cd4 antigens


Summary: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. They are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. T4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.

Top Publications

  1. Zloza A, Schenkel J, Tenorio A, Martinson J, Jeziorczak P, Al Harthi L. Potent HIV-specific responses are enriched in a unique subset of CD8+ T cells that coexpresses CD4 on its surface. Blood. 2009;114:3841-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings show that CD4(dim)CD8(bright) T cells designate an enriched antiviral subpopulation of CD8+ T cells that should be targeted for therapeutic intervention or evaluation of vaccine efficacy. ..
  2. Corti D, Langedijk J, Hinz A, Seaman M, Vanzetta F, Fernandez Rodriguez B, et al. Analysis of memory B cell responses and isolation of novel monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing breadth from HIV-1-infected individuals. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8805 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of these mAbs show unusual breadth of neutralization and therefore add to the current panel of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies with potential for passive protection and template-based vaccine design. ..
  3. Hinz A, Lutje Hulsik D, Forsman A, Koh W, Belrhali H, Gorlani A, et al. Crystal structure of the neutralizing Llama V(HH) D7 and its mode of HIV-1 gp120 interaction. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10482 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data confirm that the structural plasticity of gp120 can accommodate multiple modes of antibody binding within the CD4 binding site. ..
  4. Johnston S, Lobritz M, Nguyen S, Lassen K, Delair S, Posta F, et al. A quantitative affinity-profiling system that reveals distinct CD4/CCR5 usage patterns among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus strains. J Virol. 2009;83:11016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our affinity-profiling system may help to refine studies of R5 virus tropism and pathogenesis. ..
  5. Ma A, Qi S, Wang Z, Massicotte E, Dupuis M, Daloze P, et al. Combined therapy of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells with low-dose sirolimus, but not calcineurin inhibitors, preserves suppressive function of regulatory T cells and prolongs allograft survival in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Sirolimus may be the best copartner for Tregs therapy. It also suggests calcineurin-dependent signals may be required in the development of Tregs. ..
  6. Douglas J, Viswanathan K, McCarroll M, Gustin J, Fruh K, Moses A. Vpu directs the degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus restriction factor BST-2/Tetherin via a {beta}TrCP-dependent mechanism. J Virol. 2009;83:7931-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the molecular mechanisms of both Vpu-dependent and -independent mediated antagonism of BST-2 will be critical for therapeutic strategies that exploit this novel viral function. ..
  7. Wang L, Bosselut R. CD4-CD8 lineage differentiation: Thpok-ing into the nucleus. J Immunol. 2009;183:2903-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss how the "circuitry" connecting these factors could operate to match the expression of the lineage-committing factors Thpok and Runx3, and therefore lineage differentiation, to MHC specificity. ..
  8. Lee D, Lin X, Paskaleva E, Liu Y, Puttamadappa S, Thornber C, et al. Palmitic Acid Is a Novel CD4 Fusion Inhibitor That Blocks HIV Entry and Infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009;25:1231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the structure-affinity relationship (SAR) between PA and CD4 should lead to the development of PA analogs with greater potency against HIV-1 entry...
  9. Chen L, Kwon Y, Zhou T, Wu X, O Dell S, Cavacini L, et al. Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120. Science. 2009;326:1123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This incompatibility, the consequence of slight differences in CD4BS recognition, renders HIV-1 resistant to all but the most accurately targeted antibodies. ..

More Information


  1. Sauter D, Schindler M, Specht A, Landford W, M nch J, Kim K, et al. Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:409-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This may explain why group M viruses are almost entirely responsible for the global HIV/AIDS pandemic...
  2. Wu X, Zhou T, O Dell S, Wyatt R, Kwong P, Mascola J. Mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to monoclonal antibody B12 that effectively targets the site of CD4 attachment. J Virol. 2009;83:10892-907 pubmed publisher
  3. Fogle J, Mexas A, Tompkins W, Tompkins M. CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells inhibit CD8(+) IFN-gamma production during acute and chronic FIV infection utilizing a membrane TGF-beta-dependent mechanism. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010;26:201-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the suppressive effect CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells have on the CD8(+) immune response during the acute and chronic stages of FIV infection and suggest that the mechanism of suppression may be mediated by mTGF-beta...
