Genomes and Genes
Summary: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
- van Beek J, van Meurs M, t Hart B, Brok H, Neal J, Chatagner A, et al. Decay-accelerating factor (CD55) is expressed by neurons in response to chronic but not acute autoimmune central nervous system inflammation associated with complement activation. J Immunol. 2005;174:2353-65 pubmed..We conclude that increased CD55 expression by neurons may represent a key protective signaling mechanism mobilized by brain cells to withstand complement activation and to survive within an inflammatory site. ..
- Verbakel C, van Duikeren S, de Bruin R, Marquet R, Ijzermans J. Human decay-accelerating factor expressed on rat hearts inhibits leukocyte adhesion. Transpl Int. 2003;16:168-72 pubmed..hCD55 is an efficient factor in protecting grafts against HAR and protects the graft against adhesion of leukocytes as well. ..
- Molina H, Miwa T, Zhou L, Hilliard B, Mastellos D, Maldonado M, et al. Complement-mediated clearance of erythrocytes: mechanism and delineation of the regulatory roles of Crry and DAF. Decay-accelerating factor. Blood. 2002;100:4544-9 pubmed..These results shed new light on the relative activities of Crry and DAF and underscore the critical roles of membrane C3 regulators in preventing spontaneous and antibody-induced erythrocyte damage in vivo. ..
- Miwa T, Zhou L, Hilliard B, Molina H, Song W. Crry, but not CD59 and DAF, is indispensable for murine erythrocyte protection in vivo from spontaneous complement attack. Blood. 2002;99:3707-16 pubmed..Our results raise the possibility that proper control of C3 activation may also be critical on human erythrocytes, where CR1 but not DAF could be the principal regulator of spontaneous C3 activation. ..
- Stoute J. Complement-regulatory proteins in severe malaria: too little or too much of a good thing?. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:218-23 pubmed
- Kaminski H, Kusner L, Richmonds C, Medof M, Lin F. Deficiency of decay accelerating factor and CD59 leads to crisis in experimental myasthenia. Exp Neurol. 2006;202:287-93 pubmed..They argue that complement inhibitor, particularly if targeted to the receptor, could then have therapeutic value in human MG. ..
- Cauvi D, Cauvi G, Pollard K. Constitutive expression of murine decay-accelerating factor 1 is controlled by the transcription factor Sp1. J Immunol. 2006;177:3837-47 pubmed..These findings provide new information on the regulation of the mouse Daf1 promoter and will facilitate further studies on the expression of Daf1 during immune responses. ..
- VanLandingham J, Cekic M, Cutler S, Hoffman S, Stein D. Neurosteroids reduce inflammation after TBI through CD55 induction. Neurosci Lett. 2007;425:94-8 pubmed..The increased expression of CD55 could be an important mechanism by which steroids help to reduce the cerebral damage caused by inflammation. ..
- Weeks C, Moratz C, Zacharia A, Stracener C, Egan R, Peckham R, et al. Decay-accelerating factor attenuates remote ischemia-reperfusion-initiated organ damage. Clin Immunol. 2007;124:311-27 pubmed..These data provide evidence that soluble DAF might offer clinical benefit to patients suffering remote intestinal or lung damage in response to muscle or other organ injury. ..
- Liu J, Miwa T, Hilliard B, Chen Y, Lambris J, Wells A, et al. The complement inhibitory protein DAF (CD55) suppresses T cell immunity in vivo. J Exp Med. 2005;201:567-77 pubmed..These findings establish a critical link between complement and T cell immunity and have implications for the role of DAF and complement in organ transplantation, tumor evasion, and vaccine development. ..
- Stoute J, Odindo A, Owuor B, Mibei E, Opollo M, Waitumbi J. Loss of red blood cell-complement regulatory proteins and increased levels of circulating immune complexes are associated with severe malarial anemia. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:522-5 pubmed..2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-8.1; P<.001) and an increase in immune complex level (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.8; P=.001) were significantly associated with severe malarial anemia. ..
- Yamada K, Miwa T, Liu J, Nangaku M, Song W. Critical protection from renal ischemia reperfusion injury by CD55 and CD59. J Immunol. 2004;172:3869-75 pubmed..Our findings suggest a rationale for anti-complement therapies aimed at preventing microvascular injury during ischemia reperfusion, and the CD55(-/-)CD59(-/-) mouse provides a useful animal model in this regard. ..
- Fishelson Z, Donin N, Zell S, Schultz S, Kirschfink M. Obstacles to cancer immunotherapy: expression of membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs) in tumors. Mol Immunol. 2003;40:109-23 pubmed..It is envisaged that treatment of cancer patients with mCRP blocking antibodies targeted specifically to cancer cells in combination with anticancer complement-fixing antibodies will improve the therapeutic efficacy. ..
