neurotransmitter receptors


Summary: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.

Top Publications

  1. Abbondanzo S, Manfra D, Chen S, Pinzon Ortiz M, Sun Y, Phillips J, et al. Nmur1-/- mice are not protected from cutaneous inflammation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Although differences in IL-6 were observed in mice lacking Nmu peptide, these mice exhibited a normal response to CFA. Our data argues against a major role for Nmur1 in mediating the reported inflammatory functions of NmU. ..
  2. Schwappach B. An overview of trafficking and assembly of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels (Review). Mol Membr Biol. 2008;25:270-8 pubmed publisher
    Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-gated ion channels assemble from several homologous and non-homologous subunits...
  3. Martin R, Verma S, Levandoski M, Clark C, Qian H, Stewart M, et al. Drug resistance and neurotransmitter receptors of nematodes: recent studies on the mode of action of levamisole. Parasitology. 2005;131 Suppl:S71-84 pubmed
    ..g. phosphorylation state). These findings offer a potential means of increasing efficacy of existing compounds as an alternative to the costly and time consuming development of new anthelmintic agents. ..
  4. Nakahara K, Hanada R, Murakami N, Teranishi H, Ohgusu H, Fukushima N, et al. The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U is involved in the mammalian circadian oscillator system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:156-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that NMU may play some important role in the circadian oscillator by exerting an autocrine or paracrine action in the SCN. ..
  5. Ase A, Reader T, Hen R, Descarries L. Regionally selective changes in neurotransmitter receptors in the brain of the 5-HT1B knockout mouse. J Chem Neuroanat. 2008;35:356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that these latter changes underlie some aspects of the addictive behavior of the 5-HT1B KO mouse. ..
  6. Gartlon J, Szekeres P, Pullen M, Sarau H, Aiyar N, Shabon U, et al. Localisation of NMU1R and NMU2R in human and rat central nervous system and effects of neuromedin-U following central administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;177:1-14 pubmed
    ..NmU markedly increased FLI in the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex and central amygdala. These data provide further evidence for widespread roles for NmU and its receptors in the brain. ..
  7. Slotkin T, Seidler F, Qiao D, Aldridge J, Tate C, Cousins M, et al. Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on primate brain development and attempted amelioration with supplemental choline or vitamin C: neurotransmitter receptors, cell signaling and cell development biomarkers in fetal brain regions of rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:129-44 pubmed
    ..Fetal brain regions and peripheral tissues were examined for nAChR subtypes, other neurotransmitter receptors, and indices of cell signaling and cell damage...
  8. Kubin L, Volgin D. Developmental profiles of neurotransmitter receptors in respiratory motor nuclei. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008;164:64-71 pubmed publisher
    We discuss the time course of postnatal development of selected neurotransmitter receptors in motoneurons that innervate respiratory pump and accessory respiratory muscles, with emphasis on other than classic respiratory signals as ..
  9. Levite M. Neurotransmitters activate T-cells and elicit crucial functions via neurotransmitter receptors. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2008;8:460-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, neurotransmitters bind also their neurotransmitter receptors in T-cells and directly activate or suppress T-cell functions...

More Information


  1. Schuller H, Al Wadei H. Neurotransmitter receptors as central regulators of pancreatic cancer. Future Oncol. 2010;6:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes current evidence suggesting important roles of neurotransmitter receptors in the regulation of this malignancy...
  2. Belachew S, Gallo V. Synaptic and extrasynaptic neurotransmitter receptors in glial precursors' quest for identity. Glia. 2004;48:185-96 pubmed
    It is widely established that neurotransmitter receptors are expressed in non-neuronal cells, and particularly in neural progenitor cells in the postnatal central nervous system...
  3. Brighton P, Szekeres P, Wise A, Willars G. Signaling and ligand binding by recombinant neuromedin U receptors: evidence for dual coupling to Galphaq/11 and Galphai and an irreversible ligand-receptor interaction. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:1544-56 pubmed
    ..Despite structural differences between receptors, there were no apparent differences in their activation, coupling, or regulation. ..
  4. Pocock J, Kettenmann H. Neurotransmitter receptors on microglia. Trends Neurosci. 2007;30:527-35 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the evidence for the expression of neurotransmitter receptors on microglia and the consequences of this receptor activation for microglial behaviour...
  5. Albrecht J, Schousboe A. Taurine interaction with neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS: an update. Neurochem Res. 2005;30:1615-21 pubmed
    ..Hence more sophisticated analytical methods are warranted in order to obtain a definite answer to this important question. ..
