scavenger receptors


Summary: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.

Top Publications

  1. Means T, Mylonakis E, Tampakakis E, Colvin R, Seung E, Puckett L, et al. Evolutionarily conserved recognition and innate immunity to fungal pathogens by the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36. J Exp Med. 2009;206:637-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans receptors CED-1 and C03F11.3, and their mammalian orthologues, the scavenger receptors SCARF1 and CD36, mediate host defense against two prototypic fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans and ..
  2. Apostolov E, Shah S, Ray D, Basnakian A. Scavenger receptors of endothelial cells mediate the uptake and cellular proatherogenic effects of carbamylated LDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytotoxicity was mediated by several studied scavenger receptors, but cLDL-induced monocyte adhesion depended only on LOX-1...
  3. Hoppmann S, Steinbach J, Pietzsch J. Scavenger receptors are associated with cellular interactions of S100A12 in vitro and in vivo. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..of (18)F-S100A12 to RAGE, but, furthermore, provides evidence for interaction of (18)F-S100A12 to various scavenger receptors (SR). PET data showed temporary association of (18)F-S100A12 with tissues overexpressing RAGE (e.g...
  4. Court N, Vasseur V, Vacher R, Fremond C, Shebzukhov Y, Yeremeev V, et al. Partial redundancy of the pattern recognition receptors, scavenger receptors, and C-type lectins for the long-term control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:7057-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond TLRs, scavenger receptors (SRs) and C-type lectins may play a crucial role in the sensing and signaling of pathogen motifs, as well ..
  5. Fischer N, Haug M, Kwok W, Kalbacher H, Wernet D, Dannecker G, et al. Involvement of CD91 and scavenger receptors in Hsp70-facilitated activation of human antigen-specific CD4+ memory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:986-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Various surface proteins (e.g. CD91, scavenger receptors (SR)) have been implicated in binding of Hsp70...
  6. Jansen S, Andries M, Vekemans K, Vanbilloen H, Verbruggen A, Bollen M. Rapid clearance of the circulating metastatic factor autotaxin by the scavenger receptors of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Cancer Lett. 2009;284:216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that circulating NPP2 has a rapid turnover has important implications for its development as an anti-cancer target. ..
  7. Areschoug T, Gordon S. Scavenger receptors: role in innate immunity and microbial pathogenesis. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1160-9 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence shows that many scavenger receptors (SR), including SR-A, MARCO and CD36, represent an important part of the innate immune defence by acting as pattern-recognition receptors, in particular against bacterial ..
  8. Wang R, Chandawarkar R. Phagocytosis of fungal agents and yeast via macrophage cell surface scavenger receptors. J Surg Res. 2010;164:e273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these PRRs, scavenger receptors class A I and II (SR-A I and II) are known to mediate the binding and internalization of a large variety of ..
  9. Rasouli N, Yao Borengasser A, Varma V, Spencer H, McGehee R, Peterson C, et al. Association of scavenger receptors in adipose tissue with insulin resistance in nondiabetic humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1328-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Scavenger receptors play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but their role in insulin resistance has not been explored...

More Information


  1. Nielsen M, Møller H, Moestrup S. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:261-73 pubmed publisher
  2. Beauvillain C, Meloni F, Sirard J, Blanchard S, Jarry U, Scotet M, et al. The scavenger receptors SRA-1 and SREC-I cooperate with TLR2 in the recognition of the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 by dendritic cells. J Hepatol. 2010;52:644-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The cooperation between scavenger receptors (SRs) and TLR2 in the NS3-mediated activation of myeloid cells was evaluated using inhibitors, cells from ..
  3. Matsumura S, Wang B, Kawashima N, Braunstein S, Badura M, Cameron T, et al. Radiation-induced CXCL16 release by breast cancer cells attracts effector T cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:3099-107 pubmed
    ..The ability of IR to convert tumors into "inflamed" peripheral tissues could be exploited to overcome obstacles at the effector phase of the antitumor immune response and improve the therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy...
  4. Harvey B, Quan T, Rudenga B, Roman R, Craft J, Mamula M. Editing antigen presentation: antigen transfer between human B lymphocytes and macrophages mediated by class A scavenger receptors. J Immunol. 2008;181:4043-51 pubmed
    ..Ag transfer may perpetuate chronic autoimmune responses to specific self-proteins and help explain the efficacy of B cell-directed therapies in human disease. ..