  4. Jacobson J, Kuritzkes D, Godofsky E, DeJesus E, Larson J, Weinheimer S, et al. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiretroviral activity of multiple doses of ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355), an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody, in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:450-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ibalizumab administered either weekly or biweekly was safe and well tolerated and demonstrated antiviral activity. Further studies with ibalizumab in combination with standard antiretroviral treatments are warranted. ..
  5. Haim H, Si Z, Madani N, Wang L, Courter J, Princiotto A, et al. Soluble CD4 and CD4-mimetic compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection by induction of a short-lived activated state. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000360 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel strategy for inhibition may be generally applicable to high-potential-energy viral entry machines that are normally activated by receptor binding. ..
  6. Long S, Walker M, Rieck M, James E, Kwok W, Sanda S, et al. Functional islet-specific Treg can be generated from CD4+CD25- T cells of healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:612-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data suggest that development of functional adaptive Treg can occur in response to islet antigens and activation of islet-specific Treg may potentially be used as a targeted immunotherapy in T1D. ..
  7. Scheid J, Mouquet H, Feldhahn N, Seaman M, Velinzon K, Pietzsch J, et al. Broad diversity of neutralizing antibodies isolated from memory B cells in HIV-infected individuals. Nature. 2009;458:636-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the IgG memory B-cell compartment in the selected group of patients with broad serum neutralizing activity to HIV is comprised of multiple clonal responses with neutralizing activity directed against several epitopes on gp120. ..
  8. Sagoo P, Lombardi G, Lechler R. Regulatory T cells as therapeutic cells. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008;13:645-53 pubmed publisher
    ..As renewed efforts focus on translational medical research, it seems as though, whether ready or not, Tregs are finally crossing from bench to bedside. ..
  9. Dey B, Svehla K, Xu L, Wycuff D, Zhou T, Voss G, et al. Structure-based stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 enhances humoral immune responses to the induced co-receptor binding site. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000445 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that structure-based approaches can be exploited to stabilize a conformational site in a large functional protein to enhance immunogenic responses specific for that region. ..
  10. daSilva L, Sougrat R, Burgos P, Janvier K, Mattera R, Bonifacino J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein targets CD4 to the multivesicular body pathway. J Virol. 2009;83:6578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that both CD4 and Nef are ubiquitinated on lysine residues, but this modification is dispensable for Nef-induced targeting of CD4 to the MVB pathway. ..
  11. Iwabu Y, Fujita H, Kinomoto M, Kaneko K, Ishizaka Y, Tanaka Y, et al. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu internalizes cell-surface BST-2/tetherin through transmembrane interactions leading to lysosomes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35060-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we propose the following configuration of BST-2 in tethering virions to the cell surface; each of the dimerized BST-2 molecules acts as a bridge between viral and cell membranes. ..
  12. Shirai T, Suda T, Inui N, Chida K. Correlation between peripheral blood T-cell profiles and clinical and inflammatory parameters in stable COPD. Allergol Int. 2010;59:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..42, p=0.023) and Kco (rho=0.47, p=0.026). It is suggested that Tc1 cells have a detrimental role and that Tc2 cells have a protective role in disease progression. ..
  13. Hein F, Massin F, Cravoisy Popovic A, Barraud D, Levy B, Bollaert P, et al. The relationship between CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells and inflammatory response and outcome during shock states. Crit Care. 2010;14:R19 pubmed publisher
    ..These data argue against a determinant role of Tregs in inflammatory response and outcome during shock states. ..
  14. Thirumalapura N, Crossley E, Walker D, Ismail N. Persistent infection contributes to heterologous protective immunity against fatal ehrlichiosis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5682-9 pubmed publisher
    ..muris. The study indicated that persistent ehrlichial infection contributes to heterologous protection by stimulating the maintenance of memory T-cell responses. ..
  15. Espy N, Pacheco B, Sodroski J. Adaptation of HIV-1 to cells with low expression of the CCR5 coreceptor. Virology. 2017;508:90-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The adapted Envs exhibited a greater propensity to undergo conformational changes, as evidenced by increased exposure of conserved regions near the CD4- and CCR5-binding sites. ..
  16. Reis B, Pfeffer K, Beer Hammer S. The orphan adapter protein SLY1 as a novel anti-apoptotic protein required for thymocyte development. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results suggest a non-redundant role for SLY1 in integrating signals from both receptors in early T cell progenitors in the thymus. ..
