chemokine cx3cl1


Summary: A CX3C chemokine that is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells. The soluble form of chemokine CX3CL1 can be released from cell surface by proteolysis and act as a chemoattractant that may be involved in the extravasation of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. The membrane form of the protein may also play a role in cell adhesion.

Top Publications

  1. Huang L, Ma B, Ma J, Wang F. Fractalkine/CX3CR1 axis modulated the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma via JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1510-1517 pubmed publisher
    ..Our investigation helped understanding the pathogenesis of PDAC occurrence, and demonstrated critical role of FKN/CX3CR1 in PDAC development...
  2. Haskell C, Cleary M, Charo I. Unique role of the chemokine domain of fractalkine in cell capture. Kinetics of receptor dissociation correlate with cell adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:34183-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that presentation of a chemokine atop a mucin-like stalk is not, in and of itself, sufficient to capture cells. The unique ability of FK to mediate adhesion under flow may be a function of its slow receptor off-rate. ..
  3. Rotty J, Brighton H, Craig S, Asokan S, Cheng N, Ting J, et al. Arp2/3 Complex Is Required for Macrophage Integrin Functions but Is Dispensable for FcR Phagocytosis and In Vivo Motility. Dev Cell. 2017;42:498-513.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate further that cells lacking Arp2/3 complex function in vivo remain capable of executing important physiological responses that require rapid directional motility. ..
  4. Al Aoukaty A, Rolstad B, Giaid A, Maghazachi A. MIP-3alpha, MIP-3beta and fractalkine induce the locomotion and the mobilization of intracellular calcium, and activate the heterotrimeric G proteins in human natural killer cells. Immunology. 1998;95:618-24 pubmed
  5. Silva M, Azevedo M, Figueiredo V, Moura Junior M, Coelho Junior D, Martinelli P, et al. Renovascular hypertension increases serum TNF and CX3CL1 in experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2018;51:e6690 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi infection may act synergistically to increase TNF and CX3CL1 in the 2K1C rat model, thereby intensifying cardiac inflammatory infiltration and worsening the underlying inflammation triggered by this protozoan. ..
  6. Upton N, Jackson D, Nikonova A, Hingley Wilson S, Khaitov M, Del Rosario A, et al. Rhinovirus induction of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in airway and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in asthma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183864 pubmed publisher
  7. Liu Y, Wang C, Wang Q, Lin Y, Ge Y, Li D, et al. Role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological function after early ischemic stroke in a rat model. Life Sci. 2017;184:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the study suggests that inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway promotes the recovery of neurological functioning after the occurrence of an early ischemic stroke. ..
  8. Old E, Nadkarni S, Grist J, Gentry C, Bevan S, Kim K, et al. Monocytes expressing CX3CR1 orchestrate the development of vincristine-induced pain. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:2023-36 pubmed publisher
    ..At the endothelial-nerve interface, CX3CR1? monocytes were activated by the chemokine CX3CL1 (also known as fractalkine [FKN]), which promoted production of reactive oxygen species that in turn ..
  9. Zou X, Zhang G, Cheng Z, Yin D, Du T, Ju G, et al. Microvesicles derived from human Wharton's Jelly mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by suppressing CX3CL1. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;5:40 pubmed publisher
    ..This establishes a substantial foundation for future research and treatment. ..

