small solutes across biological membranes...
  9. Bienert G, Schüssler M, Jahn T. Metalloids: essential, beneficial or toxic? Major intrinsic proteins sort it out. Trends Biochem Sci. 2008;33:20-6 pubmed
    ..are a family of selective membrane channels comprising water-channelling aquaporins and glycerol-channelling aquaglyceroporins. Recently, several MIPs within all domains of life were shown to facilitate the diffusion of reduced and non-..

More Information


  1. Fitzpatrick K, Reid R. The involvement of aquaglyceroporins in transport of boron in barley roots. Plant Cell Environ. 2009;32:1357-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The B transport characteristics of two barley aquaglyceroporins, HvPIP1;3 and HvPIP1;4, were investigated using yeast complementation assays...
  2. Hamdi M, Sanchez M, Beene L, Liu Q, Landfear S, Rosen B, et al. Arsenic transport by zebrafish aquaglyceroporins. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:104 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes for at least seven aquaglyceroporins have been annotated in the zebrafish genome project...
  3. Mukhopadhyay R, Bhattacharjee H, Rosen B. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen ..
  4. Rojek A, Praetorius J, Frøkiaer J, Nielsen S, Fenton R. A current view of the mammalian aquaglyceroporins. Annu Rev Physiol. 2008;70:301-27 pubmed
    ..Aquaporins in this latter class, the so-called aquaglyceroporins, transport small uncharged molecules such as glycerol and urea as well as water...
  5. Wree D, Wu B, Zeuthen T, Beitz E. Requirement for asparagine in the aquaporin NPA sequence signature motifs for cation exclusion. FEBS J. 2011;278:740-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Wallace I, Choi W, Roberts D. The structure, function and regulation of the nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein family of plant aquaglyceroporins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1758:1165-75 pubmed
    ..NIPs tend to be expressed at low levels in the plant compared to other MIPs, and several exhibit cell or tissue specific expression that is subject to spatial and temporal regulation during development. ..
  7. Rodríguez A, Catalan V, Gomez Ambrosi J, García Navarro S, Rotellar F, Valenti V, et al. Insulin- and leptin-mediated control of aquaglyceroporins in human adipocytes and hepatocytes is mediated via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E586-97 pubmed publisher
    ..and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes as well as the potential regulatory role of insulin and leptin on aquaglyceroporins (AQP) 3, 7, and 9 were analyzed...
  8. Liu Z, Styblo M, Rosen B. Methylarsonous acid transport by aquaglyceroporins. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:527-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, rat AQP9 facilitates MAs(III) at a higher rate than As(III). These results demonstrate that aquaglyceroporins differ both in selectivity for and in transport rates of trivalent arsenicals...
  9. Bassarak B, Uzcategui N, Schönfeld C, Duszenko M. Functional characterization of three aquaglyceroporins from Trypanosoma brucei in osmoregulation and glycerol transport. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2011;27:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Later, we cloned, expressed and characterized the transport properties of all three aquaglyceroporins (AQP1-3) [2], which were found permeable for water, glycerol and other small uncharged solutes like ..
  10. Maciaszczyk Dziubinska E, Migdal I, Migocka M, Bocer T, Wysocki R. The yeast aquaglyceroporin Fps1p is a bidirectional arsenite channel. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:726-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, deletion of FPS1 gene resulted in arsenate sensitivity. Finally, transport experiments revealed that Fps1p in concert with the arsenite transporter Acr3p mediates arsenite efflux...
  11. Wei N, Xu H, Kim S, Jin Y. Deletion of FPS1, encoding aquaglyceroporin Fps1p, improves xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:3193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that Fps1p is involved in xylitol export in S. cerevisiae and present a new gene deletion target, FPS1, and a mechanism different from those previously reported to engineer yeast for improved xylose fermentation. ..
  12. Wu B, Song J, Beitz E. Novel channel enzyme fusion proteins confer arsenate resistance. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40081-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Immediate diffusion maintains the dynamic equilibrium and prevents toxic accumulation of metabolites in an energy-saving fashion. ..
  13. Solari P, Masala C, Falchi A, Sollai G, Liscia A. The sense of water in the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..appears to have renewed interest as a model for studies on the role of water channels, namely aquaporins or aquaglyceroporins, in water detection...