  17. Lehtimäki S, Tillander S, Puustinen A, Matikainen S, Nyman T, Fyhrquist N, et al. Absence of CCR4 exacerbates skin inflammation in an oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity model. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the absence of CCR4 results in enhanced secondary immune response during allergic skin inflammation. ..
  18. Lehtoviita A, Rossi L, Kekäläinen E, Sairanen H, Arstila T. The CD4(+)CD8(+) and CD4(+) subsets of FOXP3(+) thymocytes differ in their response to growth factor deprivation or stimulation. Scand J Immunol. 2009;70:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This is consistent with the view that they are still immature and thus likely to represent a precursor population. ..
  19. Barwig C, Raker V, Montermann E, Grabbe S, Reske Kunz A, Sudowe S. Antigen dose-dependent suppression of murine IgE responses is mediated by CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative T cells. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The IgE response against protein antigens is profoundly influenced by the dose used for sensitization...
  20. Eun S, Jeon Y, Jang J. Hepatocellular carcinoma with immature T-cell (T-lymphoblastic) proliferation. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:309-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the second case of hepatocellular carcinoma combined with indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation identified by an unusual tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. ..
  21. Won H, Min H, Lee W, Kim S, Hwang E. Galpha12 is critical for TCR-induced IL-2 production and differentiation of T helper 2 and T helper 17 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:811-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Galpha12 may be a critical signaling molecule in TCR-induced IL-2 production and also relay a signal to suppress Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation. ..
  22. Miethke A, Saxena V, Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Simmons J, Chougnet C. Post-natal paucity of regulatory T cells and control of NK cell activation in experimental biliary atresia. J Hepatol. 2010;52:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recent studies have identified important roles for T and NK cells in the pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA), the mechanisms by which susceptibility to bile duct injury is restricted to the neonatal period are unknown...
  23. West A, Galimidi R, Foglesong C, Gnanapragasam P, Klein J, Bjorkman P. Evaluation of CD4-CD4i antibody architectures yields potent, broadly cross-reactive anti-human immunodeficiency virus reagents. J Virol. 2010;84:261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A CD4 fusion with the anti-HIV carbohydrate antibody 2G12 also results in a potent neutralizing reagent with more broadly neutralizing activity than 2G12 alone. ..
  24. Fatkenheuer G, Hoffmann C, Slim J, Rouzier R, Keung A, Li J, et al. Short-term administration of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc to patients with HIV and HCV coinfection is safe and tolerable. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;53:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term treatment with vicriviroc as part of a ritonavir-containing protease inhibitor-based regimen was safe and well tolerated in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects. HIV/HCV coinfection also did not affect vicriviroc pharmacokinetics. ..
  25. Sagawa M, Ueda Y, Sakuma H, Yoshimitsu Y, Matsubara F, Sakuma T. Organizing pneumonia with an enlarging tumor-like lesion: immunohistochemical study. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57:433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..When a surgical resection is necessary for an enlarging abnormal pulmonary mass without any systemic inflammatory reaction or respiratory symptoms, a less invasive approach should be selected. ..
  26. Gruden Movsesijan A, Ilic N, Mostarica Stojkovic M, Stosic Grujicic S, Milic M, Sofronic Milosavljevic L. Mechanisms of modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by chronic Trichinella spiralis infection in Dark Agouti rats. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:450-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This population of cells contained higher proportion of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory cells and produced high level of IL-10 when compared with uninfected rats. ..
  27. Choudhury A, Cohen P, Eisenberg R. B cells require "nurturing" by CD4 T cells during development in order to respond in chronic graft-versus-host model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol. 2010;136:105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanism of this "nurturing" process may yield clues to the role of CD4 T cells in lupus and in host defense in general. ..
  28. Zhang C, Shan J, Lu J, Huang Y, Feng L, Long D, et al. Rapamycin in combination with donor-specific CD4+CD25+Treg cells amplified in vitro might be realize the immune tolerance in clinical organ transplantation. Cell Immunol. 2010;264:111-3 pubmed publisher
  29. Zhang P, Zhao N, Zeng Z, Chang C, Zu Y. Combination of an aptamer probe to CD4 and antibodies for multicolored cell phenotyping. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Multicolored flow cytometry analysis revealed that the CD4 aptamer could be combined with antibodies to phenotype cells from bone marrow, lymph nodes, and pleural fluid, suggesting that the aptamer probe has value for clinical use. ..