More Information


  1. Noels H, Weber C. Fractalkine as an important target of aspirin in the prevention of atherogenesis : Editorial to: "Aspirin inhibits fractalkine expression in atherosclerotic plaques and reduces atherosclerosis in ApoE gene knockout mice" by H. Liu et al. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2010;24:1-3 pubmed publisher
  2. Lionakis M, Swamydas M, Fischer B, Plantinga T, Johnson M, Jaeger M, et al. CX3CR1-dependent renal macrophage survival promotes Candida control and host survival. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:5035-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that CX3CR1-mediated renal resident macrophage survival is a critical innate mechanism of early fungal control that influences host survival in systemic candidiasis. ..
  3. Reyat J, Chimen M, Noy P, Szyroka J, Rainger G, Tomlinson M. ADAM10-Interacting Tetraspanins Tspan5 and Tspan17 Regulate VE-Cadherin Expression and Promote T Lymphocyte Transmigration. J Immunol. 2017;199:666-676 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore endothelial Tspan5- and Tspan17-ADAM10 complexes may regulate inflammation by maintaining normal VE-cadherin expression and promoting T lymphocyte transmigration. ..
  4. Luhmann U, Ali R. Local vs. systemic mononuclear phagocytes in age-related macular degeneration and their regulation by CCL2-CCR2 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 chemokine signalling. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;723:17-22 pubmed publisher
  5. Muller I, Pappritz K, Savvatis K, Puhl K, Dong F, El Shafeey M, et al. CX3CR1 knockout aggravates Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182643 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a cardioprotective role of CX3CR1 in CVB3-infected mice and indicate the relevance of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 system in CVB3-induced myocarditis. ..
  6. Wang H, Cai J, Du S, Guo Z, Xin B, Wang J, et al. Fractalkine/CX3CR1 induces apoptosis resistance and proliferation through the activation of the AKT/NF-?B cascade in pancreatic cancer cells. Cell Biochem Funct. 2017;35:315-326 pubmed publisher
    ..Fractalkine/CX3CR1 could serve as an effective therapeutic target of chemotherapeutic and biologic agents in early stage pancreatic cancer. ..
  7. Shiels M, Shu X, Chaturvedi A, Gao Y, Xiang Y, Cai Q, et al. A prospective study of immune and inflammation markers and risk of lung cancer among female never smokers in Shanghai. Carcinogenesis. 2017;38:1004-1010 pubmed publisher
    ..5 years prior to diagnosis. Markers involved in various aspects of the immune response were associated with subsequent lung cancer risk, implicating inflammation in the etiology of lung cancer among female never smokers. ..
  8. Haskell C, Cleary M, Charo I. Molecular uncoupling of fractalkine-mediated cell adhesion and signal transduction. Rapid flow arrest of CX3CR1-expressing cells is independent of G-protein activation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:10053-8 pubmed
  9. Fong A, Robinson L, Steeber D, Tedder T, Yoshie O, Imai T, et al. Fractalkine and CX3CR1 mediate a novel mechanism of leukocyte capture, firm adhesion, and activation under physiologic flow. J Exp Med. 1998;188:1413-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, FKN mediated the rapid capture, integrin-independent firm adhesion, and activation of circulating leukocytes under flow. Thus, FKN and CX3CR1 mediate a novel pathway for leukocyte trafficking. ..
  10. Fonović U, Jevnikar Z, Kos J. Cathepsin S generates soluble CX3CL1 (fractalkine) in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biol Chem. 2013;394:1349-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, strong co-localization of cathepsin S and CX3CL1 with a recycling endosome marker Rab11a suggests a processing of CX3CL1 in recycling endosomes during its redistribution to the plasma membrane. ..
  11. Standfuss J. Structural biology. Viral chemokine mimicry. Science. 2015;347:1071-2 pubmed publisher
  12. Benyamine A, Magalon J, Cointe S, Lacroix R, Arnaud L, Bardin N, et al. Increased serum levels of fractalkine and mobilisation of CD34+CD45- endothelial progenitor cells in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2017;19:60 pubmed publisher
    ..This signature may provide novel insights linking endothelial inflammation and defective repair processes in the pathogenesis of SSc. ..
  13. Voronova A, Yuzwa S, Wang B, Zahr S, Syal C, Wang J, et al. Migrating Interneurons Secrete Fractalkine to Promote Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Developing Mammalian Brain. Neuron. 2017;94:500-516.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to their role in regulating neuronal excitability, interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to promote the developmental genesis of oligodendrocytes. ..
  14. Jung K, Heishi T, Khan O, Kowalski P, Incio J, Rahbari N, et al. Ly6Clo monocytes drive immunosuppression and confer resistance to anti-VEGFR2 cancer therapy. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3039-3051 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the chemokine CX3CL1 was upregulated in both human and murine tumors following VEGF signaling blockade, resulting in recruitment ..
  15. Jones B, Beamer M, Ahmed S. Fractalkine/CX3CL1: a potential new target for inflammatory diseases. Mol Interv. 2010;10:263-70 pubmed publisher