vascular endothelial growth factor receptors


Summary: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular IG-LIKE DOMAINS which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.

Top Publications

  1. Flaherty K, Rosen M, Heitjan D, Gallagher M, Schwartz B, Schnall M, et al. Pilot study of DCE-MRI to predict progression-free survival with sorafenib therapy in renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:496-501 pubmed
    ..Moreover, baseline tumor vascular permeability, expected to be a poor prognosis factor, was a predictive marker of favorable response to therapy. ..
  2. Andrae J, Gallini R, Betsholtz C. Role of platelet-derived growth factors in physiology and medicine. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1276-312 pubmed publisher
  3. Kerbel R. Tumor angiogenesis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2039-49 pubmed publisher
  4. Ellis L, Hicklin D. VEGF-targeted therapy: mechanisms of anti-tumour activity. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:579-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of these mechanisms will lead to future advances in the use of these agents in the clinic. ..
  5. Mac Gabhann F, Popel A. Systems biology of vascular endothelial growth factors. Microcirculation. 2008;15:715-38 pubmed publisher
  6. Azad N, Posadas E, Kwitkowski V, Steinberg S, Jain L, Annunziata C, et al. Combination targeted therapy with sorafenib and bevacizumab results in enhanced toxicity and antitumor activity. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The rapidity and frequency of sorafenib dose reductions indicates that sorafenib at 200 mg twice daily with bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks may not be tolerable long term, and alternate sorafenib dosing schedules should be explored. ..
  7. Roskoski R. VEGF receptor protein-tyrosine kinases: structure and regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction between VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 or VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 alters receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. ..
  8. Fischer C, Mazzone M, Jonckx B, Carmeliet P. FLT1 and its ligands VEGFB and PlGF: drug targets for anti-angiogenic therapy?. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:942-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Hopefully, other agents with complementary mechanisms, such as those that target placental growth factor, will offer novel opportunities for improved treatment. ..
  9. Castillo Avila W, Piulats J, Garcia del Muro X, Vidal A, Condom E, Casanovas O, et al. Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sunitinib, CDDP, or the combination of both drugs using an orthotopic model of human testicular GCT...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Han Y, Kuang S, Gomer A, Ramirez Bergeron D. Hypoxia influences the vascular expansion and differentiation of embryonic stem cell cultures through the temporal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in an ARNT-dependent manner. Stem Cells. 2010;28:799-809 pubmed publisher
  2. Maharaj A, D Amore P. Roles for VEGF in the adult. Microvasc Res. 2007;74:100-13 pubmed
    ..A thorough understanding of the function of VEGF in the adult may lead to more efficacious pro- and anti-angiogenic therapies. ..
  3. de La Motte Rouge T, Galluzzi L, Olaussen K, Zermati Y, Tasdemir E, Robert T, et al. A novel epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor promotes apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells resistant to erlotinib. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6253-62 pubmed
    ..g., Puma, Bax, Bak, caspase-2, etc.) and DNA damage-related proteins (e.g., ERCC1, hTERT) exerted cytoprotective effects. BMS-690514 is a new pan-HER/VEGFR inhibitor that may become an alternative to erlotinib for the treatment of NSCLC. ..
  4. Kumar R, Knick V, Rudolph S, Johnson J, Crosby R, Crouthamel M, et al. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic correlation from mouse to human with pazopanib, a multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor with potent antitumor and antiangiogenic activity. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2012-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the steady-state concentration of pazopanib determined from preclinical activity showed a strong correlation with the pharmacodynamic effects and antitumor activity in the phase I clinical trial. ..
  5. Bianco A, Poukkula M, Cliffe A, Mathieu J, Luque C, Fulga T, et al. Two distinct modes of guidance signalling during collective migration of border cells. Nature. 2007;448:362-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, information processing at the multicellular level is used to guide collective behaviour of a cell group. ..
  6. Bussmann J, Bakkers J, Schulte Merker S. Early endocardial morphogenesis requires Scl/Tal1. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e140 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest early separation of the two components of the primitive heart tube and imply Scl/Tal1 as an indispensable component of the molecular hierarchy that controls endocardium morphogenesis. ..
