class e scavenger receptors


Summary: A class of oxidized LDL receptors that contain C-type lectin-like extracellular domains.

Top Publications

  1. Shiu S, Tan K, Wong Y, Leng L, Bucala R. Glycoxidized LDL increases lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 in diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:522-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum concentration of apoB-CML, a marker of glycoxidized LDL, was increased in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria, and this was associated with an increase in serum sLOX-1. ..
  2. Navarra T, Del Turco S, Berti S, Basta G. The lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 and its soluble form: cardiovascular implications. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:317-31 pubmed
    ..However, many interesting questions have not yet been answered and in this review, we provide an updated overview of the literature on this receptor and on likely future directions. ..
  3. Kang B, Mehta J. Rosuvastatin attenuates Ang II--mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of LOX-1. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2009;14:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, rosuvastatin attenuates Ang II-mediated cardiomyocyte growth by inhibiting LOX-1 and AT1R expression and suppressing the heightened intracellular redox state. ..
  4. Schaeffer D, Riazy M, Parhar K, Chen J, Duronio V, Sawamura T, et al. LOX-1 augments oxLDL uptake by lysoPC-stimulated murine macrophages but is not required for oxLDL clearance from plasma. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1676-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, LOX-1 expression is highly inducible by lysophosphatidylcholine and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and if that occurred in macrophages within atheromas, LOX-1 could substantially increase oxLDL uptake by lesion macrophages. ..
  5. Apostolov E, Shah S, Ray D, Basnakian A. Scavenger receptors of endothelial cells mediate the uptake and cellular proatherogenic effects of carbamylated LDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that cLDL uses a unique pattern of scavenger receptors. They show that LOX-1 receptor, and partially CD36, SREC-1, and SR-A1 receptors, are essential for the proatherogenic effects of cLDL on human endothelial cells. ..
  6. Morawietz H. [LOX-1 receptor as a novel target in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2010;135:308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This makes the LOX-1 receptor a novel and interesting target molecule in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. ..
  7. Predazzi I, Martinez Labarga C, Vecchione L, Mango R, Ciccacci C, Amati F, et al. Population differences in allele frequencies at the OLR1 locus may suggest geographic disparities in cardiovascular risk events. Ann Hum Biol. 2010;37:136-48 pubmed publisher
  8. Kobayashi N, Hata N, Takahashi Y, Shinada T, Tomita K, Mizuno K. A case of myocardial infarction caused by coronary vasospasm: efficacy of soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 for distinguishing between vasospasm and plaque rupture. J Nippon Med Sch. 2009;76:268-71 pubmed
    ..We propose that the cause of myocardial injury cannot be predicted with electrocardiography and measurement of troponin T but can be clarified by measuring plasma levels of sLOX-1 in the early stage of acute coronary syndrome. ..
  9. Rasouli N, Yao Borengasser A, Varma V, Spencer H, McGehee R, Peterson C, et al. Association of scavenger receptors in adipose tissue with insulin resistance in nondiabetic humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1328-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Pioglitazone and adiponectin regulate gene expression of SRA and LOX-1, and this may have clinical implications in arresting the untoward sequalae of insulin resistance and diabetes, including accelerated atherosclerosis. ..

More Information


  1. Cao W, Calabro V, Root A, Yan G, Lam K, Olland S, et al. Oligomerization is required for the activity of recombinant soluble LOX-1. FEBS J. 2009;276:4909-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that functional oligomerization is required for recombinant LOX-1-Fc to function as an effective antagonist. ..
  2. Reiss A, Anwar K, Wirkowski P. Lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) in atherogenesis: a brief review. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:2641-52 pubmed
  3. Nomata Y, Kume N, Sasai H, Katayama Y, Nakata Y, Okura T, et al. Weight reduction can decrease circulating soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 levels in overweight middle-aged men. Metabolism. 2009;58:1209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that LOX-1 induction may be related to adipocyte metabolism, inflammation, and immune response associated with obesity. ..
