Summary: Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.

Top Publications

  1. Cremers T, Spoelstra E, de Boer P, Bosker F, Mørk A, Den Boer J, et al. Desensitisation of 5-HT autoreceptors upon pharmacokinetically monitored chronic treatment with citalopram. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;397:351-7 pubmed
  2. De Groote L, Olivier B, Westenberg H. Extracellular serotonin in the prefrontal cortex is limited through terminal 5-HT(1B) autoreceptors: a microdialysis study in knockout mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;162:419-24 pubmed
    Serotonin (5-HT) autoreceptors regulate extracellular 5-HT levels and have been suggested to limit the effects of acute treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)...
  3. Todorov L, Mihaylova Todorova S, Bjur R, Westfall D. Differential cotransmission in sympathetic nerves: role of frequency of stimulation and prejunctional autoreceptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;290:241-6 pubmed
    ..The mechanism for decoding the informational content of these messages is based on the cooperative postjunctional interactions of the participating cotransmitters. ..
  4. Mochizuki D, Hokonohara T, Kawasaki K, Miki N. Repeated administration of milnacipran induces rapid desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors but not postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. J Psychopharmacol. 2002;16:253-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors, but not postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, rapidly desensitize in response to the repeated administration of milnacipran. ..
  5. Riad M, Watkins K, Doucet E, Hamon M, Descarries L. Agonist-induced internalization of serotonin-1a receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (autoreceptors) but not hippocampus (heteroreceptors). J Neurosci. 2001;21:8378-86 pubmed
    ..When located on 5-HT (autoreceptors), but not on non-5-HT (heteroreceptors) neurons, 5-HT(1A) receptors are known to be subject to desensitization...
  6. Cervetto C, Maura G, Marcoli M. Inhibition of presynaptic release-facilitatory kainate autoreceptors by extracellular cyclic GMP. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:210-9 pubmed publisher
    We found that both alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate autoreceptors were present on the glutamate-releasing terminals of cerebellar parallel/climbing fibers and that they functioned as ..
  7. Bouali S, Evrard A, Chastanet M, Lesch K, Hamon M, Adrien J. Sex hormone-dependent desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in knockout mice deficient in the 5-HT transporter. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:2203-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the functional adaptive properties of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, which regulate serotonergic neuronal firing, in knockout mice deficient in 5-HTT...
  8. Ghayur M, Khan A, Gilani A. Ginger facilitates cholinergic activity possibly due to blockade of muscarinic autoreceptors in rat stomach fundus. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007;20:231-5 pubmed
    ..In view of the physiological significance of pre-synaptic muscarinic M1 and M2 autoreceptors, this study was undertaken to further look into the possible mode of action of the prokinetic effect of ginger ..
  9. Fakra E, Hyde L, Gorka A, Fisher P, Munoz K, Kimak M, et al. Effects of HTR1A C(-1019)G on amygdala reactivity and trait anxiety. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:33-40 pubmed publisher
    Serotonin 1A (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A [5-HT(1A)]) autoreceptors mediate negative feedback inhibition of serotonergic neurons and play a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling involved in shaping the functional response of major ..

More Information


  1. Woodhall G, Evans D, Cunningham M, Jones R. NR2B-containing NMDA autoreceptors at synapses on entorhinal cortical neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:1644-51 pubmed
    ..Thus we have demonstrated that NMDA autoreceptors in layer V of the EC bear the NR2B subunit, and that NMDARs are also present at terminals onto superficial ..
  2. Best J, Nijhout H, Reed M. Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model. Theor Biol Med Model. 2009;6:21 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the autoreceptors dampen the fluctuations in extracellular dopamine caused by changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and ..
  3. Davila V, Yan Z, Craciun L, Logothetis D, Sulzer D. D3 dopamine autoreceptors do not activate G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel currents in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5693-7 pubmed
    Substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons express D2 and D3 dopamine autoreceptors. A physiological role for the D3 receptor has not been identified, but an activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK; also known as ..
  4. Zhang W, Basile A, Gomeza J, Volpicelli L, Levey A, Wess J. Characterization of central inhibitory muscarinic autoreceptors by the use of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1709-17 pubmed
    ..Synaptic ACh levels are known to be regulated by the activity of presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors mediating inhibition of ACh release...
  5. Richardson Jones J, Craige C, Guiard B, Stephen A, Metzger K, Kung H, et al. 5-HT1A autoreceptor levels determine vulnerability to stress and response to antidepressants. Neuron. 2010;65:40-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we develop a new strategy to manipulate 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors in raphe nuclei without affecting 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptors, generating mice with higher (1A-High) or lower (1A-..