  7. Shibuya K, Komaki R, Shintani T, Itasaka S, Ryan A, Jurgensmeier J, et al. Targeted therapy against VEGFR and EGFR with ZD6474 enhances the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation in an orthotopic model of human non-small-cell lung cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:1534-43 pubmed
    ..These data provide support for clinical trials of biologically targeted and conventional therapies for human lung cancer. ..
  8. Eming S, Brachvogel B, Odorisio T, Koch M. Regulation of angiogenesis: wound healing as a model. Prog Histochem Cytochem. 2007;42:115-70 pubmed
    ..The article provides a rationale for targeting the angiogenic response in order to modulate the outcome of the healing response. ..
  9. Isobe N, Kitabayashi M, Yoshimura Y. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in bovine cystic follicles. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43:267-271 pubmed publisher
  10. Dallas N, Fan F, Gray M, van Buren G, Lim S, Xia L, et al. Functional significance of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors on gastrointestinal cancer cells. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007;26:433-41 pubmed
    ..Elucidating the function of VEGF receptors on tumor cells should help us to better understand the potential mechanisms of action of anti-VEGF therapies. ..
  11. Itakura E, Yamamoto H, Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M. Detection and characterization of vascular endothelial growth factors and their receptors in a series of angiosarcomas. J Surg Oncol. 2008;97:74-81 pubmed
    ..The majority of angiosarcomas are thought to originate from vascular endothelia and spread via bloodstream to lung, but lymphatic metastases can occur...
  12. Bhojani N, Jeldres C, Patard J, Perrotte P, Suardi N, Hutterer G, et al. Toxicities associated with the administration of sorafenib, sunitinib, and temsirolimus and their management in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2008;53:917-30 pubmed
    ..Virtually all side effects can be managed effectively. Prevention, recognition, and prompt management of side effects are of key importance and avoid unnecessary dose reductions, which may undermine treatment efficacy. ..
  13. Yuan L, Ahn I, Davis P. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: a potent anti-angiogenic lipid-rich extract from shark. J Med Food. 2007;10:657-61 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that SMO might interfere with or block the binding of VEGF with its receptors, and thereby inhibit the VEGF receptor(s) signal transduction pathway and so inhibit angiogenesis. ..
  14. Koyama J, Miyake S, Sasayama T, Kondoh T, Kohmura E. Effect of VEGF receptor antagonist (VGA1155) on brain edema in the rat cold injury model. Kobe J Med Sci. 2007;53:199-207 pubmed
    ..Histological evaluation of brain lesion showed no significant reduction of damaged area 1 week after injury by VGA1155. The data suggest that VGA1155 may have antiedematous effect in acute phase after cold injury. ..
  15. Park J, Kim S, Choi M, Lee J, Oh D, Im S, et al. Class II histone deacetylases play pivotal roles in heat shock protein 90-mediated proteasomal degradation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;368:318-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) perform pivotal roles in both tumor growth and angiogenesis...
  16. Jain R. Taming vessels to treat cancer. Sci Am. 2008;298:56-63 pubmed
  17. Monteagudo B, Cabanillas M, Iriarte P, Ramírez Santos A, León Muíños E, González Vilas D, et al. Clindamycin-induced Maculopapular Exanthema with Preferential Involvement of Striae Distensae: A Koebner phenomenon?. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2018;26:61-63 pubmed
    ..Clinical underreporting of this phenomenon could explain the scarce literature on this cutaneous adverse reaction. ..
  18. Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Gotsch F, Kusanovic J, Mittal P, Kim S, et al. Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy changes the balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal plasma. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:167-78 pubmed
    ..We conclude that despite high plasma inflammatory cytokine concentrations, acute systemic inflammation in pregnancy has a different angiogenic/anti-angiogenic profile than that of PE. ..