  5. Onofre G, Kolackova M, Jankovicova K, Krejsek J. Scavenger receptor CD163 and its biological functions. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2009;52:57-61 pubmed
    ..It seems apparent from this review that CD163 scavenger receptor can be used as biomarker in different diseases and as a valuable diagnostic parameter for prognosis of many diseases especially inflammatory disorders and sepsis. ..
  6. Dibbens L, Michelucci R, Gambardella A, Andermann F, Rubboli G, Bayly M, et al. SCARB2 mutations in progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) without renal failure. Ann Neurol. 2009;66:532-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Onset is in teenage or young adult life. Molecular diagnosis is important for counseling the patient and family, particularly as the prognosis is worse than classical ULD. ..
  7. Wright A, Rao S, Range S, Eder C, Hofer T, Frankenberger M, et al. Pivotal Advance: Expansion of small sputum macrophages in CF: failure to express MARCO and mannose receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The deficiency of MARCO expression in the predominant small sputum macrophages in CF may lead to impaired clearance of inhaled particles with increased inflammation and damage to the CF lung. ..
  8. Blanz J, Groth J, Zachos C, Wehling C, Saftig P, Schwake M. Disease-causing mutations within the lysosomal integral membrane protein type 2 (LIMP-2) reveal the nature of binding to its ligand beta-glucocerebrosidase. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:563-72 pubmed publisher
  9. Yamayoshi S, Yamashita Y, Li J, Hanagata N, Minowa T, Takemura T, et al. Scavenger receptor B2 is a cellular receptor for enterovirus 71. Nat Med. 2009;15:798-801 pubmed publisher
    ..SCARB2 also supports the infection of the milder pathogen CVA16. The identification of SCARB2 as an EV71 and CVA16 receptor contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of these viruses. ..
  10. Samsen A, Bogoevska V, Klampe B, Bamberger A, Lucka L, Horst A, et al. DC-SIGN and SRCL bind glycans of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CEA-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1): recombinant human glycan-binding receptors as analytical tools. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:87-94 pubmed publisher
  11. Huang W, Yen F, Shiao Y, Shie F, Chan J, Yang C, et al. Enlargement of Abeta aggregates through chemokine-dependent microglial clustering. Neurosci Res. 2009;63:280-7 pubmed
    ..involved in the microglial uptake of Abeta, including integrin, formyl peptide like receptor 1, and scavenger receptors, also mediated the microglial clustering...
  12. Tsolaki A. Innate immune recognition in tuberculosis infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:185-97 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs), lung surfactant proteins and the antimicrobial mechanisms in the macrophage will be discussed along with their importance in shaping adaptive immunity to tuberculosis infection. ..
  13. Mukhopadhyay S, Plüddemann A, Gordon S. Macrophage pattern recognition receptors in immunity, homeostasis and self tolerance. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:1-14 pubmed
    ..In the light of present knowledge ofmacrophage surface antigens, we discuss self versus nonself recognition, microbicidal effector functions and self tolerance in the innate immune system. ..
  14. Nickel T, Schmauss D, Hanssen H, Sicic Z, Krebs B, Jankl S, et al. oxLDL uptake by dendritic cells induces upregulation of scavenger-receptors, maturation and differentiation. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that vascular inflammation may be aggravated by oxLDL induced DC-activation. ..
  15. Lendvai G, Monazzam A, Velikyan I, Eriksson B, Josephsson R, Langstrom B, et al. Non-hybridization saturable mechanisms play a role in the uptake of (68)Ga-Labeled LNA-DNA mixmer antisense oligonucleotides in rats. Oligonucleotides. 2009;19:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA was labeled with (68)Ga and its uptake was examined in vivo in rats with and without blocking of scavenger receptors by polyribonucleotides...
  16. Bousette N, D Orléans Juste P, Kiss R, You Z, Genest J, Al Ramli W, et al. Urotensin II receptor knockout mice on an ApoE knockout background fed a high-fat diet exhibit an enhanced hyperlipidemic and atherosclerotic phenotype. Circ Res. 2009;105:686-95, 19 p following 695 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed significant reductions in hepatic scavenger receptors, nuclear receptors, and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT1) expression in DKO mice...