  4. Sugimoto K, Ishibashi T, Sawamura T, Inoue N, Kamioka M, Uekita H, et al. LOX-1-MT1-MMP axis is crucial for RhoA and Rac1 activation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:127-36 pubmed publisher
  5. Vincent A, Hayes J, McLean L, Vivekanandan Giri A, Pennathur S, Feldman E. Dyslipidemia-induced neuropathy in mice: the role of oxLDL/LOX-1. Diabetes. 2009;58:2376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Dyslipidemia leads to high levels of oxLDLs that may injure DRG neurons via LOX-1 and contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy. ..
  6. Hu C, Kang B, Megyesi J, Kaushal G, Safirstein R, Mehta J. Deletion of LOX-1 attenuates renal injury following angiotensin II infusion. Kidney Int. 2009;76:521-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study suggests that LOX-1 is a key modulator in the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and subsequent renal damage. ..
  7. Zhang P, Liu M, Cheng L, Liang M, Ji H, Fu J. Blockade of LOX-1 prevents endotoxin-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in mice. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that LOX-1 may serve as a valuable therapeutic target in the prevention of acute lung inflammation and injury in sepsis. ..
  8. Vietri M, Molinari A, Boggia M, Parisi M, Cioffi M. IVS4-14 A/G and IVS4-73 C/T polymorphisms in OLR1 gene in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010;14:9-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are warranted to assess whether the analysis of polymorphisms may be useful for the clinical approach to evaluate risk factors for atherosclerosis and related disorders. ..
  9. Hag A, Kristoffersen U, Pedersen S, Gutte H, Lebech A, Kjaer A. Regional gene expression of LOX-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 in aorta of HIV-1 transgenic rats. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8170 pubmed publisher
    ..This transgenic rat model may be a very promising model for further studies of the pathophysiology behind HIV-associated cardiovascular disease. ..
  10. Lo Y, Pan M, Li S, Yen J, Kou M, Ho C, et al. Nobiletin metabolite, 3',4'-dihydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone, inhibits LDL oxidation and down-regulates scavenger receptor expression and activity in THP-1 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:114-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect is different from that of NOB, from which DTF is derived. This study thus significantly enhanced our understanding on how DTF may be beneficial against atherogenesis. ..
  11. Ou H, Song T, Yeh Y, Huang C, Yang S, Chiu T, et al. EGCG protects against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting LOX-1-mediated signaling. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:1745-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this study may provide insight into a possible molecular mechanism by which EGCG suppresses oxLDL-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction. ..
  12. Ishiyama J, Taguchi R, Yamamoto A, Murakami K. Palmitic acid enhances lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1) expression and promotes uptake of oxidized LDL in macrophage cells. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of palmitic acid may be mediated by ROS-p38 pathway rather than TLRs. ..
  13. Parlato S, Romagnoli G, Spadaro F, Canini I, Sirabella P, Borghi P, et al. LOX-1 as a natural IFN-alpha-mediated signal for apoptotic cell uptake and antigen presentation in dendritic cells. Blood. 2010;115:1554-63 pubmed publisher
  14. Kang B, Hu C, Ryu S, Khan J, Biancolella M, Prayaga S, et al. Genomics of cardiac remodeling in angiotensin II-treated wild-type and LOX-1-deficient mice. Physiol Genomics. 2010;42:42-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first set of data on the gene expression profiling of cardiac tissue treated with ANG II and expands on the important role of LOX-1 in cardiac response to ANG II. ..
  15. Graham L, Parhami F, Tintut Y, Kitchen C, Demer L, Effros R. Oxidized lipids enhance RANKL production by T lymphocytes: implications for lipid-induced bone loss. Clin Immunol. 2009;133:265-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may help elucidate clinical associations between cardiovascular disease and decreased bone mass, and may also lead to new immune-based approaches to osteoporosis. ..
  16. Ueno T, Fukuda N, Tsunemi A, Yao E, Matsuda H, Tahira K, et al. A novel gene silencer, pyrrole-imidazole polyamide targeting human lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 gene improves endothelial cell function. J Hypertens. 2009;27:508-16 pubmed
    ..Molecular recognition of DNA by small molecules could provide insight into the development of new human medicines. ..
  17. Schwedler S, Hansen Hagge T, Reichert M, Schmiedeke D, Schneider R, Galle J, et al. Monomeric C-reactive protein decreases acetylated LDL uptake in human endothelial cells. Clin Chem. 2009;55:1728-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Monomeric CRP, but not nCRP, decreased acLDL uptake in human endothelial cells independent of CD16, CD32, or LOX-1. Our data support a protective role of mCRP in cardiovascular disease. ..