  19. Bomsztyk K, Mar D, An D, Sharifian R, Mikula M, Gharib S, et al. Experimental acute lung injury induces multi-organ epigenetic modifications in key angiogenic genes implicated in sepsis-associated endothelial dysfunction. Crit Care. 2015;19:225 pubmed publisher
  20. Elmasry K, Ibrahim A, Saleh H, Elsherbiny N, Elshafey S, Hussein K, et al. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in 12/15-lipoxygenase-induced retinal microvascular dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2018;61:1220-1232 pubmed publisher
    ..Perturbation of calcium homeostasis in the retina might also play a role in linking 12/15-LO to retinal ER stress and subsequent microvascular dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy. ..
  21. Osanai T, Magota K, Okumura K. Coupling factor 6 as a novel vasoactive and proatherogenic peptide in vascular endothelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that CF6 contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, but further intensive investigation is needed. ..
  22. Nourollahpour Shiadeh M, Behboodi Moghadam Z, Adam I, Saber V, Bagheri M, Rostami A. Human infectious diseases and risk of preeclampsia: an updated review of the literature. Infection. 2017;45:589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections could be an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of PE. ..
  23. Saban M, Hellmich H, Nguyen N, Winston J, Hammond T, Saban R. Time course of LPS-induced gene expression in a mouse model of genitourinary inflammation. Physiol Genomics. 2001;5:147-60 pubmed
    ..SOM techniques identified functionally significant gene clusters, providing a powerful technical basis for future analysis of mechanisms of bladder inflammation...
  24. Long L, Ormiston M, Yang X, Southwood M, Gräf S, Machado R, et al. Selective enhancement of endothelial BMPR-II with BMP9 reverses pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nat Med. 2015;21:777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the promise of direct enhancement of endothelial BMP signaling as a new therapeutic strategy for PAH. ..
  25. McFee R, Artac R, McFee R, Clopton D, Smith R, Rozell T, et al. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signal transduction blocks follicle progression but does not necessarily disrupt vascular development in perinatal rat ovaries. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:966-77 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We conclude that VEGFA may be involved in primordial follicle activation and in follicle maturation and survival, which are regulated through vascular-dependent and vascular-independent mechanisms. ..
  26. Shibata A, Nakagawa K, Sookwong P, Tsuduki T, Oikawa S, Miyazawa T. delta-Tocotrienol suppresses VEGF induced angiogenesis whereas alpha-tocopherol does not. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8696-704 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results demonstrate delta-T3 has superior antiangiogenic activities to alpha-Toc, and provide insights into the different mechanisms responsible for this effect of T3 and Toc. ..
  27. Stühler V, Kruck S, Hegemann M, Notohamiprodjo M, Todenhöfer T, Kröger N, et al. [TKI 2.0 - changes in the medical treatment of renal cell carcinoma]. Urologe A. 2018;57:314-322 pubmed publisher
    ..The following report examines briefly the current therapeutic recommendations, new findings and drug approvals and ongoing clinical trials. ..
  28. Lee J, Kim E, Ryu S, Choi C, Choi K. Combined inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling with temozolomide enhances cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma cells via downregulation of Neuropilin-1. J Neurooncol. 2016;128:29-34 pubmed publisher
  29. Falcon B, Chintharlapalli S, Uhlik M, Pytowski B. Antagonist antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) as anti-angiogenic agents. Pharmacol Ther. 2016;164:204-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss further clinical development of ramucirumab and the future of targeting the VEGF pathway for the treatment of cancer. ..
  30. Han K, Chang J, Lee H, Azar D. Proangiogenic Interactions of Vascular Endothelial MMP14 With VEGF Receptor 1 in VEGFA-Mediated Corneal Angiogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:3313-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, selective cleavage of VEGFR1 by MMP14 may play an important role in VEGFA-induced corneal angiogenesis. ..
  31. Lanier V, Gillespie C, Leffers M, Daley Brown D, Milner J, Lipsey C, et al. Leptin-induced transphosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor increases Notch and stimulates endothelial cell angiogenic transformation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;79:139-150 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations might be highly relevant for obese patients with cancer, where leptin/VEGFR/Notch crosstalk could play an important role in cancer growth, and could be a new target for the control of tumor angiogenesis. ..