  6. Cremers T, Wiersma L, Bosker F, Den Boer J, Westerink B, Wikström H. Is the beneficial antidepressant effect of coadministration of pindolol really due to somatodendritic autoreceptor antagonism?. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50:13-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, central beta-receptor antagonism of pindolol was studied by investigating blockade of beta-agonist-induced increases in brain cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation...
  7. Stockmeier C, Shapiro L, Dilley G, Kolli T, Friedman L, Rajkowska G. Increase in serotonin-1A autoreceptors in the midbrain of suicide victims with major depression-postmortem evidence for decreased serotonin activity. J Neurosci. 1998;18:7394-401 pubmed
    ..Enhanced radioligand binding of an agonist to inhibitory serotonin-1A autoreceptors in the human DR provides pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis of diminished activity of ..
  8. Pinheiro P, Perrais D, Coussen F, Barhanin J, Bettler B, Mann J, et al. GluR7 is an essential subunit of presynaptic kainate autoreceptors at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12181-6 pubmed
    ..a kainate receptor (KAR) subunit with no known function in the brain, as an essential subunit of presynaptic autoreceptors that facilitate hippocampal mossy fiber synaptic transmission...
  9. Salin P, Lledo P, Vincent J, Charpak S. Dendritic glutamate autoreceptors modulate signal processing in rat mitral cells. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85:1275-82 pubmed
    It has been shown recently that in mitral cells of the rat olfactory bulb, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) autoreceptors are activated during mitral cell firing...
  10. Schmitz Y, Schmauss C, Sulzer D. Altered dopamine release and uptake kinetics in mice lacking D2 receptors. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8002-9 pubmed
    ..Dopamine release is regulated by D2 dopamine autoreceptors, and D2 receptor ligands are used to treat psychosis and addiction...
  11. Bortolozzi A, Castañé A, Semakova J, Santana N, Alvarado G, Cortes R, et al. Selective siRNA-mediated suppression of 5-HT1A autoreceptors evokes strong anti-depressant-like effects. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:612-23 pubmed publisher limited efficacy and delayed onset of action, partly due to the activation of somatodendritic 5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors by the excess extracellular serotonin (5-HT) produced by SSRI in the raphe nuclei...
  12. Luo M, Fink G, Lookingland K, Morris J, Galligan J. Impaired function of alpha2-adrenergic autoreceptors on sympathetic nerves associated with mesenteric arteries and veins in DOCA-salt hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;286:H1558-64 pubmed
    The present study tested the hypothesis that there is impaired function of alpha(2)-adrenergic autoreceptors and increased transmitter release from sympathetic nerves associated with mesenteric arteries and veins from DOCA-salt rats...
  13. Patel J, Mooslehner K, Chan P, Emson P, Stamford J. Presynaptic control of striatal dopamine neurotransmission in adult vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) mutant mice. J Neurochem. 2003;85:898-910 pubmed
    ..wild-types (34 nm), indicating the compensatory presence of functionally supersensitive release-regulating autoreceptors. However, analysis of DA reuptake kinetics obtained in the absence and presence of DAT blockade (by cocaine ..
  14. Celada P, Puig M, Casanovas J, Guillazo G, Artigas F. Control of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons by the medial prefrontal cortex: Involvement of serotonin-1A, GABA(A), and glutamate receptors. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9917-29 pubmed
    ..descending excitatory fibers releases 5-HT, which inhibits the same or other DR neurons by acting on 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. Afferents from the mPFC also inhibit 5-HT neurons through the activation of GABAergic interneurons...
  15. Phillips P, Hancock P, Stamford J. Time window of autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of limbic and striatal dopamine release. Synapse. 2002;44:15-22 pubmed
    Forebrain dopamine release is under the local control of D2 family (D2 and D3) autoreceptors. In this study, autoreceptor-mediated modulation of forebrain dopamine release was investigated using amperometry in brain slices following ..
  16. Hahn A, Lanzenberger R, Wadsak W, Spindelegger C, Moser U, Mien L, et al. Escitalopram enhances the association of serotonin-1A autoreceptors to heteroreceptors in anxiety disorders. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14482-9 pubmed publisher
    ..blocking the serotonin transporter, SSRIs modulate serotonergic neurotransmission as well as the function of autoreceptors and heteroreceptors. However, treatment-induced changes on a network level primarily remain unknown...
  17. Pietri M, Schneider B, Mouillet Richard S, Ermonval M, Mutel V, Launay J, et al. Reactive oxygen species-dependent TNF-alpha converting enzyme activation through stimulation of 5-HT2B and alpha1D autoreceptors in neuronal cells. FASEB J. 2005;19:1078-87 pubmed
    ..This observation constitutes the prime evidence that bioaminergic autoreceptors take part in the control of the cellular redox equilibrium in a neuronal context...