  6. Eickhoff S, Rottschy C, Zilles K. Laminar distribution and co-distribution of neurotransmitter receptors in early human visual cortex. Brain Struct Funct. 2007;212:255-67 pubmed
  7. Zeng H, Gragerov A, Hohmann J, Pavlova M, Schimpf B, Xu H, et al. Neuromedin U receptor 2-deficient mice display differential responses in sensory perception, stress, and feeding. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9352-63 pubmed
    ..They suggest that NMUR2 plays a more significant role in central pain processing than other brain functions including stress/anxiety and regulation of feeding. ..
  8. Karadottir R, Attwell D. Neurotransmitter receptors in the life and death of oligodendrocytes. Neuroscience. 2007;145:1426-38 pubmed
    ..Mutations in oligodendrocyte neurotransmitter receptors or their interacting proteins may cause defects in CNS function...
  9. Torres R, Croll S, Vercollone J, Reinhardt J, Griffiths J, Zabski S, et al. Mice genetically deficient in neuromedin U receptor 2, but not neuromedin U receptor 1, have impaired nociceptive responses. Pain. 2007;130:267-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, the pro-nociceptive effects of NMU in mice appear to be mediated through NMUR2, not NMUR1. ..
  10. Hartveit E, Veruki M. Studying properties of neurotransmitter receptors by non-stationary noise analysis of spontaneous postsynaptic currents and agonist-evoked responses in outside-out patches. Nat Protoc. 2007;2:434-48 pubmed
    ..In addition, we include examples of computer code for individual functions used in the different stages of non-stationary noise analysis. These analysis procedures require 3-8 h. ..
  11. Kneussel M, Loebrich S. Trafficking and synaptic anchoring of ionotropic inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. Biol Cell. 2007;99:297-309 pubmed
    b>Neurotransmitter receptors are subject to microtubule-based transport between intracellular organelles and the neuronal plasma membrane...
  12. Jiang Z, Shen W. Role of neurotransmitter receptors in mediating light-evoked responses in retinal interplexiform cells. J Neurophysiol. 2010;103:924-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the important role that light signals are encoded by both experiment of inhibitory receptors in IP cells. ..
  13. Johnson E, Appelbaum E, Carpenter D, Cox R, Disa J, Foley J, et al. Neuromedin U elicits cytokine release in murine Th2-type T cell clone D10.G4.1. J Immunol. 2004;173:7230-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a role for NmU in inflammation by stimulating cytokine production by T cells. ..
  14. Brighton P, Szekeres P, Willars G. Neuromedin U and its receptors: structure, function, and physiological roles. Pharmacol Rev. 2004;56:231-48 pubmed
  15. Graham E, Turnbull Y, Fotheringham P, Nilaweera K, Mercer J, Morgan P, et al. Neuromedin U and Neuromedin U receptor-2 expression in the mouse and rat hypothalamus: effects of nutritional status. J Neurochem. 2003;87:1165-73 pubmed
    ..The data from the obese rodent models supports the hypothesis that NMU is involved in the regulation of nutritional status. ..
  16. Cao C, Yu X, Dray A, Filosa A, Perkins M. A pro-nociceptive role of neuromedin U in adult mice. Pain. 2003;104:609-16 pubmed
    ..These electrophysiological and behavioral results suggest that NMU may be a novel physiological regulator in spinal nociceptive transmission and processing. ..
  17. Marchand S, Cartaud J. Targeted trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors to synaptic sites. Mol Neurobiol. 2002;26:117-35 pubmed
    Emerging data are sheding light on the critical task for synapses to locally control the production of neurotransmitter receptors ultimately leading to receptor accumulation and modulation at postsynaptic sites...
  18. Miledi R, Eusebi F, Martinez Torres A, Palma E, Trettel F. Expression of functional neurotransmitter receptors in Xenopus oocytes after injection of human brain membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13238-42 pubmed
    ..This approach was developed further to transplant already assembled neurotransmitter receptors from human brain cells to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes...
  19. Schmauss C, Howe J. RNA editing of neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain. Sci STKE. 2002;2002:pe26 pubmed
  20. Lee H, Seong C, Kim Y, Davis R, Han K. Octopamine receptor OAMB is required for ovulation in Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2003;264:179-90 pubmed
    ..The novel expression pattern of OAMB and its genetic resource described in this study will help advance our understanding on how the neuromodulatory or endocrine system controls reproductive physiology and behavior. ..