  32. Shim M, Song C, Park S, Choi S, Cho Y, Kim C, et al. Prognostic significance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression in localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015;141:2213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..low or none, HR 3.121 95 % CI 1.300-7.493, p = 0.011) were independently prognostic of RFS after nephrectomy. In organ-confined ccRCC, high expression of PDGFR-β was independently predictive of poorer RFS after nephrectomy. ..
  33. Jones K, Gilder A, Lam M, Du N, Banki M, Merati A, et al. Selective coexpression of VEGF receptor 2 in EGFRvIII-positive glioblastoma cells prevents cellular senescence and contributes to their aggressive nature. Neuro Oncol. 2016;18:667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGFR2 expression by GBM cells supports cell cycle progression and prevents cellular senescence. Coexpression of VEGFR2 by GBM cells in which EGFR signaling is activated may contribute to the aggressive nature of these cells. ..
  34. Maghsoudlou A, Meyer R, Rezazadeh K, Arafa E, Pudney J, Hartsough E, et al. RNF121 Inhibits Angiogenic Growth Factor Signaling by Restricting Cell Surface Expression of VEGFR-2. Traffic. 2016;17:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data identify RNF121 as a key determinant of angiogenic signaling that restricts VEGFR-2 cell surface presence and its angiogenic signaling. ..
  35. Yang J, Pearl M, DeLorenze G, Romero R, Dong Z, Jelliffe Pawlowski L, et al. Racial-ethnic differences in midtrimester maternal serum levels of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:359.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences should be considered in future studies to improve etiologic and prognostic understanding of early-onset preeclampsia. ..
  36. Karnthaler Benbakka C, Groza D, Koblmüller B, Terenzi A, Holste K, Haider M, et al. Targeting a Targeted Drug: An Approach Toward Hypoxia-Activatable Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Prodrugs. ChemMedChem. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, proof of principle could be shown for this concept, and the results obtained are an important basis for the future development of tyrosine kinase inhibitor prodrugs. ..
  37. Primeaux B, Burton B, Shuey S. Supratherapeutic INR resulting from the initiation of warfarin in a patient receiving axitinib. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2016;: pubmed
    ..Close INR monitoring and dose adjustments of warfarin may be necessary in patients receiving concomitant axitinib and warfarin in order to decrease the risks associated with this interaction. ..
  38. Wang K, Stark F, Schlothauer T, Lahr A, Cosson V, Zhi J, et al. An apparent clinical pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between bevacizumab and the anti-placental growth factor monoclonal antibody RO5323441 via a target-trapping mechanism. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017;79:661-671 pubmed publisher
    ..One possibility is a drug-drug interaction via a target-trapping mechanism that is mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1). ..
  39. Andronesi O, Esmaeili M, Borra R, Emblem K, Gerstner E, Pinho M, et al. Early changes in glioblastoma metabolism measured by MR spectroscopic imaging during combination of anti-angiogenic cediranib and chemoradiation therapy are associated with survival. NPJ Precis Oncol. 2017;1: pubmed publisher
  40. Liu Y, Liao W, Zhu Z, Zeng H, He H, Sun X, et al. Effect of procyanidine on VEGFR-2 expression and transduction pathway in rat endothelial progenitor cells under high glucose conditions. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..05) in HG + OPC EPCs. Therefore, procyanidin may promote cell proliferation by alleviating oxidative damage to EPCs under HG conditions, and upregulating VEGFR-2 expression and its downstream signal pathway. ..
  41. Wei F, Hu Q, Huang J, Han S, Wang S. Screening active compounds from Corydalis yanhusuo by combining high expression VEGF receptor HEK293 cell membrane chromatography with HPLC - ESI - IT - TOF - MSn method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;136:134-139 pubmed publisher
  42. Jensen B, Parry T, Huang W, Ilaiwy A, Bain J, Muehlbauer M, et al. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of the Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Sunitinib and Erlotinib on Heart, Muscle, Liver and Serum Metabolism In Vivo. Metabolites. 2017;7: pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds have important roles in maintaining mitochondrial function, and their loss may contribute to cardiac dysfunction. ..