- Mikesch J, Buerger H, Simon R, Brandt B. Decay-accelerating factor (CD55): a versatile acting molecule in human malignancies. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1766:42-52 pubmed..Furthermore, DAF has already been included in diagnostic or therapeutic studies. Thereby, studies applying monoclonal anti-DAF antibodies and anti-DAF vaccination for a targeted therapy have been enrolled recently. ..
- Visser L, de Vos A, Hamann J, Melief M, van Meurs M, van Lier R, et al. Expression of the EGF-TM7 receptor CD97 and its ligand CD55 (DAF) in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;132:156-63 pubmed..This interaction may facilitate cell activation and migration through the blood-brain barrier. In addition, CD97-CD55 interactions in the parenchyma of the brain may contribute to the inflammation. ..
- Christmas S, de la Mata Espinosa C, Halliday D, Buxton C, Cummerson J, Johnson P. Levels of expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 on resting and activated human peripheral blood leucocytes. Immunology. 2006;119:522-8 pubmed..This could enhance both protection against local complement activation at inflammatory sites and also the immunoregulatory properties of these leucocytes. ..
- Waitumbi J, Donvito B, Kisserli A, Cohen J, Stoute J. Age-related changes in red blood cell complement regulatory proteins and susceptibility to severe malaria. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1183-91 pubmed
- Mason J, Ahmed Z, Mankoff R, Lidington E, Ahmad S, Bhatia V, et al. Statin-induced expression of decay-accelerating factor protects vascular endothelium against complement-mediated injury. Circ Res. 2002;91:696-703 pubmed..Modulation of complement regulatory protein expression may contribute to the early beneficial effects of statins in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with atherosclerosis. ..
- Harris C, Williams A, Linton S, Morgan B. Coupling complement regulators to immunoglobulin domains generates effective anti-complement reagents with extended half-life in vivo. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002;129:198-207 pubmed..The data demonstrate the potential of CRP-Ig as reagents for sustained therapy of inflammatory disorders, including arthritis, but emphasize the need for careful design of fusion proteins to retain function. ..
- Kaminski H, Li Z, Richmonds C, Lin F, Medof M. Complement regulators in extraocular muscle and experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Exp Neurol. 2004;189:333-42 pubmed..Diminished intrinsic complement regulatory activity may contribute to the susceptibility of EOM to MG. Our findings suggest that complement inhibitor-based therapies could be useful in treating ocular manifestations of MG. ..
- Garcia Valladares I, Atisha Fregoso Y, Richaud Patin Y, Jakez Ocampo J, Soto Vega E, Elías López D, et al. Diminished expression of complement regulatory proteins (CD55 and CD59) in lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus patients with lymphopenia. Lupus. 2006;15:600-5 pubmed..The deficiency of CD55 and CD59 expression may play a role in the pathophysiology of lymphopenia, most likely by increasing the susceptibility of cells to complement mediated cytolysis. ..
- Miwa T, Maldonado M, Zhou L, Yamada K, Gilkeson G, Eisenberg R, et al. Decay-accelerating factor ameliorates systemic autoimmune disease in MRL/lpr mice via both complement-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1258-66 pubmed..Together, these results reveal multiple mechanisms of action for DAF in ameliorating systemic autoimmunity. ..
- Miwa T, Maldonado M, Zhou L, Sun X, Luo H, Cai D, et al. Deletion of decay-accelerating factor (CD55) exacerbates autoimmune disease development in MRL/lpr mice. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1077-86 pubmed..These results reveal a protective function of DAF in the development of a systemic autoimmune syndrome and suggest that dysfunction or down-regulation of DAF may contribute to autoimmune disease pathogenesis and manifestation. ..
- Osuka F, Endo Y, Higuchi M, Suzuki H, Shio Y, Fujiu K, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel splicing variants of human decay-accelerating factor. Genomics. 2006;88:316-22 pubmed..These results suggest that more than seven isoforms of human DAF are involved in the regulation of complement activation under physiological conditions through their specific structures and localization. ..
- Zell S, Geis N, Rutz R, Schultz S, Giese T, Kirschfink M. Down-regulation of CD55 and CD46 expression by anti-sense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (S-ODNs) sensitizes tumour cells to complement attack. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;150:576-84 pubmed..Due to the clinical applicability of S-ODNs, the anti-sense approach described in this study may offer an additional alternative to improve the efficacy of antibody- and complement-based cancer immunotherapy. ..
