hepatitis a virus cellular receptor 2


Summary: An Ig domain-containing membrane receptor that is expressed by TH1 CELLS. It regulates the activation of MACROPHAGES and inhibits TH1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses to promote IMMUNE TOLERANCE.

Top Publications

  1. Shen M, Ren X. Highlights on immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317695013 pubmed publisher
    ..Preclinical and clinical trials on these key immune-regulatory agents, which has heralded a new era in immuno-oncology in non-small cell lung cancer treatment, are currently in development. ..
  2. Arbour K, Naidoo J, Steele K, Ni A, Moreira A, Rekhtman N, et al. Expression of PD-L1 and other immunotherapeutic targets in thymic epithelial tumors. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182665 pubmed publisher
    ..Robust expression of markers of immune activation and immunotherapeutic target molecules in TETs emphasizes the potential for development of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. ..
  3. Xiao S, Liu J, Huang S, Lu F. Increased Gal-9 and Tim-3 expressions during liver damage in a murine malarial model. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:663-72 pubmed
    ..Our data suggests that the increase of Tim-3/Gal-9 expressions may play an important role in the liver damage during P. berghei infection. ..
  4. Ryser S, Estelles A, Tenorio E, KAUVAR L, Gishizky M. High affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR monoclonal antibodies cloned from healthy human individuals. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181464 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization studies are needed to define the mechanisms through which these native antibodies may function in healthy and disease conditions. ..
  5. Li Z, Liu X, Guo R, Wang P. TIM-3 plays a more important role than PD-1 in the functional impairments of cytotoxic T cells of malignant Schwannomas. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317698352 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggested that PD-1 and TIM-3 blockade might be necessary in developing effective immunotherapeutic strategies in malignant Schwannoma, in which TIM-3 may play a more important role. ..
  6. Piao Y, Jin X. Analysis of Tim-3 as a therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317716628 pubmed publisher
    ..Tim-3 may affect the development and progression of prostate cancer, which may provide knowledge for using Tim-3 as a novel therapy for effective prostate cancer management. ..
  7. Ge W, Li J, Fan W, Xu D, Sun S. Tim-3 as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of osteosarcoma. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317715643 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, It was indicated in our research that elevated serum soluble Tim-3 level might be a novel potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for osteosarcoma patients. ..
  8. Yuan J, Jiang B, Zhao H, Huang Q. Prognostic implication of TIM-3 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Neoplasma. 2014;61:35-40 pubmed
    ..Knockdown of TIM-3 suppressed the proliferation and invasion capacity of ccRCC cell lines.TIM-3 expression was associated with poor prognosis in ccRCC. Taken together, TIM-3 is a potential prognostic marker in ccRCC. ..
  9. Wu Q, Zhu X, Wang Y, Fu X, Yang J, Cao Z. [Expression of Tim-3 on peripheral blood CD4+ T cells and its correlation with liver function damage parameters in advanced schistosomiasis patients]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2015;27:470-3, 496 pubmed
    ..05). The expression of Tim-3 on peripheral CD4' T cells is increased in advanced schistosomiasis patients, which may regulate the function of CD4' T cells and then be involved in the liver damage process of advanced schistosomiasis. ..