  18. Riad M, Zimmer L, Rbah L, Watkins K, Hamon M, Descarries L. Acute treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine internalizes 5-HT1A autoreceptors and reduces the in vivo binding of the PET radioligand [18F]MPPF in the nucleus raphe dorsalis of rat. J Neurosci. 2004;24:5420-6 pubmed
    ..5-HT) neurons normally mediate an inhibition of 5-HT firing and release, the desensitization of these autoreceptors is essential for obtaining an enhancement of 5-HT transmission after treatment with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (..
  19. Rabiner E, Bhagwagar Z, Gunn R, Cowen P, Grasby P. Preferential 5-HT1A autoreceptor occupancy by pindolol is attenuated in depressed patients: effect of treatment or an endophenotype of depression?. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29:1688-98 pubmed
    ..5-HT1A receptor radioligand [11C]WAY100635, we previously demonstrated a preferential occupancy of 5-HT1A autoreceptors, compared to postsynaptic receptors by pindolol in healthy volunteers...
  20. Malagié I, Trillat A, Bourin M, Jacquot C, Hen R, Gardier A. 5-HT1B Autoreceptors limit the effects of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in mouse hippocampus and frontal cortex. J Neurochem. 2001;76:865-71 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that 5-HT1B autoreceptors limit the effects of SSRIs on dialysate 5-HT levels at serotonergic nerve terminals.
  21. Richer M, Hen R, Blier P. Modification of serotonin neuron properties in mice lacking 5-HT1A receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;435:195-203 pubmed
    ..In addition, it was not associated with changes in the function of 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B autoreceptors and of alpha2-adrenergic heteroreceptors on 5-HT neurons, nor of that of alpha2-adrenoceptors on ..
  22. Castro M, Diaz A, Del Olmo E, Pazos A. Chronic fluoxetine induces opposite changes in G protein coupling at pre and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in rat brain. Neuropharmacology. 2003;44:93-101 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that fluoxetine-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors occurs at G protein level...
  23. Albert P, Le François B, Millar A. Transcriptional dysregulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in mental illness. Mol Brain. 2011;4:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results highlight an integrated regulation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors that differs in several aspects from regulation of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors, and could be selectively ..
  24. Boldrini M, Underwood M, Mann J, Arango V. Serotonin-1A autoreceptor binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus of depressed suicides. J Psychiatr Res. 2008;42:433-42 pubmed
    Serotonergic dysfunction is present in mood disorders and suicide. Brainstem 5-HT1A somatodendritic autoreceptors regulate serotonin neuron firing but studies of autoreceptor binding in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in depressed ..
  25. Santafe M, Salon I, Garcia N, Lanuza M, Uchitel O, Tomas J. Modulation of ACh release by presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors in the neuromuscular junction of the newborn and adult rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:119-27 pubmed
    ..We show that the way in which M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors modulate neurotransmission can differ between the developing and adult rat neuromuscular synapse. ..
  26. McDevitt R, Neumaier J. Regulation of dorsal raphe nucleus function by serotonin autoreceptors: a behavioral perspective. J Chem Neuroanat. 2011;41:234-46 pubmed publisher
    Neurotransmission by serotonin (5-HT) is tightly regulated by several autoreceptors that fine-tune serotonergic neurotransmission through negative feedback inhibition at the cell bodies (predominantly 5-HT(1A)) or at the axon terminals (..
  27. Benoit Marand M, Borrelli E, Gonon F. Inhibition of dopamine release via presynaptic D2 receptors: time course and functional characteristics in vivo. J Neurosci. 2001;21:9134-41 pubmed
    Most neurotransmitters inhibit their own release through autoreceptors. However, the physiological functions of these presynaptic inhibitions are still poorly understood, in part because their time course and functional characteristics ..
  28. Kushwaha N, Albert P. Coupling of 5-HT1A autoreceptors to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation via G beta gamma subunit signaling. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:721-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the i2-domain of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor is crucial for coupling to G beta gamma subunits and their subsequent responses (e.g. calcium mobilization and inhibition of MAPK activity). ..
  29. Knobelman D, Hen R, Lucki I. Genetic regulation of extracellular serotonin by 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) and 5-hydroxytryptamine(1B) autoreceptors in different brain regions of the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;298:1083-91 pubmed
  30. Trendelenburg A, Philipp M, Meyer A, Klebroff W, Hein L, Starke K. All three alpha2-adrenoceptor types serve as autoreceptors in postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;368:504-12 pubmed
    ..sympathetic neurons and brain noradrenergic neurons use alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors as presynaptic autoreceptors. The present experiments were carried out in order to see whether they possess presynaptic alpha(2B)-..