  17. Eagan T, Ueland T, Wagner P, Hardie J, Mollnes T, Damas J, et al. Systemic inflammatory markers in COPD: results from the Bergen COPD Cohort Study. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The present study confirms that certain circulating inflammatory mediators are an important phenotypic feature of COPD. ..
  18. Gleissner C, Shaked I, Erbel C, Böckler D, Katus H, Ley K. CXCL4 downregulates the atheroprotective hemoglobin receptor CD163 in human macrophages. Circ Res. 2010;106:203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCL4 may promote atherogenesis by suppressing CD163 in macrophages, which are then unable to upregulate the atheroprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in response to hemoglobin. ..
  19. Honti V, Csordás G, Márkus R, Kurucz E, Jankovics F, Ando I. Cell lineage tracing reveals the plasticity of the hemocyte lineages and of the hematopoietic compartments in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1997-2004 pubmed publisher
  20. He H, MacKinnon K, Genovese K, Nerren J, Swaggerty C, Nisbet D, et al. Chicken scavenger receptors and their ligand-induced cellular immune responses. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2218-25 pubmed publisher
    The scavenger receptors (SRs) comprise structurally and functionally divergent groups of cell surface and secreted proteins that play an important role in innate immune defenses...
  21. Fu Y. Rate-limiting factors of cholesterol efflux in reverse cholesterol transport: acceptors and donors. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;37:703-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3. In conclusion, current evidence supports a critical role for HDL in atheroprotection via an active efflux pathway through reverse cholesterol transport, with the substantial support of appropriate functions of cell donors...
  22. Gomes I, Palma L, Campos G, Lima J, DE Almeida T, DE Menezes J, et al. The scavenger receptor MARCO is involved in Leishmania major infection by CBA/J macrophages. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that MARCO has a role in macrophage infection by L. major in vitro as well as in vivo. ..
  23. Valiyaveettil M, Podrez E. Platelet hyperreactivity, scavenger receptors and atherothrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2009;7 Suppl 1:218-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Scavenger receptors (SRs) were initially identified as macrophage receptors that recognize modified lipoproteins. The lists of SRs, their ligands and cells expressing SRs have been significantly extended during the last two decades...
  24. Van Gorp H, Delputte P, Nauwynck H. Scavenger receptor CD163, a Jack-of-all-trades and potential target for cell-directed therapy. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1650-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, current data supporting the capacity of CD163 to serve as a diagnostic marker in certain diseases and its potential as a target molecule for cell-directed therapy are surveyed. ..
  25. Kierdorf K, Wang Y, Neumann H. Immune-mediated CNS damage. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2010;51:173-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the mechanisms of immune-mediated neuronal damage might help to design novel therapy strategies for MS. ..
  26. Gutwein P, Abdel Bakky M, Schramme A, Doberstein K, Kämpfer Kolb N, Amann K, et al. CXCL16 is expressed in podocytes and acts as a scavenger receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:2061-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we presume important roles for CXCL16, ADAM10, and ADAM17 in the development of MN, suggesting these proteins as new therapeutic targets in this glomerular kidney disease. ..
  27. Zhou W, Hu W, Wu Z, Zheng X, Wang B. [Role of CXCL16/CXCR6 axis in the metastasis of human prostate cancer]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:947-51 pubmed
    ..Such a promoting effect of CXCL16 could not be blocked influenced by antiCXCL12 or antiCXCR4. CXCL16/CXCR6 axis may be another independent chemokine factor playing a significant role in the metastasis of prostate cancer. ..
  28. Ashraf M, Kar N, Chen X, Choi J, Salomon R, Febbraio M, et al. Specific oxidized phospholipids inhibit scavenger receptor bi-mediated selective uptake of cholesteryl esters. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, oxidative stress and accumulation of specific oxidized phospholipids in plasma may have an inhibitory effect on reverse cholesterol transport. ..
  29. Schallhorn R, Patel D, Chandrasekar B, Mealey B. Periodontal disease in association with systemic levels of interleukin-18 and CXC ligand 16 in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..040) and PD > or =7 mm (P = 0.047). A significant correlation is identified between periodontitis and systemic levels of IL-18 and CXCL16 in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. ..