  14. Geijer C, Ahmadpour D, Palmgren M, Filipsson C, Klein D, Tamás M, et al. Yeast aquaglyceroporins use the transmembrane core to restrict glycerol transport. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23562-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Aquaglyceroporins are transmembrane proteins belonging to the family of aquaporins, which facilitate the passage of specific uncharged solutes across membranes of cells...
  15. Wallace I, Roberts D. Distinct transport selectivity of two structural subclasses of the nodulin-like intrinsic protein family of plant aquaglyceroporin channels. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16826-34 pubmed
    ..that the H2 residue can predict the transport profile for water and glycerol with histidine found in TIP-like aquaporins, tryptophan found in aquaglyceroporins (NIP I), and alanine found in water-impermeable glyceroporins (AtNIP6;1).
  16. Saito Y, Furukawa T, Obata T, Saga T. Molecular imaging of aquaglycero-aquaporins: its potential for cancer characterization. Biol Pharm Bull. 2013;36:1292-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the possibility of using agAQPs as new targets to characterize cancer using radiolabeled glycerol as a molecular probe. ..
  17. Sundaram S, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma L, Rosen B. An arsenate-activated glutaredoxin from the arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata L. regulates intracellular arsenite. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6095-101 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, PvGrx5 is the first plant Grx implicated in arsenic metabolism...
  18. Gupta A, Verma R, Agarwal V, Vajpai M, Bansal V, Sankararamakrishnan R. MIPModDB: a central resource for the superfamily of major intrinsic proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:D362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequences and structures of selected MIPs can be downloaded from MIPModDB database which is freely available at ..
  19. Gazzarrini S, Kang M, Epimashko S, Van Etten J, Dainty J, Thiel G, et al. Chlorella virus MT325 encodes water and potassium channels that interact synergistically. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5355-60 pubmed
    ..Considering the universal role of osmosis, this mechanism is relevant to any cell coexpressing water and potassium channels and could have pathological as well as basic physiological relevance. ..
  20. Yi S, Benoit J, Elnitsky M, Kaufmann N, Brodsky J, Zeidel M, et al. Function and immuno-localization of aquaporins in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:1096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply a vital role for aquaporin/aquaglyceroporins in water relations and freezing tolerance in B. antarctica.
  21. Edashige K, Tanaka M, Ichimaru N, Ota S, Yazawa K, Higashino Y, et al. Channel-dependent permeation of water and glycerol in mouse morulae. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:625-32 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, water and glycerol appear to move across the plasma membrane mainly by simple diffusion in oocytes but by facilitated diffusion through water channel(s) including aquaporin 3 in morulae...
  22. Chen L. Free-energy landscape of glycerol permeation through aquaglyceroporin GlpF determined from steered molecular dynamics simulations. Biophys Chem. 2010;151:178-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this new SMD-BD-FDT study are in agreement with the experimental data and with the ABF results. ..
  23. Mukhopadhyay R, Beitz E. Metalloid transport by aquaglyceroporins: consequences in the treatment of human diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;679:57-69 pubmed
    ..and antimonials against such diseases, we summarize data on uptake pathways through human and parasite aquaglyceroporins and we discuss the progress and options in the development of therapeutic aquaporin and aquaglyceroporin ..
  24. Maharjan M, Singh S, Chatterjee M, Madhubala R. Role of aquaglyceroporin (AQP1) gene and drug uptake in antimony-resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:69-75 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that while downregulation of AQP1 may be one of the mechanisms of antimony resistance, it is however not an invariable feature. ..
  25. Benga G. On the definition, nomenclature and classification of water channel proteins (aquaporins and relatives). Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:514-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The WCP family include three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins...
  26. Lee T, Ho I, Lu W, Huang J. Enhanced expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and reduced expression of aquaglyceroporin 3 in an arsenic-resistant human cell line. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18401-7 pubmed
    ..We also examined the expression of several aquaglyceroporins (AQPs), which mediate As(III) uptake by cells...
  27. Virreira M, Perret J, Delporte C. Pancreatic beta-cells: Role of glycerol and aquaglyceroporin 7. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:10-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Aquaglyceroporin 7, permeable to water, glycerol and urea, is expressed in pancreatic ?-cells and was recently described as being involved in the control of insulin secretion. ..
