adrenergic receptors

Summary

Summary: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Y, Kolli T, Hivley R, Jaber L, Zhao F, Yan J, et al. Characterization of the expression pattern of adrenergic receptors in rat taste buds. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1421-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the expression pattern of adrenergic receptors in the rat posterior taste bud...
  2. Juric D, Loncar D, Carman Krzan M. Noradrenergic stimulation of BDNF synthesis in astrocytes: mediation via alpha1- and beta1/beta2-adrenergic receptors. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:297-306 pubmed
    ..Since astrocytes express various subtypes of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors that have the potential to be activated by synaptically released NA, we focused our present study on the ..
  3. Vanni S, Neri M, Tavernelli I, Rothlisberger U. A conserved protonation-induced switch can trigger "ionic-lock" formation in adrenergic receptors. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:1339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Carrying out submicrosecond molecular dynamics simulations of beta-adrenergic receptors, we found that cooperation between a number of highly conserved residues is crucial to alter the ..
  4. Pekarova M, Kralova J, Kubala L, Ciz M, Papezikova I, Macickova T, et al. Carvedilol and adrenergic agonists suppress the lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages via the adrenergic receptors. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60:143-50 pubmed
    The interaction of adrenergic agonists and/or antagonists with the adrenergic receptors expressed on immunologically active cells including macrophages plays an important role in regulation of inflammatory responses...
  5. Huber T, Menon S, Sakmar T. Structural basis for ligand binding and specificity in adrenergic receptors: implications for GPCR-targeted drug discovery. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11013-23 pubmed publisher
    Crystal structures of engineered human beta 2-adrenergic receptors (ARs) in complex with an inverse agonist ligand, carazolol, provide three-dimensional snapshots of the disposition of seven transmembrane helices and the ligand-binding ..
  6. Pedersen S, Kristensen K, Hermann P, Katzenellenbogen J, Richelsen B. Estrogen controls lipolysis by up-regulating alpha2A-adrenergic receptors directly in human adipose tissue through the estrogen receptor alpha. Implications for the female fat distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1869-78 pubmed
    ..adipose tissue metabolism and found that estradiol directly increases the number of antilipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic receptors in sc adipocytes...
  7. Perrino C, Rockman H. Reversal of cardiac remodeling by modulation of adrenergic receptors: a new frontier in heart failure. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2007;22:443-9 pubmed
    ..This review highlights some of the novel approaches to reverse pathological remodeling and improve cardiac dysfunction, placing emphasis on strategies targeting the adrenergic receptors.
  8. Suleyman H, Dursun H, Bilici M, Cadirci E, Halici Z, Gulaboglu M, et al. Relation of adrenergic receptors, which have roles in gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory effect of adrenal gland hormones, with cyclooxygenase enzyme levels in rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60:129-34 pubmed
    ..We investigated the relationship between COX levels and those adrenergic receptors known to play a role in gastroprotection and anti-inflammatory activity.
  9. Pradidarcheep W, Stallen J, Labruyere W, Dabhoiwala N, Michel M, Lamers W. Lack of specificity of commercially available antisera against muscarinergic and adrenergic receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;379:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that receptor antibodies need better validation before they can reliably be used. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kirstein S, Insel P. Autonomic nervous system pharmacogenomics: a progress report. Pharmacol Rev. 2004;56:31-52 pubmed
    ..M(1-3) muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs), and alpha(1A,B,D)-, alpha(2A,B,C)-, and beta(1,2,3)-adrenergic receptors (AR), show highly variable expression of genetic variants; variants of mAChRs and alpha(1)-ARs are ..
  2. Schaak S, Mialet Perez J, Flordellis C, Paris H. Genetic variation of human adrenergic receptors: from molecular and functional properties to clinical and pharmacogenetic implications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7:217-31 pubmed
    b>Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are directly or indirectly involved in the control of a large panel of physiological functions and are the targets of drugs for the treatment of several common diseases including congestive heart failure, asthma ..
  3. Strazielle C, Lalonde R, Hebert C, Reader T. Regional brain distribution of noradrenaline uptake sites, and of alpha1-alpha2- and beta-adrenergic receptors in PCD mutant mice: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience. 1999;94:287-304 pubmed
    ..pathology on the noradrenergic system, noradrenaline transporters as well as alpha1-, alpha2- and beta-adrenergic receptors were evaluated by quantitative ligand binding autoradiography in adult control and pcd mice using, ..