  43. Dickgreber N, Huber R, Reck M, Reinmuth N, Schütte W, Serke M, et al. [Current developments and perspectives in targeted therapies]. Onkologie. 2010;33 Suppl 5:2-11 pubmed publisher
    ..growth factor receptors (IGFR), vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) and multi-TKIs of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)...
  44. Walker A, Chung C, Neu M, Burman M, Batuwangala T, Jones G, et al. Novel Interaction Mechanism of a Domain Antibody-based Inhibitor of Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor with Greater Potency than Ranibizumab and Bevacizumab and Improved Capacity over Aflibercept. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:5500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A consistent model of the target engagement has been built based on the x-ray complexes of each of the two isolated domain antibodies with the VEGF antigen. ..
  45. Cao J, Zhang J, Peng W, Chen Z, Fan S, Su W, et al. A Phase I study of safety and pharmacokinetics of fruquintinib, a novel selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, -2, and -3 tyrosine kinases in Chinese patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016;78:259-69 pubmed publisher
    Fruquintinib (HMPL-013) is a novel oral small molecule compound that selectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors-1, -2, and -3 with potent inhibitory effects on multiple human tumor xenografts...
  46. Porta C, Szczylik C. Tolerability of first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev. 2009;35:297-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the implications of the tolerability profiles of these agents for combination therapy and use in broader populations than those enrolled in trials are assessed. ..
  47. Yoshida M, Shigeno S, Tsuneki K, Furuya H. Squid vascular endothelial growth factor receptor: a shared molecular signature in the convergent evolution of closed circulatory systems. Evol Dev. 2010;12:25-33 pubmed publisher
  48. Qin T, Xu G, Qi J, Yang G, Zhang K, Liu H, et al. Tumour necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (Tnfsf15) facilitates lymphangiogenesis via up-regulation of Vegfr3 gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. J Pathol. 2015;237:307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding also suggests that Tnfsf15 may be of potential value as a therapeutic tool for the treatment of lymphoedema. ..
  49. Rafii S, Carmeliet P. VEGF-B Improves Metabolic Health through Vascular Pruning of Fat. Cell Metab. 2016;23:571-3 pubmed publisher
    ..2016) demonstrate that VEGF-B, by displacing VEGF-A from VEGFR1 and activating VEGFR2, increases adipose tissue vascularity, improves insulin sensitivity, diminishes obesity, and alleviates metabolic syndrome. ..
  50. Grabowski J, Glode A. Ramucirumab: A vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 inhibitor with activity in several malignancies. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73:957-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the clinical benefit in certain malignancies may be offset by the high cost of ramucirumab and the duration of treatment. ..
  51. Neves K, Rios F, van der Mey L, Alves Lopes R, Cameron A, Volpe M, et al. VEGFR (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor) Inhibition Induces Cardiovascular Damage via Redox-Sensitive Processes. Hypertension. 2018;71:638-647 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify Noxs and antioxidant enzymes as novel targets underling VEGFI-induced vascular dysfunction. These molecular processes may contribute to vascular toxicity and hypertension in VEGFI-treated patients. ..
  52. Dafni H, Kim S, Bankson J, Sankaranarayanapillai M, Ronen S. Macromolecular dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI detects reduced vascular permeability in a prostate cancer bone metastasis model following anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) therapy, indicating a drop in vascular endothelial grow. Magn Reson Med. 2008;60:822-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study therefore demonstrates that macromolecular DCE-MRI can be used to detect early vascular effects associated with response to therapy targeted to PDGFR, and provides insight into the role played by VEGF in anti-PDGFR therapy. ..
  53. Yoshikawa Y, Yamada T, Tai Nagara I, Okabe K, Kitagawa Y, Ema M, et al. Developmental regression of hyaloid vasculature is triggered by neurons. J Exp Med. 2016;213:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that neurons trigger transition from the fetal to the postnatal circulatory systems in the retina. ..