  21. Holopainen I. Seizures in the developing brain: cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage, neurogenesis and cellular reorganization. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:935-47 pubmed
  22. Maier W, Adilov B, Regenass M, Alcedo J. A neuromedin U receptor acts with the sensory system to modulate food type-dependent effects on C. elegans lifespan. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000376 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data suggest that nmur-1 processes information from specific food cues to influence lifespan and other aspects of physiology. ..
  23. Pereira M, Freitas R, Assis M, Silva R, Fonteles M, Freitas R, et al. Study pharmacologic of the GABAergic and glutamatergic drugs on seizures and status epilepticus induced by pilocarpine in adult Wistar rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;419:253-7 pubmed
  24. Guidolin D, Fuxe K, Neri G, Nussdorfer G, Agnati L. On the role of receptor-receptor interactions and volume transmission in learning and memory. Brain Res Rev. 2007;55:119-33 pubmed
  25. Connor M, Vaughan C, Vandenberg R. N-acyl amino acids and N-acyl neurotransmitter conjugates: neuromodulators and probes for new drug targets. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1857-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigation of the physiological roles and pharmacological potential of these simple lipid conjugates is in its infancy, and we believe that there is much to be learnt from their careful study. ..
  26. Abdolmaleky H, Thiagalingam S, Wilcox M. Genetics and epigenetics in major psychiatric disorders: dilemmas, achievements, applications, and future scope. Am J Pharmacogenomics. 2005;5:149-60 pubmed
  27. Lewin G, Lu Y, Park T. A plethora of painful molecules. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:443-9 pubmed
    ..The rich variety of key molecular players that have emerged in physiological and pathophysiological pain states reflects the sophistication and uniqueness of this vitally important sense. ..
  28. Wollina U, Abdel Naser M, Ganceviciene R, Zouboulis C. Receptors of eccrine, apocrine, and holocrine skin glands. Dermatol Clin. 2007;25:577-88, ix pubmed
    ..The knowledge of ligand receptor interactions in these specialized skin structures might offer not only a better understanding of their pathology, but also new therapeutic options. ..
  29. Morita M, Susuki J, Amino H, Yoshiki F, Moizumi S, Kudo Y. Use of the exogenous Drosophila octopamine receptor gene to study Gq-coupled receptor-mediated responses in mammalian neurons. Neuroscience. 2006;137:545-53 pubmed
  30. Stein M, McGough J. The pharmacogenomic era: promise for personalizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapy. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17:475-90, xi-xii pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these studies, the potential for personalizing ADHD treatment in clinical practice will be determined. ..
  31. Nimmagadda S, Geetha Loganathan P, Scaal M, Christ B, Huang R. FGFs, Wnts and BMPs mediate induction of VEGFR-2 (Quek-1) expression during avian somite development. Dev Biol. 2007;305:421-9 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the regulation of Quek1 expression in the somites is mediated by the cooperative actions of BMP4, FGF8 and Wnt-signaling pathways. ..
  32. Postnova S, Rosa E, Braun H. Neurones and synapses for systemic models of psychiatric disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2010;43 Suppl 1:S82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..g. by including additional receptors or ion channels, whenever this is indicated by clinical or experimental data. ..
  33. van den Bosch L. [The causes and mechanism of selective motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2006;68:249-69 pubmed
  34. Ghavanini A, Mathers D, Puil E. Glycinergic inhibition in thalamus revealed by synaptic receptor blockade. Neuropharmacology. 2005;49:338-49 pubmed
    ..Strychnine lacked effects on monosynaptic, GABAergic IPSPs from zona incerta. The specific actions of strychnine implicated a glycine receptor contribution to fast inhibition in somatosensory thalamus. ..
  35. Winther A, Ignell R. Local peptidergic signaling in the antennal lobe shapes olfactory behavior. Fly (Austin). 2010;4:167-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility that the sum of pre- and postsynaptic interactions may be to modulate the dynamic range in odor sensitivity. ..
  36. Zhao C, Avil├ęs C, Abel R, Almli C, McQuillen P, Pleasure S. Hippocampal and visuospatial learning defects in mice with a deletion of frizzled 9, a gene in the Williams syndrome deletion interval. Development. 2005;132:2917-27 pubmed
    ..We conclude that frizzled 9 is a critical determinant of hippocampal development and is very likely to be a contributing factor to the neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotype of patients with Williams syndrome. ..