  4. Frang H, Cockcroft V, Karskela T, Scheinin M, Marjamaki A. Phenoxybenzamine binding reveals the helical orientation of the third transmembrane domain of adrenergic receptors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31279-84 pubmed
    Phenoxybenzamine (PB), a classical alpha-adrenergic antagonist, binds irreversibly to the alpha-adrenergic receptors (ARs)...
  5. Kaneko M, Chapman D, Ganguly P, Beamish R, Dhalla N. Modification of cardiac adrenergic receptors by oxygen free radicals. Am J Physiol. 1991;260:H821-6 pubmed
    To examine the effects of oxygen free radicals on alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, rat heart crude membranes were incubated with xanthine plus xanthine oxidase, H2O2, or H2O2 plus Fe2+...
  6. Calabrese E. Adrenergic receptors: biphasic dose responses. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2001;31:523-38 pubmed
    ..The range of stimulatory responses was generally within 10- to 1000-fold, except for the platelet aggregation endpoint where the range was 10(3) to 10(5). ..
  7. Steinle J, Smith P. Role of adrenergic receptors in vascular remodelling of the rat choroid. Br J Pharmacol. 2002;136:730-4 pubmed
    ..3. The aim of the present study was to determine whether sympathetic nerves act by way of adrenergic receptors to maintain normal choroidal vascular integrity. 4...
  8. Zhang H, Vassalle M. Mechanisms of adrenergic control of sino-atrial node discharge. J Biomed Sci. 2003;10:179-92 pubmed
    ..NE INITIATES spontaneous discharge by inducing voltage oscillations unrelated to I(f)...
  9. Lünemann J, Buttgereit F, Tripmacher R, Baerwald C, Burmester G, Krause A. Norepinephrine inhibits energy metabolism of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells via adrenergic receptors. Biosci Rep. 2001;21:627-35 pubmed
    ..have been shown to modulate the activity of various immune effector cells directly via membrane adrenergic receptors. Here, we investigated immediate effects of norepinephrine on energy metabolism of immune cells...
  10. McGaugh J, Roozendaal B. Role of adrenal stress hormones in forming lasting memories in the brain. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002;12:205-10 pubmed
    ..Release of norepinephrine and activation of beta-adrenoceptors within the basolateral amygdala is critical in mediating adrenal stress hormone regulation of memory consolidation. ..
  11. Zeng J, Ekman M, Jiang C, Uvelius B, Swärd K. Non-uniform changes in membrane receptors in the rat urinary bladder following outlet obstruction. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;762:82-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry supported reduced expression of neuromedin B receptors, V1a receptors and β3-adrenergic receptors, but glycine receptor expression appeared unchanged...
  12. Pankey E, Edward J, Swan K, Bourgeois C, Bartow M, Yoo D, et al. Nebivolol has a beneficial effect in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;94:758-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that nebivolol, a selective vasodilating ?1 receptor antagonist that stimulates ?3 adrenergic receptors and induces vasodilation by increasing NO production, may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertensive ..
  13. Molina C, Llach A, Herraiz Martínez A, Tarifa C, Barriga M, Wiegerinck R, et al. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes. Basic Res Cardiol. 2016;111:5 pubmed publisher
    ..0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs...
  14. Turan B. A Comparative Summary on Antioxidant-like Actions of Timolol with Other Antioxidants in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy. Curr Drug Deliv. 2016;13:418-23 pubmed
    Cellular signaling associated with cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) is composed of coupled mechanism among β 1-/β2-AR and Gs proteins with contribution of constitutive β3-AR coupling to Gi proteins...
  15. Liu L, Jiang Y, Steinle J. Compound 49b Restores Retinal Thickness and Reduces Degenerate Capillaries in the Rat Retina following Ischemia/Reperfusion. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159532 pubmed publisher
    ..These data strongly suggested that Compound 49b protected the retina against I/R-induced injury. This provides additional support for a role of ?-adrenergic receptor actions in the retina. ..
  16. Yogev D, Basheer M, Blotnick S, Caraco Y, Muszkat M. Effects of sex and the common ADRB1 389 genetic polymorphism on the hemodynamic response to dobutamine. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2015;25:555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies on the effect of the ADRB1 389 polymorphism on dobutamine stress echocardiography should compare Arg389 and Gly389 homozygotes. ..