  54. Sun J, Yang K, Mao J, Shen W, Lu L, Wu Q, et al. Cyanate-Impaired Angiogenesis: Association With Poor Coronary Collateral Growth in Patients With Stable Angina and Chronic Total Occlusion. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5: pubmed
    ..54±9.02 ng/mL, P=0.009). In addition, elevated homocitrulline concentration was a strong predictor of poor coronary collateral growth. Impaired angiogenesis induced by cyanate might contribute to poor coronary collateral growth. ..
  55. Subramanian P, Haas N. Recent advances in localized RCC: A focus on VEGF and immuno-oncology therapies. Urol Oncol. 2018;36:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we discuss the new immune checkpoint inhibitor adjuvant trials planned. There is hope that these trials may lead to new options and longer survival for patients with localized high-risk kidney cancer. ..
  56. Steins A, Ebbing E, Pistorius M, Waasdorp C, Krishnadath K, Medema J, et al. Systemic effects of angiogenesis inhibition alter pharmacokinetics and intratumoral delivery of nab-paclitaxel. Drug Deliv. 2017;24:1801-1810 pubmed publisher
  57. Tatsinkam A, Mulloy B, Rider C. Mapping the heparin-binding site of the BMP antagonist gremlin by site-directed mutagenesis based on predictive modelling. Biochem J. 2015;470:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting dimer would possess two heparin-binding sites, each running along an exposed surface on the second β-strand finger loop of one of the monomers. ..
  58. Koehler K, Liebner D, Chen J. TP53 mutational status is predictive of pazopanib response in advanced sarcomas. Ann Oncol. 2016;27:539-43 pubmed publisher
    ..survival (PFS) in patients with advanced sarcomas (soft tissue sarcoma) treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) inhibition...
  59. Jung O, Trapp Stamborski V, Purushothaman A, Jin H, Wang H, Sanderson R, et al. Heparanase-induced shedding of syndecan-1/CD138 in myeloma and endothelial cells activates VEGFR2 and an invasive phenotype: prevention by novel synstatins. Oncogenesis. 2016;5:e202 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory synstatins, or inhibitors of HPSE enzyme activity, are likely to show promise as therapeutics against myeloma extravasation and spread. ..
  60. Stopeck A, Unger J, Rimsza L, Bellamy W, Iannone M, Persky D, et al. A phase II trial of single agent bevacizumab in patients with relapsed, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma: Southwest oncology group study S0108. Leuk Lymphoma. 2009;50:728-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical trials combining active chemotherapy regimens with VEGF targeted agents are currently in progress. ..
  61. Spano J, Chodkiewicz C, Maurel J, Wong R, Wasan H, Barone C, et al. Efficacy of gemcitabine plus axitinib compared with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: an open-label randomised phase II study. Lancet. 2008;371:2101-8 pubmed publisher
    Axitinib (AG-013736) is a potent and selective oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, which have an important role in pancreatic cancer...
  62. Cai W, Chen X. Multimodality molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. J Nucl Med. 2008;49 Suppl 2:113S-28S pubmed publisher
    ..Not limited to cancer, these novel agents can also have broad applications for many other angiogenesis-related diseases. ..
  63. Fan X, Krieg S, Kuo C, Wiegand S, Rabinovitch M, Druzin M, et al. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium. FASEB J. 2008;22:3571-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair. ..
  64. Minguez B, Tovar V, Chiang D, Villanueva A, Llovet J. Pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma and molecular therapies. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2009;25:186-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to human hepatocarcinogenesis, providing the scientific rationale for the development of new therapeutic targets. ..
  65. Taylor M, Rossler J, Geoerger B, Vassal G, Farace F. New anti-angiogenic strategies in pediatric solid malignancies: agents and biomarkers of a near future. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010;19:859-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Emphasis should be placed on the development of proper surrogate markers to monitor antiangiogenic activity and on the possible long-term effects of these therapies in a pediatric population. ..