  30. Lee K, Baris D, Zhang Y, Hosgood H, Menashe I, Yeager M, et al. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes and multiple myeloma risk among women in Connecticut. Am J Hematol. 2010;85:560-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies are needed to replicate these findings and, more generally, to explore the manner in which genes and receptors may influence the pathogenesis of this poorly understood malignancy. ..
  31. Stow N, Douglas R, Tantilipikorn P, Lacroix J. Superantigens. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010;43:489-502, vii pubmed publisher
    ..There is mounting evidence to suggest that SAgs play a role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory airway disease. The pathophysiologic role of SAg-like proteins awaits clarification. ..
  32. Saha D, Pal A, Sarkar N, Das D, Blackard J, Guha S, et al. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV positive patients at a tertiary healthcare unit in eastern India. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179035 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights several distinct features of OBI in India and underscores the need for additional HBV DNA screening in HIV-positive individuals. ..
  33. Horwitz J, Bar On Y, Lu C, Fera D, Lockhart A, Lorenzi J, et al. Non-neutralizing Antibodies Alter the Course of HIV-1 Infection In Vivo. Cell. 2017;170:637-648.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..While nnAbs are demonstrably less effective than broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo, the data show that nnAbs can protect against and alter the course of HIV-1 infection in vivo. PAPERCLIP. ..
  34. Moore C, Sauma D, Reyes P, Morales J, Rosemblatt M, Bono M, et al. Dendritic cells and B cells cooperate in the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) allogeneic T cells. Transplant Proc. 2010;42:371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we observed that although the addition of IL-2 to the cultures was not crucial to generate Tregs, it was required to optimize their expansion and cell survival. ..
  35. Leung C, Haigh T, Mackay L, Rickinson A, Taylor G. Nuclear location of an endogenously expressed antigen, EBNA1, restricts access to macroautophagy and the range of CD4 epitope display. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that EBNA1's nuclear location limits its accessibility to the macroautophagy pathway and, in consequence, limits the level and range of EBNA1 CD4 epitopes naturally displayed on the infected cell surface. ..
  36. Douagi I, Forsell M, Sundling C, O Dell S, Feng Y, Dosenovic P, et al. Influence of novel CD4 binding-defective HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immunogens on neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses in nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2010;84:1683-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our studies do not reveal any potential negative effects imparted by the in vivo interaction between WT Env and primate CD4 on the generation of functional T cells and antibodies in response to soluble Env vaccination. ..
  37. Blache C, Adriouch S, Calbo S, Drouot L, Dulauroy S, Arnoult C, et al. Cutting edge: CD4-independent development of functional FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:4182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CD3+CD8-FoxP3+ Tregs were also found to develop in the absence of both CD4 and MHC-II molecules, demonstrating that the generation of Tregs can occur independently of MHC-II recognition. ..
  38. Matsuzaki Y, Kimura K, Nakano H, Hanada K, Sawamura D. Localized pagetoid reticulosis (Woringer-Kolopp disease) in early childhood. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61:120-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistologically, the phenotype of the atypical cells was CD3(+), CD4(-), CD8(+), CD45RO(+), CD20(-), CD30(-), and CD79a(-). We discuss the characteristics of this rare disease, including the differential diagnoses. ..
  39. McCoy L, Groppelli E, Blanchetot C, de Haard H, Verrips T, Rutten L, et al. Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies. Retrovirology. 2014;11:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective neutralisation of cell-cell spread between physiologically relevant cell types by J3 and J3-Fc supports the development of VHH J3 nanobodies for therapeutic or prophylactic applications. ..
  40. Zaldivar I, Muñoz Fernández M, Alarcon B, San José E. Expression of a modified form of CD4 results in the release of an anti-HIV factor derived from the Env sequence. J Immunol. 2009;183:1188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of EDAF improves the therapeutic potential of the CD4epsilon15 gene and it opens new possibilities for antiviral treatment and vaccine development. ..