  18. Nickel T, Schmauss D, Hanssen H, Sicic Z, Krebs B, Jankl S, et al. oxLDL uptake by dendritic cells induces upregulation of scavenger-receptors, maturation and differentiation. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that vascular inflammation may be aggravated by oxLDL induced DC-activation. ..
  19. Saito A, Fujimura M, Inoue T, Shimizu H, Tominaga T. Relationship between lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 expression and preoperative echogenic findings of vulnerable carotid plaque. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Endothelial MMP-2 might suppress TIMP-2 activation in vulnerable plaques. ..
  20. Lee W, Ou H, Hsu W, Chou M, Tseng J, Hsu S, et al. Ellagic acid inhibits oxidized LDL-mediated LOX-1 expression, ROS generation, and inflammation in human endothelial cells. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:1290-300 pubmed publisher
  21. Fischer N, Haug M, Kwok W, Kalbacher H, Wernet D, Dannecker G, et al. Involvement of CD91 and scavenger receptors in Hsp70-facilitated activation of human antigen-specific CD4+ memory T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:986-97 pubmed publisher
  22. Zushi S, Akagi M, Kishimoto H, Teramura T, Sawamura T, Hamanishi C. Induction of bovine articular chondrocyte senescence with oxidized low-density lipoprotein through lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:3007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidized LDL may play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis by inducing chondrocyte senescence. ..
  23. Sankaralingam S, Xu H, Jiang Y, Sawamura T, Davidge S. Evidence for increased methylglyoxal in the vasculature of women with preeclampsia: role in upregulation of LOX-1 and arginase. Hypertension. 2009;54:897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MG-induced LOX-1 expression is mediated via arginase upregulation likely because of uncoupling of NO synthase, which may have implications in preeclampsia...
  24. Vilser C, Hueller H, Nowicki M, Hmeidan F, Blumenauer V, Spanel Borowski K. The variable expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) and signs of autophagy and apoptosis in freshly harvested human granulosa cells depend on gonadotropin dose, age, and body weight. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2706-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of LOX-1 and of cell death in granulosa cells depends on oxidative stress. It becomes excessive during aging and obesity, because the power of reparative autophagy fades and antioxidant efficiency declines. ..
  25. Taye A, Saad A, Kumar A, Morawietz H. Effect of apocynin on NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress-LOX-1-eNOS pathway in human endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;627:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Apocynin efficiently reversed these consequences, suggesting its potential role as a vasculoprotective agent. ..
  26. Prochnau D, Rodel J, Prager K, Kuersten D, Heller R, Straube E, et al. Induced expression of lectin-like oxidized ldl receptor-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells following Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and its down-regulation by fluvastatin. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2010;57:147-55 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. The effect of lowering the LOX-1 expression by fluvastatin may provide a pharmacological option of limiting oxLDL uptake via its scavenger receptor...
  27. Nakano A, Inoue N, Sato Y, Nishimichi N, Takikawa K, Fujita Y, et al. LOX-1 mediates vascular lipid retention under hypertensive state. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhanced expression and activation of LOX-1 mediated the enhancement of vascular permeability, which contributed to the vascular lipid accumulation under hypertensive states. ..
  28. Kurnaz O, Aydogan H, Isbir C, Tekeli A, Isbir T. Is LOX-1 K167N polymorphism protective for coronary artery disease?. In Vivo. 2009;23:969-73 pubmed
    ..Male sex and smoking decrease the protective effects of the N allele. The adverse effects of the K allele on the CAD risk resulting from the K167N polymorphism appear to be independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. ..
  29. Iwamoto S, Nishimichi N, Tateishi Y, Sato Y, Horiuchi H, Furusawa S, et al. Generation and characterization of chicken monoclonal antibodies against human LOX-1. MAbs. 2009;1:357-63 pubmed
    ..The results obtained in this study indicate that anti-LOX-1 mAbs might be useful tools for functional analyses and development of therapeutic agents for cardiovascular indications such as atherosclerosis. ..