  66. Alferez D, Wilkinson R, Watkins J, Poulsom R, Mandir N, Wedge S, et al. Dual inhibition of VEGFR and EGFR signaling reduces the incidence and size of intestinal adenomas in Apc(Min/+) mice. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:590-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, targeting both VEGFR- and EGFR-dependent signaling may be a beneficial strategy in early intestinal cancer. ..
  67. Blumenschein G. Sorafenib in lung cancer: clinical developments and future directions. J Thorac Oncol. 2008;3:S124-7 pubmed publisher
  68. Jacot J, Wong J. Endothelial injury induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in highly localized regions of a direct contact co-culture system. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2008;52:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that co-culture signaling initiated by endothelial cell injury locally stimulates VSMC proliferation and that this signaling could be mediated by PDGF-BB. ..
  69. Elfiky A, Rosenberg J. Targeting angiogenesis in bladder cancer. Curr Oncol Rep. 2009;11:244-9 pubmed
    ..Antiangiogenic agents such as sunitinib, sorafenib, and bevacizumab are being tested in advanced bladder cancer. This review highlights the key developments in antiangiogenic therapy as it relates to bladder cancer treatment. ..
  70. Bellner L, Martinelli L, Halilovic A, Patil K, Puri N, Dunn M, et al. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion causes endothelial cell activation marked by oxidative stress, inflammation, and angiogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;331:925-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This transformation underscores the importance of HO-2 in the regulation of endothelial cell homeostasis. ..
  71. Song I. Molecular targeting for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Korean J Hepatol. 2009;15:299-308 pubmed publisher
  72. Francis H, Onori P, Gaudio E, Franchitto A, Demorrow S, Venter J, et al. H3 histamine receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase Calpha inhibits the growth of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1704-13 pubmed publisher
    ..RAMH inhibits cholangiocarcinoma growth by PKCalpha-dependent ERK1/2 dephosphorylation. Modulation of PKCalpha by histamine receptors may be important in regulating cholangiocarcinoma growth. ..
  73. Ramakrishnan V, Timm M, Haug J, Kimlinger T, Wellik L, Witzig T, et al. Sorafenib, a dual Raf kinase/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor has significant anti-myeloma activity and synergizes with common anti-myeloma drugs. Oncogene. 2010;29:1190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Sorafenib, through multiple mechanisms exerts potent anti-myeloma activity and these results favor further clinical evaluation and development of novel sorafenib combinations. ..
  74. Zhu A. Systemic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: dawn of a new era?. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We hope that we will continue to improve the efficacy of systemic therapy in advanced HCC in the coming years. ..
  75. Banerjee S, A Hern R, Detre S, Littlewood Evans A, Evans D, Dowsett M, et al. Biological evidence for dual antiangiogenic-antiaromatase activity of the VEGFR inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:4178-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated (a) whether PTK/ZK shows both antiangiogenic and antiaromatase inhibitory properties in vivo, and (b) whether the combination of PTK/ZK and letrozole is superior to letrozole alone...
  76. Bradley D, Dunn R, Nanus D, Stadler W, Dreicer R, Rosenberg J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial of maintenance sunitinib versus placebo after chemotherapy for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma: scientific rationale and study design. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2007;5:460-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific hypothesis of this trial is that sunitinib will decrease progression rates in patients with advanced urothelial cancer who have obtained stable disease or better after standard chemotherapy. ..
  77. Sherman S, Wirth L, Droz J, Hofmann M, Bastholt L, Martins R, et al. Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:31-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Motesanib diphosphate can induce partial responses in patients with advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is progressive. ( number, NCT00121628.) ..
  78. Fragoso R, Igreja C, Clode N, Henriques A, Appleton C, Zhu Z, et al. VEGF signaling on hematopoietic precursors restricts B-lymphoid commitment in vitro and in vivo. Exp Hematol. 2008;36:1329-1336 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we suggest that VEGF signaling via FLT-1 on hematopoietic precursors may restrict lymphopoiesis. ..
  79. Roodhart J, Langenberg M, Witteveen E, Voest E. The molecular basis of class side effects due to treatment with inhibitors of the VEGF/VEGFR pathway. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2008;3:132-43 pubmed
    ..It has also provided new insight into the physiological role of this pathway in various organs. Integrating the knowledge in daily oncological practice will be a challenge for the future. ..