  30. Dahl C, Husberg C, Gullestad L, Waehre A, Damas J, Vinge L, et al. Increased production of CXCL16 in experimental and clinical heart failure: a possible role in extracellular matrix remodeling. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2:624-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We show enhanced myocardial CXCL16 expression in experimental and clinical HF. The effect of CXCL16 on cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts suggests a role for CXCL16 in matrix remodeling and ultimately in the development of HF. ..
  31. Berres M, Nellen A, Wasmuth H. Chemokines as immune mediators of liver diseases related to the metabolic syndrome. Dig Dis. 2010;28:192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this respect, chemokines are attractive target molecules, as they influence immunologic and metabolic pathways and the first oral chemokine receptor antagonists have already been licensed for humans. ..
  32. Pal S, Wu L. Lessons from the fly: pattern recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:162-74 pubmed
    ..In this chapter, we review what is known about pattern recognition receptors in Drosophila, and how those lessons may be applied towards a broader understanding of immunity. ..
  33. Greaves D, Gordon S. The macrophage scavenger receptor at 30 years of age: current knowledge and future challenges. J Lipid Res. 2009;50 Suppl:S282-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular cloning has identified multiple scavenger receptors that can endocytose modified LDL and binding studies continue to identify a wide range of scavenger ..
  34. Darash Yahana M, Gillespie J, Hewitt S, Chen Y, Maeda S, Stein I, et al. The chemokine CXCL16 and its receptor, CXCR6, as markers and promoters of inflammation-associated cancers. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6695 pubmed publisher
  35. Harb D, Bujold K, Febbraio M, Sirois M, Ong H, Marleau S. The role of the scavenger receptor CD36 in regulating mononuclear phagocyte trafficking to atherosclerotic lesions and vascular inflammation. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support a role for CD36 signalling in the regulation of mononuclear phagocyte trafficking to atherosclerotic-prone sites and in the associated vascular wall inflammation. ..
  36. Moradi H, Yuan J, Ni Z, Norris K, Vaziri N. Reverse cholesterol transport pathway in experimental chronic renal failure. Am J Nephrol. 2009;30:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Uptake of oxidized lipoproteins by macrophages via scavenger receptors (scavenger receptor class A type I--SR-AI, and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor--LOX-1) leads to foam cell ..
  37. Suzuki K, Sakiyama Y, Usui M, Obama T, Kato R, Itabe H, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein increases interleukin-8 production in human gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:488-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Among oxidized lipids and chemically modified LDL, 7-ketocholesterol enhanced IL-8 production. This is the first report to show that OxLDL enhances IL-8 production in epithelial cells. ..
  38. Huang G, Li B, Zhang M, Zhang H, Wei R, Yuan Y, et al. LOH analysis of genes around D4S2964 identifies ARD1B as a prognostic predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:2046-54 pubmed
    ..006 and P = 0.026, respectively). LOH in genes around D4S2964 may play an important role in HCC development and progression. LOH in ARD1B and SEPT11 could serve as novel prognostic predictors in HCC patients. ..
  39. Ishikawa Y, Kimura Matsumoto M, Murakami M, Yamamoto K, Akasaka Y, Uzuki M, et al. Distribution of smooth muscle cells and macrophages expressing scavenger receptor BI/II in atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2009;16:829-39 pubmed
    b>Scavenger receptors type I and II (SRBI/II) have dual roles in both atherogenic and antiatherogenic functions through interactions with lipoproteins and their expression in macrophages; how-ever, the distribution and density of SRBI/II-..
  40. Landrø L, Damas J, Halvorsen B, Fevang B, Ueland T, Otterdal K, et al. CXCL16 in HIV infection - a link between inflammation and viral replication. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39:1017-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a complex interaction between CXCL16 and HIV, promoting both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects as well as HIV replication, partly dependent on accompanying HIV replication. ..
  41. Malerød L, Juvet L, Hanssen Bauer A, Eskild W, Berg T. Oxysterol-activated LXRalpha/RXR induces hSR-BI-promoter activity in hepatoma cells and preadipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:916-23 pubmed
    ..The LXR/RXR response was mapped within -1,200 to -937 of the promoter region. Gel mobility shift analysis confirmed that the putative LXR response element bound LXRalpha/RXR and LXRbeta/RXR heterodimers. ..