  30. Kume N, Mitsuoka H, Hayashida K, Tanaka M, Kominami G, Kita T. Soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (sLOX-1) as a sensitive and specific biomarker for acute coronary syndrome--comparison with other biomarkers. J Cardiol. 2010;56:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..848 and 0.476, respectively. Circulating sLOX-1 is a more sensitive and specific biomarker for ACS than TnT and H-FABP, and provides additional diagnostic values when measured in combination with TnT. ..
  31. Taye A, Sawamura T, Morawietz H. Aldosterone augments LOX-1-mediated low-density lipoprotein uptake in human umbilical artery endothelial cells. Pharmacol Rep. 2010;62:311-8 pubmed
  32. Sattler S, Ghadially H, Reiche D, Karas I, Hofer E. Evolutionary development and expression pattern of the myeloid lectin-like receptor gene family encoded within the NK gene complex. Scand J Immunol. 2010;72:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, two additional genes were identified, which do not encode proteins with lectin-like domain structure and seem to be widely expressed. ..
  33. Serke H, Bausenwein J, Hirrlinger J, Nowicki M, Vilser C, Jogschies P, et al. Granulosa cell subtypes vary in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein as regards specific lipoprotein receptors and antioxidant enzyme activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3480-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Catalase/GPx activity in the supernatants may be due to cell death or to secretion. Oxidative stress could be sensed by CK(+) cells and indicated by changes in catalase/GPx activity in the follicular fluid during ovarian disorders. ..
  34. Riazy M, Chen J, Steinbrecher U. VEGF secretion by macrophages is stimulated by lipid and protein components of OxLDL via PI3-kinase and PKCzeta activation and is independent of OxLDL uptake. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that VEGF upregulation is mediated through PI3K and PKCzeta, and does not involve the above three scavenger receptors or require uptake of oxidized LDL. ..
  35. Mattaliano M, Huard C, Cao W, Hill A, Zhong W, Martinez R, et al. LOX-1-dependent transcriptional regulation in response to oxidized LDL treatment of human aortic endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has enabled us to elucidate the gene expression changes following OxLDL activation of LOX-1 in endothelial cells and discover novel downstream targets for LOX-1. ..
  36. Kelly K, Burford J, Dominguez J. Postischemic inflammatory syndrome: a critical mechanism of progression in diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the hypothesis that acute renal ischemia in obesity-diabetes severely aggravates chronic inflammation and vasculopathy, creating a self-perpetuating postischemia inflammatory syndrome, which accelerates renal failure. ..
  37. Wang Y, Rao L, Zhou B, Chen Y, Peng Y, Song Y, et al. The G501C polymorphism of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein-receptor 1 gene is associated with acute coronary syndrome in the Han Chinese population. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:201-5 pubmed publisher
    ..026, odds ratio = 0.254, 95% confidence interval = 0.070-0.924). The OLR-1 G501C polymorphism might be associated with ACS in the Han Chinese population. ..
  38. Hyodo Y, Miyake H, Kondo Y, Fujisawa M. Downregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 after ischemic preconditioning in ischemia-reperfused rat kidneys. Urology. 2009;73:906-10 pubmed publisher
  39. Xie J, Zhu H, Guo L, Ruan Y, Wang L, Sun L, et al. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 delivers heat shock protein 60-fused antigen into the MHC class I presentation pathway. J Immunol. 2010;185:2306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that LOX-1 functions as a receptor for Hsp60 and is involved in the delivery of Hsp60-fused Ag into the MHC class I presentation pathway. ..
  40. Shih H, Zhang S, Cao W, Hahn A, Wang J, Paulsen J, et al. CRP is a novel ligand for the oxidized LDL receptor LOX-1. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H1643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies and characterizes the direct interaction between LOX-1 and CRP and suggests that this interaction may mediate CRP-induced endothelial dysfunction. ..
  41. Chen X, Zhang H, McAfee S, Zhang C. The reciprocal relationship between adiponectin and LOX-1 in the regulation of endothelial dysfunction in ApoE knockout mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that the reciprocal regulation between adiponectin and LOX-1 amplifies oxidative stress and ox-LDL uptake, leading to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. ..