  17. Lam R, Yip W, Wan C, Tsui M. Dexmedetomidine use in the ED for control of methamphetamine-induced agitation. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:665.e1-665.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..Its efficacy and safety in the ED warrant further evaluation with prospective controlled trials. ..
  18. Maria G, Cadeddu F, Brisinda D, Brandara F, Brisinda G. Management of bladder, prostatic and pelvic floor disorders with botulinum neurotoxin. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12:247-65 pubmed
    ..In this paper, clinical experience over the last years with BoNT in urological impaired patients will be illustrated. Moreover, this paper presents current data on the use of BoNT to treat pelvic floor disorders. ..
  19. Magvanjav O, McDonough C, Gong Y, McClure L, Talbert R, Horenstein R, et al. Pharmacogenetic Associations of β1-Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphisms With Cardiovascular Outcomes in the SPS3 Trial (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes). Stroke. 2017;48:1337-1343 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to define β-blocker benefit among ischemic stroke patients by ADRB1 genotype. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306. ..
  20. Murata M, Adachi H, Oshima S, Kurabayashi M. Influence of stroke volume and exercise tolerance on peak oxygen pulse in patients with and without beta-adrenergic receptor blockers in patients with heart disease. J Cardiol. 2017;69:176-181 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the increase in the O2 pulse was disproportionately greater than the SV that was measured by impedance cardiography when a BB was used in patients with preserved SV and exercise tolerance. ..
  21. Hutchinson D, Summers R, Gibbs M. Energy metabolism and memory processing: role of glucose transport and glycogen in responses to adrenoceptor activation in the chicken. Brain Res Bull. 2008;76:224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will focus on the role of ARs on memory consolidation and specifically the role of energy metabolism on AR modulation of memory. ..
  22. Hatanaka Y, Hobara N, Honghua J, Akiyama S, Nawa H, Kobayashi Y, et al. Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase inhibition facilitates adrenergic neurotransmission in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:490-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that NO, which is released from perivascular capsaicin-sensitive nerves, presynaptically inhibits neurogenic NE release to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. ..
  23. Dias L, Rodrigues M, Rennó A, Stroka A, Inoue B, Panunto P, et al. Hemodynamic responses to Lachesis muta (South American bushmaster) snake venom in anesthetized rats. Toxicon. 2016;123:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The hemodynamic responses apparently do not involve direct cardiotoxicity and are modulated by the adrenergic system. ..
  24. Verjans R, van Bilsen M, Schroen B. MiRNA Deregulation in Cardiac Aging and Associated Disorders. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2017;334:207-263 pubmed publisher
    ..It is therefore suggested that MiRNAs form possible therapeutic targets to stabilize the aged failing myocardium. ..
  25. Linnstaedt S, Walker M, Riker K, Nyland J, Hu J, Rossi C, et al. Genetic variant rs3750625 in the 3'UTR of ADRA2A affects stress-dependent acute pain severity after trauma and alters a microRNA-34a regulatory site. Pain. 2017;158:230-239 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that ADRA2A rs3750625 contributes to poststress musculoskeletal pain severity by modulating miR-34a regulation. ..
  26. Giordani L, Cuzziol N, Del Pinto T, Sanchez M, Maccari S, Massimi A, et al. β2-Agonist clenbuterol hinders human monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2015;339:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the frequent illegal use of CLB in doping, our work suggests that this drug is potentially harmful to immune responses decreasing the supply of DCs, thus subverting immune surveillance. ..
  27. Dong C, Zhou F, Fugetta E, Filipeanu C, Wu G. Endoplasmic reticulum export of adrenergic and angiotensin II receptors is differentially regulated by Sar1 GTPase. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide the first evidence indicating distinct mechanisms for the recruitment of different GPCRs into the COPII vesicles on the ER membrane. ..
  28. Galvan D, Danesh F. β2-adrenergic receptors in inflammation and vascular complications of diabetes. Kidney Int. 2017;92:14-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophage activation and β2-adrenergic receptors are known to play important roles in facilitating this communication between these 2 systems...