More Information


  1. Asano T, Meguri Y, Yoshioka T, Kishi Y, Iwamoto M, Nakamura M, et al. PD-1 modulates regulatory T-cell homeostasis during low-dose interleukin-2 therapy. Blood. 2017;129:2186-2197 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies that modulate Treg homeostasis to promote immune tolerance. ..
  2. Goods B, Hernandez A, Lowther D, Lucca L, Lerner B, Gunel M, et al. Functional differences between PD-1+ and PD-1- CD4+ effector T cells in healthy donors and patients with glioblastoma multiforme. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181538 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, co-blockade of PD-1 and TIM-3 in GBM may be therapeutically beneficial. ..
  3. Schwartz J, Clayton K, Mujib S, Zhang H, Rahman A, Liu J, et al. Tim-3 is a Marker of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Dysfunction during HIV Infection and Is Associated with the Recruitment of IRF7 and p85 into Lysosomes and with the Submembrane Displacement of TLR9. J Immunol. 2017;198:3181-3194 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Tim-3 is a biomarker of dysfunctional pDCs and may negatively regulate IFN-?, possibly through interference with TLR signaling and recruitment of IRF7 and p85 into lysosomes, enhancing their degradation. ..
  4. Dong J, Yang X, Wang L, Wei X, Wang A, Hao C, et al. Modulation of Tim-3 Expression by Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Factors on T Cells from Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:98 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of ?c cytokines in modulation of inhibitory pathway might be evaluated as immunotherapies in humans...
  5. Marisa L, Svrcek M, Collura A, Becht E, Cervera P, Wanherdrick K, et al. The Balance Between Cytotoxic T-cell Lymphocytes and Immune Checkpoint Expression in the Prognosis of Colon Tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2018;110: pubmed publisher
    ..56 in ICK low vs median = 0.34 in ICK high, P = .004). ICK expression cancels the prognostic relevance of CTLs in highly immunogenic colon tumors and predicts a poor outcome in MSI CRC patients. ..
  6. Gibson A, Faulkner L, Lichtenfels M, Ogese M, Al Attar Z, Alfirevic A, et al. The Effect of Inhibitory Signals on the Priming of Drug Hapten-Specific T Cells That Express Distinct Vβ Receptors. J Immunol. 2017;199:1223-1237 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that distinct TCR Vβ subtypes, dysregulation of coinhibitory signaling pathways, and dysfunctional Tregs may influence predisposition to hypersensitivity. ..
  7. Dong J, Cheng L, Zhao M, Pan X, Feng Z, Wang D. Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317701651 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunotherapy in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients therefore faces an additional challenge posed by Tim-3 and Gal-9 and likely requires the blockade of these molecules. ..
  8. Vazquez Mateo C, Collins J, Fleury M, Dooms H. Broad induction of immunoregulatory mechanisms after a short course of anti-IL-7R? antibodies in NOD mice. BMC Immunol. 2017;18:18 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes appear to have long-lasting effects by delaying or preventing type 1 diabetes incidence. Hence, our study provides further support for using anti-IL-7R? antibodies to modulate autoreactive T cell responses. ..
  9. Kadowaki T, Morishita A, Niki T, Hara J, Sato M, Tani J, et al. Galectin-9 prolongs the survival of septic mice by expanding Tim-3-expressing natural killer T cells and PDCA-1+ CD11c+ macrophages. Crit Care. 2013;17:R284 pubmed publisher
    ..1+ NKT cells. These data suggest that galectin-9 exerts therapeutic effects on polymicrobial sepsis, possibly by expanding NKT cells and pDC-like macrophages and by modulating the production of early and late proinflammatory cytokines. ..
  10. Zhou G, Sprengers D, Boor P, Doukas M, Schutz H, Mancham S, et al. Antibodies Against Immune Checkpoint Molecules Restore Functions of Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells in Hepatocellular Carcinomas. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:1107-1119.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..We used flow cytometry to quantify expression of the inhibitory receptors PD-1, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (TIM3), lymphocyte activating 3 (LAG3), and CTLA4 on CD8+ and CD4+ T cells ..
  11. Zhang T, Yuan X, Liu C, Li Y, Liu H, Li L, et al. Decreased TIM-3 expression of peripheral blood natural killer cells in patients with severe aplastic anemia. Cell Immunol. 2017;318:17-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We inferred that low expression of TIM-3 on NK cells might lead to NK cells dysfunction and involve in the progress of bone marrow failure in SAA. ..
  12. Ganesan A, Clarke J, Wood O, Garrido Martin E, Chee S, Mellows T, et al. Tissue-resident memory features are linked to the magnitude of cytotoxic T cell responses in human lung cancer. Nat Immunol. 2017;18:940-950 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we define the 'molecular fingerprint' of tumor-infiltrating CTLs and identify potentially new targets for immunotherapy. ..
  13. Linedale R, Schmidt C, King B, Ganko A, Simpson F, Panizza B, et al. Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175755 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors. ..
  14. Luo L, Li D, Wang Y, Wang K, Gao L, Li S, et al. Tim3/galectin-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:966-972 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Tim3/Gal-9 alleviates the inflammation of TAO patients via suppressing Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. ..
  15. Das M, Zhu C, Kuchroo V. Tim-3 and its role in regulating anti-tumor immunity. Immunol Rev. 2017;276:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the recent findings on Tim-3, the role it plays in regulating immune responses in different cell types and the rationale for targeting Tim-3 for effective cancer immunotherapy. ..