  37. Mick E, Faraone S. Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008;17:261-84, vii-viii pubmed publisher
    ..These small effects emphasize the need for future candidate gene studies to implement strategies that will provide enough statistical power to detect such small effects. ..
  38. Chastain G. Alcohol, neurotransmitter systems, and behavior. J Gen Psychol. 2006;133:329-35 pubmed
    ..Last, the author explains several psychopharmacological treatments for alcoholism and the effects of these treatments on transmitters, and draws conclusions. ..
  39. Buckley C, Vincent A. Autoimmune channelopathies. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2005;1:22-33 pubmed
  40. Vincent A. Autoimmune channelopathies: well-established and emerging immunotherapy-responsive diseases of the peripheral and central nervous systems. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30 Suppl 1:S97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The paradigms gained from the study of the peripheral conditions has led to a better appreciation of the role of antibodies in neurological disorders and a growing recognition of their role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. ..
  41. Takahashi T. Biophysics of risk aversion based on neurotransmitter receptor theory. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:399-404 pubmed
    ..Future directions in the application of the model to studies in neuroeconomics of addiction and neuroendocrine modulation of risk-taking behavior are discussed. ..
  42. Dahan M. From analog to digital: exploring cell dynamics with single quantum dots. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;125:451-6 pubmed
    ..Single QD imaging readily offers a powerful tool to investigate the organization in cell membranes. Altogether QDs will contribute to more advanced biological imaging and enable new studies on the dynamics of cellular processes. ..
  43. Benn C, Luthi Carter R, Kuhn A, Sadri Vakili G, Blankson K, Dalai S, et al. Environmental enrichment reduces neuronal intranuclear inclusion load but has no effect on messenger RNA expression in a mouse model of Huntington disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010;69:817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a trend toward preservation of downregulated neurotransmitter receptors in striatum of environmentally enriched mice and assessed possible enrichment-related modifications in ..
  44. Herd M, Belelli D, Lambert J. Neurosteroid modulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. Pharmacol Ther. 2007;116:20-34 pubmed
  45. Pidoplichko V, Dani J. Applying small quantities of multiple compounds to defined locations of in vitro brain slices. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;142:55-66 pubmed
    ..The validity of the approach is verified by measuring ligand-gated channel currents activated by glutamate (Glu), acetylcholine (ACh), and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). ..
  46. Froldi G, Zagotto G, Filippini R, Montopoli M, Dorigo P, Caparrotta L. Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles. Phytomedicine. 2009;16:768-75 pubmed publisher
    ..SdD increased also contraction by carbachol on rat gastric fundus. Thus for the first time, experimental data provides evidence that sap from C. lechleri owns constricting activity on smooth muscles. ..
  47. Martinez Arias A. Cell signaling. Frizzled at the cutting edge of the synapse. Science. 2005;310:1284-5 pubmed
  48. Zeilhofer H. Synaptic modulation in pain pathways. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;154:73-100 pubmed
    ..Particular emphasis is paid to synaptic processes underlying the generation of pathological pain evoked by inflammation or neuropathic diseases. ..
  49. Yoshimura H, Sugai T, Segami N, Onoda N. Strengthening of non-NMDA receptor-dependent horizontal pathways between primary and lateral secondary visual cortices after NMDA receptor-dependent oscillatory neural activities. Brain Res. 2005;1036:60-9 pubmed
    ..NMDAR-dependent forward and backward propagation might be involved in cortical reorganization of the visual cortex. ..
  50. Sangster N, Song J, Demeler J. Resistance as a tool for discovering and understanding targets in parasite neuromusculature. Parasitology. 2005;131 Suppl:S179-90 pubmed
    ..Resistance to praziquantel and the newer chemical groups should provide new tools to explore targets in the future. ..
  51. Hshieh T, Fong T, Marcantonio E, Inouye S. Cholinergic deficiency hypothesis in delirium: a synthesis of current evidence. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:764-72 pubmed
    ..Understanding how the cholinergic pathway relates to delirium may yield innovative approaches in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this common, costly, and morbid condition. ..
  52. Schumacher M, Liere P, Akwa Y, Rajkowski K, Griffiths W, Bodin K, et al. Pregnenolone sulfate in the brain: a controversial neurosteroid. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:522-40 pubmed
  53. Clark M, Dever T, Dever J, Xu P, Rehder V, Sosa M, et al. Arthropod 5-HT2 receptors: a neurohormonal receptor in decapod crustaceans that displays agonist independent activity resulting from an evolutionary alteration to the DRY motif. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3421-35 pubmed