  29. LUHRS L, Manlapaz C, Kedzie K, Rao S, Cabrera Ghayouri S, Donello J, et al. Function of brain ?2B-adrenergic receptor characterized with subtype-selective ?2B antagonist and KO mice. Neuroscience. 2016;339:608-621 pubmed publisher
    Noradrenergic signaling, through the ?2A and ?2C adrenergic receptors modulates the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addiction...
  30. Monai H, Ohkura M, Tanaka M, Oe Y, Konno A, Hirai H, et al. Calcium imaging reveals glial involvement in transcranial direct current stimulation-induced plasticity in mouse brain. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11100 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we propose that tDCS changes the metaplasticity of the cortex through astrocytic Ca(2+)/IP3 signalling. ..
  31. Campbell A, Oliva J, Yates M, Zhong J, Shadle S, Snider L, et al. BET bromodomain inhibitors and agonists of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor identified in screens for compounds that inhibit DUX4 expression in FSHD muscle cells. Skelet Muscle. 2017;7:16 pubmed publisher
  32. Kobayashi T, Otsuguro K, Yamaguchi S, Ito S. Contribution of α2A-adrenoceptor subtype to effect of dexmedetomidine and xylazine on spinal synaptic transmission of mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;761:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a high concentration of xylazine inhibits conduction of the action potential, which is not mediated by α2A-AR. α2-AR is not responsible for the dexmedetomidine- and xylazine-mediated inhibition of the MSR. ..
  33. Hillman K, Knudson C, Carr P, Doze V, Porter J. Adrenergic receptor characterization of CA1 hippocampal neurons using real time single cell RT-PCR. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;139:267-76 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that only a select number of AR subtypes are transcriptionally expressed in CA1 and that these receptors are selective to specific neuronal cell types. ..
  34. Yamanaka D, Kawano T, Nishigaki A, Aoyama B, Tateiwa H, Shigematsu Locatelli M, et al. The preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on endotoxin-induced exacerbated post-incisional pain in rats. J Anesth. 2017;31:664-671 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that intraoperative DEX treatment can prevent LPS-induced exacerbated post-incisional pain via the α2-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway. ..
  35. Moran Santa Maria M, Baker N, McRae Clark A, Prisciandaro J, Brady K. Effects of yohimbine and drug cues on impulsivity and attention in cocaine-dependent men and women and sex-matched controls. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016;162:56-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Male 415 ± 14; t89=2.6, p=0.012]. These data add to a growing literature demonstrating significant sex differences in behaviors associated with relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. ..
  36. Grinshpon M, Bondarenko V. Simulation of the effects of moderate stimulation/inhibition of the ?1-adrenergic signaling system and its components in mouse ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;310:C844-56 pubmed publisher
    ..system for mouse ventricular myocytes is explored to simulate the effects of moderate stimulations of ?1-adrenergic receptors (?1-ARs) on the action potential, Ca(2+) and Na(+) dynamics, as well as the effects of inhibition of ..
  37. Najafi A, Sequeira V, Helmes M, Bollen I, Goebel M, Regan J, et al. Selective phosphorylation of PKA targets after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation impairs myofilament function in Mybpc3-targeted HCM mouse model. Cardiovasc Res. 2016;110:200-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that in the KI HCM mouse model, β-AR stimulation leads to preferential PKA phosphorylation of PLN over cTnI, resulting in an impaired inotropic and lusitropic response. ..
  38. Bégin Heick N. Alpha-subunits of Gs and Gi in adipocyte plasma membranes of genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. Am J Physiol. 1992;263:C121-9 pubmed
    ..Differences in G protein patterns noted in between the control groups (B/Ks or B/6 homozygotes) correlated strongly with the quantitative differences in adenylyl cyclase response in the two strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  39. Zhao H, Wu X, Dong C, Wang B, Zhao J, Cao X. Association Between ADRB2 Genetic Polymorphisms and the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2017;21:491-496 pubmed publisher
    ..05). It is indicated that the TT genotype of rs1042711 and smoking pack years are both risk factors for COPD. ..
  40. Durham J, Mackey W. Perioperative ?-Blockade in Noncardiac Surgery: A Cautionary Tale of Over-reliance on Small Randomized Prospective Trials. Clin Ther. 2016;38:2302-2316 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the relationship between outcomes and the ?-1 selectivity of different ?-blockers should be explored. ..