  80. Shin Y, Choi J, Lee J, Choi J, Cha J, Chun M, et al. Differential regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and its receptor in the rat hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia. Acta Neuropathol. 2008;116:517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that VEGF-C may be involved in glial reaction via paracrine or autocrine mechanisms in the ischemic brain and may carry out specific roles in adult hippocampal neurogenesis during ischemic insults. ..
  81. Yu D, Lv G, Wang Y, Liu L. [Effect of BMSCs transplantation on VEGF receptor fetal liver kinase 1 after spinal cord injury in rats]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:974-8 pubmed
    ..01). BMSCs transplantation after SCI does not have regulatory effect on the expression of Flk- 1 mRNA, but it does upregulate the Flk-1 protein expression, which may be one of the mechanisms of repairing SCI. ..
  82. Wen W, Lu J, Zhang K, Chen S. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well-tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment. ..
  83. Guidolin D, Albertin G, Sorato E, Oselladore B, Mascarin A, Ribatti D. Mathematical modeling of the capillary-like pattern generated by adrenomedullin-treated human vascular endothelial cells in vitro. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1951-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The extension of the model to include cell proliferation led to a good match between simulated and experimental patterns in both cases with predicted proliferation rates in agreement with the data of cell proliferation experiments. ..
  84. Filipits M. Clinical relevance of monoclonal antibodies in non small cell lung cancer. J BUON. 2009;14 Suppl 1:S147-52 pubmed
    ..Because of these promising results, three randomized, open-label, international phase III trials of figitumumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC are in progress. ..
  85. Dempke W, Suto T, Reck M. Targeted therapies for non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2010;67:257-74 pubmed publisher
  86. Goerner M, Seiwert T, Sudhoff H. Molecular targeted therapies in head and neck cancer--an update of recent developments-. Head Neck Oncol. 2010;2:8 pubmed publisher
    ..But inhibitors of alternative targets, such as Scr and proteasomes, have already been evaluated in early clinical trials with HNSCC patients. ..
  87. Pircher A, Wolf D, Heidenreich A, Hilbe W, Pichler R, Heidegger I. Synergies of Targeting Tumor Angiogenesis and Immune Checkpoints in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Renal Cell Cancer: From Basic Concepts to Clinical Reality. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Particular attention will also be paid to potential novel treatment-related adverse events induced by combination treatment. ..
  88. John A, Bramhall S, Eggo M. Antiangiogenic therapy and surgical practice. Br J Surg. 2008;95:281-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, research continues and there are reasons to believe that antiangiogenic therapy may yet have a future in the clinical setting. ..
  89. Azad N, Annunziata C, Steinberg S, Minasian L, Premkumar A, Chow C, et al. Lack of reliability of CA125 response criteria with anti-VEGF molecularly targeted therapy. Cancer. 2008;112:1726-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this pilot study, the authors analyzed the utility of CA125 to predict disease behavior in patients who were receiving sorafenib, a Raf-kinase/VEGFR2 inhibitor, and bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody...
  90. Kappas N, Zeng G, Chappell J, Kearney J, Hazarika S, Kallianos K, et al. The VEGF receptor Flt-1 spatially modulates Flk-1 signaling and blood vessel branching. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:847-58 pubmed publisher
  91. Thibault F, Izzedine H, Sultan V, Bart S, Billemont B, Rixe O, et al. [Regression of vena cava tumour thrombus in response to sorafenib]. Prog Urol. 2008;18:480-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report justifies a review of the place of anti-angiogenic therapy in the treatment of kidney cancer. ..
  92. Saban R, Saban M, Maier J, Fowler B, Tengowski M, Davis C, et al. Urothelial expression of neuropilins and VEGF receptors in control and interstitial cystitis patients. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that levels of NRPs, VEGF-Rs, and VEGF are new putative markers for the diagnosis of IC and that modulating these receptors can be exploited as therapeutic strategies...