  31. Westerink B, Cremers T, De Vries J, Liefers H, Tran N, de Boer P. Evidence for activation of histamine H3 autoreceptors during handling stress in the prefrontal cortex of the rat. Synapse. 2002;43:238-43 pubmed
    ..increase in histamine was used as a paradigm to investigate the functional activity of histamine H3 autoreceptors during mild stress or arousal...
  32. Talaia C, Queiroz G, Pinheiro H, Moura D, Goncalves J. Involvement of G-protein ?? subunits on the influence of inhibitory ?2-autoreceptors on the angiotensin AT1-receptor modulation of noradrenaline release in the rat vas deferens. Neurochem Int. 2006;49:698-707 pubmed
    The influence of alpha2-autoreceptors on the facilitation of [3H]-noradrenaline release mediated by angiotensin II was studied in prostatic portions of rat vas deferens preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline...
  33. Liu R, Lambe E, Aghajanian G. Somatodendritic autoreceptor regulation of serotonergic neurons: dependence on L-tryptophan and tryptophan hydroxylase-activating kinases. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:945-58 pubmed
    ..Increased calcium influx at higher firing rates, by activating tryptophan hydroxylase via CaMKII and PKA, can work together with tryptophan to enhance negative feedback control of the output of the serotonergic system. ..
  34. Koeltzow T, Xu M, Cooper D, Hu X, Tonegawa S, Wolf M, et al. Alterations in dopamine release but not dopamine autoreceptor function in dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice. J Neurosci. 1998;18:2231-8 pubmed
    Dopamine (DA) autoreceptors expressed along the somatodendritic extent of midbrain DA neurons modulate impulse activity, whereas those expressed at DA nerve terminals regulate both DA synthesis and release...
  35. Larm J, Shen P, Gundlach A. Differential galanin receptor-1 and galanin expression by 5-HT neurons in dorsal raphé nucleus of rat and mouse: evidence for species-dependent modulation of serotonin transmission. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:481-93 pubmed
    ..5-HT neuron activity in the DRN is primarily regulated via 5-HT1A autoreceptors, via inhibition of adenylate cyclase and activation of inward-rectifying K+ channels...
  36. Aldrin Kirk P, Heuer A, Wang G, Mattsson B, Lundblad M, Parmar M, et al. DREADD Modulation of Transplanted DA Neurons Reveals a Novel Parkinsonian Dyskinesia Mechanism Mediated by the Serotonin 5-HT6 Receptor. Neuron. 2016;90:955-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is thought to be mediated through counteraction of the D2 autoreceptor feedback inhibition, resulting in a dysplastic DA release from the transplant. ..
  37. Belmer A, Quentin E, Diaz S, Guiard B, Fernandez S, Doly S, et al. Positive regulation of raphe serotonin neurons by serotonin 2B receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43:1623-1632 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these observations indicate that the 5-HT2B receptor acts as a direct positive modulator of serotonin Pet1-positive neurons in an opposite way as the known 5-HT1A-negative autoreceptor. ..
  38. Jedema H, Gold S, Gonzalez Burgos G, Sved A, Tobe B, Wensel T, et al. Chronic cold exposure increases RGS7 expression and decreases alpha(2)-autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2433-43 pubmed
    ..Given that regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins can impact the coupling of alpha(2)-autoreceptors to downstream signaling cascades, we also explored the expression of several RGS proteins following chronic ..
  39. Millan M, Rivet J, Gobert A. The frontal cortex as a network hub controlling mood and cognition: Probing its neurochemical substrates for improved therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders. J Psychopharmacol. 2016;30:1099-1128 pubmed
    ..The present article discusses the above themes, focusses on recent advances, highlights opportunities for clinical "translation", and suggests avenues for further progress. ..
  40. Gobert A, Billiras R, Cistarelli L, Millan M. Quantification and pharmacological characterization of dialysate levels of noradrenaline in the striatum of freely-moving rats: release from adrenergic terminals and modulation by alpha2-autoreceptors. J Neurosci Methods. 2004;140:141-52 pubmed
    ..A role of dopaminergic terminals in the reuptake of NA likely explains the elevation in its levels elicited by DA reuptake-inhibitors and D3/D2 receptor antagonists. ..