  41. Lee S, Lee C, Ham O, Moon J, Lee J, Seo H, et al. microRNA-133a attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by targeting PKC? and Gq. Mol Cell Biochem. 2018;439:105-115 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest the advantages of the therapeutic use of microRNAs as an effective potential drug regulating multiple signaling pathways under pathologic conditions. ..
  42. Nagatomo Y, Li D, Kirsop J, Borowski A, Thakur A, Tang W. Autoantibodies Specifically Against ?1 Adrenergic Receptors and Adverse Clinical Outcome in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure in the ?-Blocker Era: The Importance of Immunoglobulin G3 Subclass. J Card Fail. 2016;22:417-22 pubmed publisher
    ..048, log-rank test). Presence of IgG3-?1AR-AAb, not total IgG, was associated with paradoxically more favorable outcomes in our cohort of patients with chronic systolic HF largely treated by ?-blockers. ..
  43. Clarke M, Hughes D, Zhu C, Boedeker E, Sperandio V. The QseC sensor kinase: a bacterial adrenergic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10420-10425 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the role that this system plays in bacterial virulence, further characterization of this unique signaling mechanism may be important for developing novel classes of antimicrobials. ..
  44. Myslivecek J, Novakova M, Palkovits M, Krizanová O, Kvetnansky R. Distribution of mRNA and binding sites of adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in the rat heart. Life Sci. 2006;79:112-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, we can conclude that there are noticeable differences in the presence of receptors in heart regions that contain ganglion cells in comparison to those are virtually free of them. ..
  45. Huang T, Tworoger S, Hecht J, Rice M, Sood A, Kubzansky L, et al. Association of Ovarian Tumor β2-Adrenergic Receptor Status with Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors and Survival. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25:1587-1594 pubmed
    ..Replication in larger studies is warranted to confirm the role of β2-adrenergic signaling in ovarian cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1587-94. ©2016 AACR. ..
  46. Knych H, Harrison L, Steinmetz S, Chouicha N, Kass P. Differential expression of skeletal muscle genes following administration of clenbuterol to exercised horses. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:596 pubmed publisher
    ..However, following chronic administration of high doses of clenbuterol alterations were noted in transcripts encoding various myosin heavy chains, lipid metabolizing enzymes and the ?2-adrenergic receptor. ..
  47. Chen C, Lyte M, Stevens M, Vulchanova L, Brown D. Mucosally-directed adrenergic nerves and sympathomimetic drugs enhance non-intimate adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to porcine cecum and colon. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;539:116-24 pubmed
    ..This in turn may alter host susceptibility to enteric infections. ..
  48. Liu Y, Nakamura S. Stress-induced plasticity of monoamine axons. Front Biosci. 2006;11:1794-801 pubmed
  49. Baek K, Park H, Baek J, Kim H. Isoproterenol Increases RANKL Expression in a ATF4/NFATc1-Dependent Manner in Mouse Osteoblastic Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced expressions of NFATc1 and RANKL. These results suggest that isoproterenol increases RANKL expression in an ATF4/NFATc1-dependent manner. ..
  50. Wu S, Majeed S, Evans T, Camus M, Wong N, Schollmeier Y, et al. Clathrin light chains' role in selective endocytosis influences antibody isotype switching. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This instance of clathrin subunit deletion in vertebrates demonstrates that CLCs contribute to clathrin's role in vivo by influencing cargo selectivity, a function previously assigned exclusively to adaptor molecules. ..
  51. Bulatova I, Shchekotova A, Krivtsov A, Shchekotov V, Nasibullina N, Suzdal tseva K, et al. [Metabolic disorder and polymorphism of the genes encoding for beta-2-adrenergic receptor and apolipoproteins B in chronic hepatitis C and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2015;93:35-41 pubmed
    ..Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in CHC patients is stimulated by viral infection. ..
  52. Bragiel A, Wang D, Pieczonka T, Shono M, Ishikawa Y. Mechanisms Underlying Activation of ??-Adrenergic Receptor-Induced Trafficking of AQP5 in Rat Parotid Acinar Cells under Isotonic or Hypotonic Conditions. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?1A-AR activation induced the trafficking of AQP5 to the APM and LPM via the Ca(2+)/ cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/PKG signaling pathway, which is associated with store-operated Ca(2+) entry. ..
  53. Leposavic G, Perisić M. Age-associated remodeling of thymopoiesis: role for gonadal hormones and catecholamines. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2008;15:290-322 pubmed publisher