- Sogabe H, Nangaku M, Ishibashi Y, Wada T, Fujita T, Sun X, et al. Increased susceptibility of decay-accelerating factor deficient mice to anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. J Immunol. 2001;167:2791-7 pubmed..These results support the conclusion that membrane C3 convertase inhibitors like DAF play a protective role in complement-mediated immune glomerular damage in vivo. ..
- Li L, Spendlove I, Morgan J, Durrant L. CD55 is over-expressed in the tumour environment. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:80-6 pubmed..Although it remains unclear why CD55 is upregulated in the tumour environment its high level of expression on tumour cells and associated endothelium may explain why it is a good target for both imaging and immunotherapy. ..
- Spendlove L, Li L, Potter V, Christiansen D, Loveland B, Durrant L. A therapeutic human anti-idiotypic antibody mimics CD55 in three distinct regions. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:2944-53 pubmed..These findings help identify the mechanism by which a human anti-idiotypic antibody is able to mimic a tumor-associated antigen and stimulate anti-tumor B and T cell responses. ..
- Song W, Deng C, Raszmann K, Moore R, Newbold R, McLachlan J, et al. Mouse decay-accelerating factor: selective and tissue-specific induction by estrogen of the gene encoding the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored form. J Immunol. 1996;157:4166-72 pubmed
- Lublin D, Mallinson G, Poole J, Reid M, Thompson E, Ferdman B, et al. Molecular basis of reduced or absent expression of decay-accelerating factor in Cromer blood group phenotypes. Blood. 1994;84:1276-82 pubmed..Thus, the single point mutation in the Dr(a-) phenotype results in a novel use of alternative splicing and provides a molecular explanation for both the antigenicity and the reduced DAF expression seen in this phenotype. ..
- Harris C, Rushmere N, Morgan B. Molecular and functional analysis of mouse decay accelerating factor (CD55). Biochem J. 1999;341 ( Pt 3):821-9 pubmed..Transfection with DAF also conferred protection from complement in a cell-lysis assay, and a soluble, recombinant form of mouse DAF inhibited complement in a haemolytic assay. ..
- Mason J, Yarwood H, Sugars K, Morgan B, Davies K, Haskard D. Induction of decay-accelerating factor by cytokines or the membrane-attack complex protects vascular endothelial cells against complement deposition. Blood. 1999;94:1673-82 pubmed
- Kirkitadze M, Barlow P. Structure and flexibility of the multiple domain proteins that regulate complement activation. Immunol Rev. 2001;180:146-61 pubmed..The results could have implications for folding, evolution, flexibility and structure-function relationships of other molecules in the large, diverse and little understood category of multiple domain proteins. ..
- Arora M, Arora R, Tiwari S, Das N, Srivastava L. Expression of complement regulatory proteins in diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. Lupus. 2000;9:127-31 pubmed..However, expression of DAF and CD59 was increased on both erythrocytes and glomerulus of DPGN patients, suggesting the generation of a protective response against complement-mediated injury. ..
- Hamann J, Stortelers C, Kiss Toth E, Vogel B, Eichler W, van Lier R. Characterization of the CD55 (DAF)-binding site on the seven-span transmembrane receptor CD97. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:1701-7 pubmed..Thus, alternative splicing may regulate the ligand specificity of CD97 and probably other members of the EGF-TM7 family. ..
- Sun X, Funk C, Deng C, Sahu A, Lambris J, Song W. Role of decay-accelerating factor in regulating complement activation on the erythrocyte surface as revealed by gene targeting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:628-33 pubmed
- Hamann J, Vogel B, van Schijndel G, van Lier R. The seven-span transmembrane receptor CD97 has a cellular ligand (CD55, DAF). J Exp Med. 1996;184:1185-9 pubmed..This is the first demonstration of a cellular ligand for a 7-TM receptor. ..
- Schuurman H, Pino Chavez G, Phillips M, Thomas L, White D, Cozzi E. Incidence of hyperacute rejection in pig-to-primate transplantation using organs from hDAF-transgenic donors. Transplantation. 2002;73:1146-51 pubmed..The incidence of HAR in control grafts is significantly higher. ..
- Miwa T, Sun X, Ohta R, Okada N, Harris C, Morgan B, et al. Characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored decay accelerating factor (GPI-DAF) and transmembrane DAF gene expression in wild-type and GPI-DAF gene knockout mice using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies with dual or single specificity. Immunology. 2001;104:207-14 pubmed
- Fujita T, Inoue T, Ogawa K, Iida K, Tamura N. The mechanism of action of decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF inhibits the assembly of C3 convertases by dissociating C2a and Bb. J Exp Med. 1987;166:1221-8 pubmed
- Caras I, Davitz M, Rhee L, Weddell G, Martin D, Nussenzweig V. Cloning of decay-accelerating factor suggests novel use of splicing to generate two proteins. Nature. 1987;325:545-9 pubmed..The deduced DAF sequence contains four repeating units homologous to a consensus repeat found in a recently described family of complement proteins. ..