  41. Zhu X, Ma L, Ye T. Expression of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(low/-) regulatory T cells in transitional cell carcinoma patients and its significance. J Clin Lab Anal. 2009;23:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This suggest that CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low/-) regulatory T cells may be responsible for immune suppression in TCC patients. The resection of tumor can decrease the proportion of Treg in peripheral blood. ..
  42. Li Q, Wang Y, Chen K, Zhou Q, Wei W, Wang Y, et al. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in breaking peripheral Th17/Treg balance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:836-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Th17/Treg numerical and functional imbalance exists in ACS patients, and ox-LDL has a direct effect on Th17/Treg imbalance which may contribute to the occurrence of ACS. ..
  43. Carrillo M, Zhen A, Zack J, Kitchen S. New approaches for the enhancement of chimeric antigen receptors for the treatment of HIV. Transl Res. 2017;187:83-92 pubmed publisher
  44. Brenk M, Scheler M, Koch S, Neumann J, Takikawa O, Hacker G, et al. Tryptophan deprivation induces inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 on dendritic cells favoring the induction of human CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of IDO thus extends beyond local immune suppression to a systemic control of the immune response. ..
  45. Magro C, Porcu P, Schaefer J, Erter J, Furman R, Shitabata P, et al. Cutaneous CD4+ CD56+ hematologic malignancies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:292-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Cutaneous malignancies composed of CD4(+) CD56(+) hematopoietic cells define a varied group and oftentimes have an aggressive clinical course although not in every case. ..
  46. Weghuber J, Brameshuber M, Sunzenauer S, Lehner M, Paar C, Haselgrübler T, et al. Detection of protein-protein interactions in the live cell plasma membrane by quantifying prey redistribution upon bait micropatterning. Methods Enzymol. 2010;472:133-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the interaction between CD4, a major coreceptor in T-cell signaling, and Lck, a protein tyrosine kinase essential for early T-cell signaling. ..
  47. Liu X, Leerberg J, MacDonald K, Leggatt G, Frazer I. IFN-gamma promotes generation of IL-10 secreting CD4+ T cells that suppress generation of CD8 responses in an antigen-experienced host. J Immunol. 2009;183:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic inhibition of both IL-10 and IFN-gamma at the time of immunization may therefore facilitate induction of effective immunotherapeutic responses against tumor specific and viral Ags. ..
  48. Tilburgs T, Scherjon S, van der Mast B, Haasnoot G, Versteeg V D Voort Maarschalk M, Roelen D, et al. Fetal-maternal HLA-C mismatch is associated with decidual T cell activation and induction of functional T regulatory cells. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;82:148-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that decidual T cells specifically recognize fetal HLA-C at the fetal-maternal interface but are prevented from inducing a destructive immune response in uncomplicated pregnancies. ..
  49. Arruvito L, Billordo A, Capucchio M, Prada M, Fainboim L. IL-6 trans-signaling and the frequency of CD4+FOXP3+ cells in women with reproductive failure. J Reprod Immunol. 2009;82:158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, women with reproductive failure show evidence of alteration in the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway which might be associated with abnormal performance of Treg cells in mediating feto-maternal tolerance. ..
  50. Leung M, Shen S, Lafaille J. TCR-dependent differentiation of thymic Foxp3+ cells is limited to small clonal sizes. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that although the TCR has an instructive role in determining Foxp3 expression, selection of Foxp3(+) individual clones in the thymus is limited by a very small niche. ..
  51. Andreani G, Celentano A, Solana M, Cazorla S, Malchiodi E, Martínez Peralta L, et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages by parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8246 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 replication at several replication stages in macrophages, a major cell target for both pathogens. ..
  52. Arazi A, Sharabi A, Zinger H, Mozes E, Neumann A. In vivo dynamical interactions between CD4 Tregs, CD8 Tregs and CD4+ CD25- cells in mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8447 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we generated predictions regarding the time-dependent function of Tregs, which can be further tested empirically in future work. ..
  53. Quaglino P, Ortoncelli M, Comessatti A, Ponti R, Novelli M, Bergallo M, et al. Circulating CD4+CD25 bright FOXP3+ T cells are up-regulated by biological therapies and correlate with the clinical response in psoriasis patients. Dermatology. 2009;219:250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological drugs induce a circulating T(reg) up-regulation in a significant percentage of patients; such an increase is an early predictive marker of response. ..