  42. van Lieshout A, van der Voort R, Toonen L, van Helden S, Figdor C, van Riel P, et al. Regulation of CXCL16 expression and secretion by myeloid cells is not altered in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:1036-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data suggest that the increased CXCL16 expression in patients with RA is likely to be caused by increased influx of monocytes rather than intrinsic differences in CXCL16 regulation. ..
  43. Kebschull M, Demmer R, Behle J, Pollreisz A, Heidemann J, Belusko P, et al. Granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (gcp-2/cxcl6) complements interleukin-8 in periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:465-71 pubmed publisher
    ..diseased gingival tissues and to explore possible correlations with clinical and microbiological markers of periodontitis...
  44. Dardis A, Filocamo M, Grossi S, Ciana G, Franceschetti S, Dominissini S, et al. Biochemical and molecular findings in a patient with myoclonic epilepsy due to a mistarget of the beta-glucosidase enzyme. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;97:309-11 pubmed publisher
  45. West X, Malinin N, Merkulova A, Tischenko M, Kerr B, Borden E, et al. Oxidative stress induces angiogenesis by activating TLR2 with novel endogenous ligands. Nature. 2010;467:972-6 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular patterns of carboxyalkylpyrroles are recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), but not TLR4 or scavenger receptors on endothelial cells, leading to an angiogenic response that is independent of vascular endothelial growth ..
  46. Seizer P, Schiemann S, Merz T, Daub K, Bigalke B, Stellos K, et al. CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor a modulate foam cell formation via inhibition of lipid-laden platelet phagocytosis. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010;36:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CD36 and SR-A play an important role in platelet-induced foam cell formation from CD34(+) progenitor cells and thus represent a promising target to inhibit platelet-induced foam cell formation...
  47. González Lázaro M, Dinglasan R, Hernández Hernández F, RODRIGUEZ M, Laclaustra M, Jacobs Lorena M, et al. Anopheles gambiae Croquemort SCRBQ2, expression profile in the mosquito and its potential interaction with the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila melanogaster, one of the best characterized scavenger receptors is Croquemort, which participates in the recognition of apoptotic cells in the embryo...
  48. Yanaba K, Muroi E, Yoshizaki A, Hara T, Ogawa F, Shimizu K, et al. Serum CXCL16 concentrations correlate with the extent of skin sclerosis in patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1917-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade of CXCL16 interaction might be a potential therapeutic target in patients with SSc. ..
  49. Blom T, Bäck N, Mutka A, Bittman R, Li Z, de Lera A, et al. FTY720 stimulates 27-hydroxycholesterol production and confers atheroprotective effects in human primary macrophages. Circ Res. 2010;106:720-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sphingolipid and cholesterol homeostasis are closely connected but whether FTY720 affects atherogenesis in humans is not known...
  50. Omenetti A, Syn W, Jung Y, Francis H, Porrello A, Witek R, et al. Repair-related activation of hedgehog signaling promotes cholangiocyte chemokine production. Hepatology. 2009;50:518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Hh pathway activation during cholestatic liver injury also induces cholangiocyte expression of Cxcl16. During biliary injury, Hh pathway activation induces cholangiocyte production of chemokines that recruit NKT cells to portal tracts. ..
  51. Deng L, Chen N, Li Y, Zheng H, Lei Q. CXCR6/CXCL16 functions as a regulator in metastasis and progression of cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1806:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the Akt/mTOR signal pathway is involved in activating the CXCR6/CXCL16 axis. These findings suggest multiple opportunities for blocking the CXCR6/CXCL16 axis and the Akt/mTOR signal pathway in novel cancer therapies. ..
  52. Oz M, Jaligam V, Galadari S, Petroianu G, Shuba Y, Shippenberg T. The endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, inhibits dopamine transporter function by a receptor-independent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2010;112:1454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that AEA modulates DAT function via a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism and suggest that AEA may produces this effect, in part, by modulating DAT trafficking. ..
  53. Hooper C, Fry V, Sevastou I, Pocock J. Scavenger receptor control of chromogranin A-induced microglial stress and neurotoxic cascades. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3461-6 pubmed publisher
    ..inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and stress responses in microglia involved signalling via scavenger receptors (SR), since SR class-A (SR-A) ligands blocked iNOS expression, mitochondrial depolarisation, apoptosis and ..