  28. Gonzalez C, Gonzalez Buitrago J, Izquierdo G. Aquaporins, anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies and neuromyelitis optica. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;415:350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..distribution and functions of the different molecules of aquaporins (AQPs), including aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and superaquaporins are reviewed together with their potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses...
  29. Li X, Lei T, Xia T, Chen X, Feng S, Chen H, et al. Molecular characterization, chromosomal and expression patterns of three aquaglyceroporins (AQP3, 7, 9) from pig. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;149:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of molecular characterization of aquaglyceroporin in pig, which provides basic observations useful for future assessing and characterizing the role of aquaglyceroporin. ..
  30. Kataoka N, Miyake S, Azuma M. Aquaporin and aquaglyceroporin in silkworms, differently expressed in the hindgut and midgut of Bombyx mori. Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:303-14 pubmed publisher
  31. Lin Y, Hsu J, Shu J, Chi Y, Chiang S, Lee S. Two distinct arsenite-resistant variants of Leishmania amazonensis take different routes to achieve resistance as revealed by comparative transcriptomics. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;162:16-31 pubmed publisher
    ..amazonensis to take two totally different routes to diverge into two different variants. ..
  32. Yang H, Fu H, Lin Y, Rosen B. Pathways of arsenic uptake and efflux. Curr Top Membr. 2012;69:325-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the pathways and transporters for arsenic uptake and efflux is essential for understanding its toxicity and carcinogenicity and for rational design of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. ..
  33. Torres Avila M, Leal Galicia P, Sánchez Peña L, Del Razo L, Gonsebatt M. Arsenite induces aquaglyceroporin 9 expression in murine livers. Environ Res. 2010;110:443-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased transcription of AQP9 has been observed in fasting and diabetic rats, suggesting that this channel could play a role in the diabetogenic effect of arsenic. ..
  34. Kenthirapalan S, Waters A, Matuschewski K, Kooij T. Flow cytometry-assisted rapid isolation of recombinant Plasmodium berghei parasites exemplified by functional analysis of aquaglyceroporin. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that flow-cytometric isolation of isogenic parasites overcomes the major roadblock towards a genome-scale repository of mutant and transgenic malaria parasite lines. ..
  35. Baker N, de Koning H, Maser P, Horn D. Drug resistance in African trypanosomiasis: the melarsoprol and pentamidine story. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review these findings and consider some new questions as well as future prospects for tackling the devastating diseases caused by these parasites...
  36. Uzcategui N, Figarella K, Bassarak B, Meza N, Mukhopadhyay R, Ramirez J, et al. Trypanosoma brucei aquaglyceroporins facilitate the uptake of arsenite and antimonite in a pH dependent way. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;32:880-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For an adequate adaptation to these environments, the parasite's aquaglyceroporins play an important role...
  37. Abe M. [Current status and issues of anti-smoking measures in the workplace in Japan]. Nihon Rinsho. 2014;72:347-52 pubmed
    ..Such a harsh environment to ignore health and safety, it must be eliminated as soon as possible. In order to protect the health of workers, the workplace should be smoke free. ..
  38. Stanisçuaski F, Paluzzi J, Real Guerra R, Carlini C, Orchard I. Expression analysis and molecular characterization of aquaporins in Rhodnius prolixus. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:1140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these analyses suggest that RhoprMIP is probably an aquaglyceroporin, while RhoprAQP1 appears to be a strict aquaporin that transports only water. ..
  39. Yool A, Campbell E. Structure, function and translational relevance of aquaporin dual water and ion channels. Mol Aspects Med. 2012;33:553-61 pubmed publisher
    Aquaporins have been assumed to be selective for water alone, and aquaglyceroporins are accepted as carrying water and small uncharged solutes including glycerol...
  40. Mukhopadhyay R, Mandal G, Atluri V, Figarella K, Uzcategui N, Zhou Y, et al. The role of alanine 163 in solute permeability of Leishmania major aquaglyceroporin LmAQP1. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;175:83-90 pubmed publisher
  41. Masalkar P, Wallace I, Hwang J, Roberts D. Interaction of cytosolic glutamine synthetase of soybean root nodules with the C-terminal domain of the symbiosome membrane nodulin 26 aquaglyceroporin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23880-8 pubmed publisher
  42. Wang C, Chen G, Jiang J, Qiu L, Hosoi K, Yao C. Aquaglyceroporins are involved in uptake of arsenite into murine gastrointestinal tissues. J Med Invest. 2009;56 Suppl:343-6 pubmed
    b>Aquaglyceroporins (AQGPs) are members of aquaporin (AQP) family and belong to a subgroup of this water channel family; they are transmembrane proteins that transport water as well as glycerol and other solutes of small molecules...