- Spicer A, Seldin M, Gendler S. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the mouse decay-accelerating factor genes. Duplicated genes encode glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored and transmembrane forms. J Immunol. 1995;155:3079-91 pubmed..Chromosome localization studies mapped the mouse Daf genes to chromosome 1, where they segregated with the C4-binding protein (C4bp) gene. ..
- Lin F, Fukuoka Y, Spicer A, Ohta R, Okada N, Harris C, et al. Tissue distribution of products of the mouse decay-accelerating factor (DAF) genes. Exploitation of a Daf1 knock-out mouse and site-specific monoclonal antibodies. Immunology. 2001;104:215-25 pubmed..The results have relevance for studies of in vivo murine DAF function and of murine DAF structure. ..
- Miwa T, Song W. Membrane complement regulatory proteins: insight from animal studies and relevance to human diseases. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001;1:445-59 pubmed..We also discuss how the characterization of the animal proteins has provided important clues and might continue to show relevance to the pathogenesis and therapeutics of a number of human diseases. ..
- Lin H, Stacey M, Saxby C, Knott V, Chaudhry Y, Evans D, et al. Molecular analysis of the epidermal growth factor-like short consensus repeat domain-mediated protein-protein interactions: dissection of the CD97-CD55 complex. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:24160-9 pubmed
- Spendlove I, Li L, Carmichael J, Durrant L. Decay accelerating factor (CD55): a target for cancer vaccines?. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2282-6 pubmed..It is therefore a very intriguing target, because absence of the molecule makes the tumor cells susceptible to complement, whereas protective overexpression results in the antigen being a target for T-cell immunotherapy. ..
- Shenoy Scaria A, Kwong J, Fujita T, Olszowy M, Shaw A, Lublin D. Signal transduction through decay-accelerating factor. Interaction of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor and protein tyrosine kinases p56lck and p59fyn 1. J Immunol. 1992;149:3535-41 pubmed..In HeLa cells transfected with fyn, DAF associated with p59fyn. This complex of DAF with src family protein tyrosine kinases requires the GPI anchor and suggests a pathway for signaling through GPI-anchored membrane proteins. ..
- Kiso T, Mizuno M, Nasu J, Shimo K, Uesu T, Yamamoto K, et al. Enhanced expression of decay-accelerating factor and CD59/homologous restriction factor 20 in intestinal metaplasia, gastric adenomas and intestinal-type gastric carcinomas but not in diffuse-type carcinomas. Histopathology. 2002;40:339-47 pubmed
- Mason J, Lidington E, Yarwood H, Lublin D, Haskard D. Induction of endothelial cell decay-accelerating factor by vascular endothelial growth factor: a mechanism for cytoprotection against complement-mediated injury during inflammatory angiogenesis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:138-50 pubmed..The up-regulation of DAF expression by VEGF may represent an important mechanism for the protection of EC from complement-mediated injury during angiogenesis in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. ..
- Durrant L, Buckley D, Robins R, Spendlove I. 105Ad7 cancer vaccine stimulates anti-tumour helper and cytotoxic T-cell responses in colorectal cancer patients but repeated immunisations are required to maintain these responses. Int J Cancer. 2000;85:87-92 pubmed..Our results suggest that 105AD7 can stimulate CD4 and CD8 responses in patients with the appropriate haplotype. However, it may be necessary to continue to immunise, since few patients produce a sustained memory response. ..
- Qian Y, Haino M, Kelly K, Song W. Structural characterization of mouse CD97 and study of its specific interaction with the murine decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55). Immunology. 1999;98:303-11 pubmed..The finding that CD97 is distributed widely among various mouse tissues suggests that CD97 may have other roles beyond lymphocyte activation. ..
- Terpos E, Samarkos M, Meletis C, Apostolidou E, Tsironi M, Korovesis K, et al. Unusual association between increased bone resorption and presence of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria phenotype in multiple myeloma. Int J Hematol. 2003;78:344-8 pubmed..Further studies are required for clarifying this phenomenon and investigating possible mechanisms of this unusual association. ..
- Gomez R, Pozner R, Lazzari M, D Atri L, Negrotto S, Chudzinski Tavassi A, et al. Endothelial cell function alteration after Junin virus infection. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:326-33 pubmed..These data demonstrate that endothelial cell responses are triggered subsequently by JV infection, suggesting that such alterations play a major role in the pathogenesis of AHF and perhaps in other viral-induced hemorrhagic diseases...