  41. Wu Q, Reith M, Walker Q, Kuhn C, Carroll F, Garris P. Concurrent autoreceptor-mediated control of dopamine release and uptake during neurotransmission: an in vivo voltammetric study. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6272-81 pubmed
    ..key mechanisms determining brain extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter, are governed by presynaptic autoreceptors. The goal of this study was to investigate whether autoreceptors regulate both mechanisms concurrently...
  42. Carey R, DePalma G, Damianopoulos E, Shanahan A, Müller C, Huston J. Evidence that the 5-HT1A autoreceptor is an important pharmacological target for the modulation of cocaine behavioral stimulant effects. Brain Res. 2005;1034:162-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we further investigate the role of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the acute and chronic stimulant effects of cocaine using 5-HT1A receptor ligands in autoreceptor preferring ..
  43. Rajkowska G, Mahajan G, Legutko B, Challagundla L, Griswold M, Albert P, et al. Length of axons expressing the serotonin transporter in orbitofrontal cortex is lower with age in depression. Neuroscience. 2017;359:30-39 pubmed publisher
    ..major depressive disorder (MDD) in postmortem brain tissue report enhanced binding to inhibitory serotonin-1A autoreceptors in midbrain dorsal raphe and reductions in length of axons expressing the serotonin transporter (SERT) in ..
  44. Liu J, Rasul I, Sun Y, Wu G, Li L, Premont R, et al. GRK5 deficiency leads to reduced hippocampal acetylcholine level via impaired presynaptic M2/M4 autoreceptor desensitization. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..ACh release and cholinergic hypofunction by selective impairment of desensitization of presynaptic M2/M4 autoreceptors. Because this nonstructural cholinergic hypofunction precedes the hippocampal cholinergic hypofunction ..
  45. Gbahou F, Rouleau A, Arrang J. The histamine autoreceptor is a short isoform of the H? receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:1860-71 pubmed publisher
    ..They were further compared with their effects at autoreceptors. They were also compared on [(35)S]GTP?[S] binding to membranes of rat cerebral cortex, striatum and ..
  46. Doucet E, Bobadilla A, Houades V, Lanteri C, Godeheu G, Lanfumey L, et al. Sustained impairment of ?2A-adrenergic autoreceptor signaling mediates neurochemical and behavioral sensitization to amphetamine. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;74:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights the key role of noradrenergic autoreceptor signaling in the persistent modifications induced by repeated amphetamine administration. ..
  47. Dreyer J, Vander Weele C, Lovic V, Aragona B. Functionally Distinct Dopamine Signals in Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell in the Freely Moving Rat. J Neurosci. 2016;36:98-112 pubmed publisher
    ..approach provides a novel perspective on real-time DA neuron firing and concurrent activation of presynaptic autoreceptors and postsynaptic targets...
  48. Kortus S, Srinivasan C, Forostyak O, Ueta Y, Sykova E, Chvatal A, et al. Physiology of spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in the isolated vasopressin and oxytocin neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus. Cell Calcium. 2016;59:280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The AVP and OT, secreted somato-dendritically (i.e. in the SON proper) act through specific autoreceptors, induce distinct Ca(2+) signals and regulate cellular events...
  49. Segond Von Banchet G, Pastor A, Biskup C, Schlegel C, Benndorf K, Schaible H. Localization of functional calcitonin gene-related peptide binding sites in a subpopulation of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neuroscience. 2002;110:131-45 pubmed
    ..The binding sites may serve as autoreceptors because all of these neurons also synthesize CGRP...
  50. Adell A, Artigas F. The somatodendritic release of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area and its regulation by afferent transmitter systems. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2004;28:415-31 pubmed
    ..of the dopamine neurons of the mesocorticolimbic system through the activation of somatodendritic dopamine D2 autoreceptors. Accordingly, the intra-VTA application of dopamine D2 receptor agonists reduces the firing rate and release ..
  51. Timóteo M, Faria M, Correia de Sá P. Endogenous adenosine prevents post-tetanic release facilitation mediated by alpha3beta2 nicotinic autoreceptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;464:115-25 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors by endogenously generated adenosine prevents the post-tetanic release facilitation mediated by nicotinic alpha3beta2 autoreceptors.
  52. de Boer S, Newman Tancredi A. Anti-aggressive effects of the selective high-efficacy 'biased' 5-HT₁A receptor agonists F15599 and F13714 in male WTG rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016;233:937-47 pubmed publisher
    ..e., raphe presynaptic autoreceptors versus forebrain postsynaptic heteroreceptors, of these 5-HT1A receptor agonists...
  53. Acri J, Thompson A, Shippenberg T. Modulation of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptor function by the selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593. Synapse. 2001;39:343-50 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that dopamine (DA) D2 autoreceptors modulate the synthesis and release of DA in the striatum...