  43. Cymer F, Schneider D. A single glutamate residue controls the oligomerization, function, and stability of the aquaglyceroporin GlpF. Biochemistry. 2010;49:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, E43 is critical for the proper oligomerization of GlpF, and protein oligomerization appears to be crucial for the channel function as well as for the in vivo stability of the protein. ..
  44. Zilli L, Schiavone R, Chauvigné F, Cerdà J, Storelli C, Vilella S. Evidence for the involvement of aquaporins in sperm motility activation of the teleost gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Biol Reprod. 2009;81:880-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Hibuse T, Maeda N, Nakatsuji H, Tochino Y, Fujita K, Kihara S, et al. The heart requires glycerol as an energy substrate through aquaporin 7, a glycerol facilitator. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:34-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that AQP7 acts as a glycerol facilitator in cardiomyocytes and that glycerol is a substrate for cardiac energy production. ..
  46. Wiwanitkit V. Identification of transmembrane region and orientation of aquaglyceroporin of Plasmodium falciparum. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008;26:246-7 pubmed
    ..According to this study, six transmembrane regions of aquaglyceroporin of P. falciparum can be identified. These regions can be the focused target for future drug development. ..
  47. Rouge P, Barre A. A molecular modeling approach defines a new group of Nodulin 26-like aquaporins in plants. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:60-6 pubmed
    ..The specific transport of water, non-ionic solutes (glycerol, urea, ammoniac), ions (NH4+) and gas (NH(3)) across the Nod26-like obviously depends on the electrostatic and conformational properties of their central water channel. ..
  48. Zhan X, Zhang X, Yin X, Ma H, Liang J, Zhou L, et al. H(+)/phenanthrene symporter and aquaglyceroporin are implicated in phenanthrene uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots. J Environ Qual. 2012;41:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The passive uptake is mercury and glycerol dependent. Mercury and glycerol inhibit uptake, indicating that aquaglyceroporins sensitive to mercury contribute to passive uptake. Active uptake is mediated by a phenanthrene/H symporter...
  49. Bienert G, Jahn T. Major intrinsic proteins and arsenic transport in plants: new players and their potential role. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;679:111-25 pubmed
    ..Specific NIPs are also essential for the uptake of the metalloids boron and silicon and aquaglyceroporins from microbes and mammals were shown to be the major routes of As uptake...
  50. Shepherd A, Piper P. The Fps1p aquaglyceroporin facilitates the use of small aliphatic amides as a nitrogen source by amidase-expressing yeasts. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..ZrAMD1 appears to encode the major amidase of Z. rouxii as a Zramd1Delta deletant mutant had, like the Zrfps1Delta deletant, lost the ability to assimilate small amides as sources of nitrogen. ..
  51. Bhattacharjee H, Mukhopadhyay R, Thiyagarajan S, Rosen B. Aquaglyceroporins: ancient channels for metalloids. J Biol. 2008;7:33 pubmed publisher
    The identification of aquaglyceroporins as uptake channels for arsenic and antimony shows how these toxic elements can enter the food chain, and suggests that food plants could be genetically modified to exclude arsenic while still ..
  52. Ahmadpour D, Geijer C, Tamás M, Lindkvist Petersson K, Hohmann S. Yeast reveals unexpected roles and regulatory features of aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1482-91 pubmed publisher
    ..S. cerevisiae also has two different aquaglyceroporins. While the role of one of them, Yfl054c, remains to be determined, Fps1 plays critical roles in ..
  53. Wang J, Hou X, Ma R. [The clinical features and colonic epithelium AQP8 expression in diarrhea-irritable bowel syndrome]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2006;45:1000-3 pubmed
    ..As a result, absorption of water is reduced, thus loose stool and diarrhoea occur. There may be some correlation between the variation in AQP8 and the incidence of D-IBS. ..