  42. Eichhorn B, Muller G, Leuner A, Sawamura T, Ravens U, Morawietz H. Impaired vascular function in small resistance arteries of LOX-1 overexpressing mice on high-fat diet. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..LOX-1 overexpression and FD caused functional changes in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells of small resistance arteries. ..
  43. Kang B, Khan J, Ryu S, Shekhar R, Seung K, Mehta J. Curcumin reduces angiotensin II-mediated cardiomyocyte growth via LOX-1 inhibition. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;55:417-24 pubmed
    ..We postulated that curcumin may reduce Ang II-mediated cardiomyocyte growth via AT1R and LOX-1 inhibition...
  44. Nowicki M, Muller K, Serke H, Kosacka J, Vilser C, Ricken A, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced cell death in dorsal root ganglion cell cultures depends not on the lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 but on the toll-like receptor-4. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that LOX-1 and TLR4 are expressed in cultivated rat DRG cells and that the oxLDL-induced cell death in DRG cell cultures does not depend on the LOX-1 but on the TLR4. ..
  45. Serke H, Vilser C, Nowicki M, Hmeidan F, Blumenauer V, Hummitzsch K, et al. Granulosa cell subtypes respond by autophagy or cell death to oxLDL-dependent activation of the oxidized lipoprotein receptor 1 and toll-like 4 receptor. Autophagy. 2009;5:991-1003 pubmed
    ..The CK(+) cells might represent immune-like granulosa cells involved in ovarian remodeling processes. ..
  46. Ogura S, Kakino A, Sato Y, Fujita Y, Iwamoto S, Otsui K, et al. Lox-1: the multifunctional receptor underlying cardiovascular dysfunction. Circ J. 2009;73:1993-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, LOX-1-related tools might open new gateways from diagnosis to therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases. ..
  47. Mattaliano M, Wooters J, Shih H, Paulsen J. ROCK2 associates with lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 and mediates oxidized LDL-induced IL-8 production. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C1180-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, a functional proteomics approach has enabled us to identify novel LOX-1 interactors that potentially contribute to the cellular and signaling functions of LOX-1. ..
  48. Inoue N, Okamura T, Kokubo Y, Fujita Y, Sato Y, Nakanishi M, et al. LOX index, a novel predictive biochemical marker for coronary heart disease and stroke. Clin Chem. 2010;56:550-8 pubmed publisher
    ..39 (95% CI 1.34-8.53), 3.15 (1.22-8.13) and 3.23 (1.24-8.37), respectively. Higher LOX index values were associated with an increased risk of CHD. Low LOX index values may be protective against ischemic stroke. ..
  49. Li D, Patel A, Klibanov A, Kramer C, Ruiz M, Kang B, et al. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques targeted to oxidized LDL receptor LOX-1 by SPECT/CT and magnetic resonance. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:464-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to detect and assess atherosclerotic plaque in vivo by using single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and a molecular probe targeted at LOX-1...
  50. Vohra R, Walker J, Howell G, Homer Vanniasinkam S, Ponnambalam S. The LOX-1 scavenger receptor cytoplasmic domain contains a transplantable endocytic motif. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;383:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus a transplantable endocytic motif within the LOX-1 cytoplasmic domain is needed to ensure efficient internalization of pro-atherogenic OxLDL particles. ..
  51. Hirsch H, Iliopoulos D, Joshi A, Zhang Y, Jaeger S, Bulyk M, et al. A transcriptional signature and common gene networks link cancer with lipid metabolism and diverse human diseases. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:348-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the interplay between this common transcriptional program and cell-type-specific factors gives rise to phenotypically disparate human diseases. ..
  52. Zhang M, Gao X, Wu J, Liu D, Cai H, Fu L, et al. Oxidized high-density lipoprotein enhances inflammatory activity in rat mesangial cells. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2010;26:455-63 pubmed publisher
    ..MAPK and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways were involved in the process. The ability of oxidized HDL to negatively influence mesangial cell biology may represent an important mechanism of chronic kidney disease. ..
  53. Yu J, Li Y, Li M, Qu Z, Ruan Q. Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived smooth muscle-like cells into foam-like cells in vitro. Int J Exp Pathol. 2010;91:24-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, LOX-1 contributes to the ox-LDL-induced transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived SMLCs into foam-like cells. ..