toll like receptor 6


Summary: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with TLR2 RECEPTOR. The complex interacts with a variety of ligands including LIPOPROTEINS from MYCOPLASMA.

Top Publications

  1. He J, You X, Zeng Y, Yu M, Zuo L, Wu Y. Mycoplasma genitalium-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate NF-kappaB through toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 6 and CD14 in a MyD88-dependent pathway. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1750-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that M. genitalium-derived LAMPs activate NF-kappaB via TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and CD14 in a MyD88-dependent pathway...
  2. Kim S, Takahashi H, Lin W, Descargues P, Grivennikov S, Kim Y, et al. Carcinoma-produced factors activate myeloid cells through TLR2 to stimulate metastasis. Nature. 2009;457:102-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain how advanced cancer cells usurp components of the host innate immune system, including bone-marrow-derived myeloid progenitors, to generate an inflammatory microenvironment hospitable for metastatic growth...
  3. Greis A, Murgott J, Gerstberger R, Hübschle T, Roth J. Effects of repeated injections of fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 on fever, formation of cytokines, and on the responsiveness to endotoxin in guinea-pigs. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;197:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a development of tolerance to FSL-1 and cross-tolerance between FSL-1 and LPS depending on the route of administration of the respective TLR-2/6 and TLR-4 agonists. ..
  4. Bunk S, Sigel S, Metzdorf D, Sharif O, Triantafilou K, Triantafilou M, et al. Internalization and coreceptor expression are critical for TLR2-mediated recognition of lipoteichoic acid in human peripheral blood. J Immunol. 2010;185:3708-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have elucidated a novel mechanism of LTA-induced cytokine induction in human peripheral blood cells that involves uptake of LTA and subsequent intracellular recognition driven by TLR2, TLR6, and CD14. ..
  5. Enevold C, Oturai A, Sørensen P, Ryder L, Koch Henriksen N, Bendtzen K. Polymorphisms of innate pattern recognition receptors, response to interferon-beta and development of neutralizing antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2010;16:942-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The rs5743810 polymorphism of TLR6 may be involved in development of anti-interferon-beta antibodies in males, although further studies are required to firmly establish this. ..
  6. Kerber Momot T, Leemhuis D, Luhrmann A, Munder A, Tummler B, Pabst R, et al. Beneficial effects of TLR-2/6 ligation in pulmonary bacterial infection and immunization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inflammation. 2010;33:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The MALP-2 enhanced immunization only resulted in a tendency to clinical improvement. In conclusion, local immunostimulation at the appropriate time can enhance the host defense against bacteria in the lung. ..
  7. Poulain Godefroy O, Le Bacquer O, Plancq P, Lecoeur C, Pattou F, Fruhbeck G, et al. Inflammatory role of Toll-like receptors in human and murine adipose tissue. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:823486 pubmed publisher
  8. DePaolo R, Tang F, Kim I, Han M, Levin N, Ciletti N, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 drives differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and contributes to LcrV-mediated plague pathogenesis. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:350-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain why TLR2 can mediate both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses and identify TLR6 as a distinct receptor driving regulatory IL-10 responses...
  9. Schenk M, Belisle J, Modlin R. TLR2 looks at lipoproteins. Immunity. 2009;31:847-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Kang et al. (2009) provide insight into the mechanisms by which TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers recognize diacylated liporoteins, whereas TLR2-TLR1 heterodimers recognize triacylated lipopeptides. ..

More Information


  1. Silvestre R, Silva A, Cordeiro da Silva A, Ouaissi A. The contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 to the innate recognition of a Leishmania infantum silent information regulator 2 protein. Immunology. 2009;128:484-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that TLR2 signalling contributes to SIR2RP1 recognition by innate immune host cells. ..
  2. Klekotka P, Yang L, Yokoyama W. Contrasting roles of the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors in MyD88-dependent contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the IL-1R and IL-18R/MyD88 pathways are required in distinctly different cells during the sensitization phase of CHS. ..
  3. Charriere G, Ip W, Dejardin S, Boyer L, Sokolovska A, Cappillino M, et al. Identification of Drosophila Yin and PEPT2 as evolutionarily conserved phagosome-associated muramyl dipeptide transporters. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20147-54 pubmed publisher
  4. Shokouhi B, Coban C, Hasirci V, Aydin E, Dhanasingh A, Shi N, et al. The role of multiple toll-like receptor signalling cascades on interactions between biomedical polymers and dendritic cells. Biomaterials. 2010;31:5759-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they could also be exploited to generate biomaterials for studying the molecular mechanisms of TLR signalling and DC activation aiming at fine-tuning desired and pre-determined immune responses. ..
  5. House A, Binns M, Gregory S, Catchpole B. Analysis of NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR9 genes in anal furunculosis of German shepherd dogs. Tissue Antigens. 2009;73:250-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly restricted PRR genotypes seen in GSD are likely to have resulted from selective breeding and might influence innate immune responses in this breed...
  6. Plain K, Purdie A, Begg D, de Silva K, Whittington R. Toll-like receptor (TLR)6 and TLR1 differentiation in gene expression studies of Johne's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;137:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A likely role for TLR6/TLR2 heterodimers in the pathogenesis of JD was identified. TLR6 may be a potential marker of exposure and could aid in the development of a gene signature for sheep resistant to MAP infection...
  7. Turner J, Langley R, Johnston K, Gentil K, Ford L, Wu B, et al. Wolbachia lipoprotein stimulates innate and adaptive immunity through Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 to induce disease manifestations of filariasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to innate inflammatory activation, Wolbachia lipoproteins drive interferon-gamma-dependent CD4+ T cell polarization and antibody switching...
  8. Love W, Dobbs N, Tabor L, Simecka J. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a major role in innate resistance in the lung against murine Mycoplasma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10739 pubmed publisher
    ..pulmonis numbers in the lung, and it is likely that early after respiratory infection that TLR2 recognition of M. pulmonis triggers initial cytokine responses of host cells. ..
  9. Sales M, Schreiber R, Ferreira Sae M, Fernandes M, Piveta C, Cipolli J, et al. Toll-like receptor 6 Ser249Pro polymorphism is associated with lower left ventricular wall thickness and inflammatory response in hypertensive women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that hypertensive women homozygous for the TLR6 249Ser polymorphism might exhibit lower LV wall thickness and reduced TLR6-mediated inflammatory response than females carrying the major allele. ..
  10. Kang J, Nan X, Jin M, Youn S, Ryu Y, Mah S, et al. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer. Immunity. 2009;31:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the TLR2-lipoteichoic acid and the TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes demonstrate that a precise interaction pattern of the head group is essential for a robust immune response by TLR2 heterodimers. ..
  11. Lindstrom S, Hunter D, Gronberg H, Stattin P, Wiklund F, Xu J, et al. Sequence variants in the TLR4 and TLR6-1-10 genes and prostate cancer risk. Results based on pooled analysis from three independent studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:873-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To definitely assess the causal relationship between TLR sequence variants and prostate cancer risk, very large sample sizes are needed. ..
  12. Burger Kentischer A, Abele I, Finkelmeier D, Wiesmüller K, Rupp S. A new cell-based innate immune receptor assay for the examination of receptor activity, ligand specificity, signalling pathways and the detection of pyrogens. J Immunol Methods. 2010;358:93-103 pubmed publisher
  13. Vu A, Baba T, Chen X, Le T, Kinoshita H, Xie Y, et al. Staphylococcus aureus membrane and diacylated lipopeptide induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin in keratinocytes through the Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 pathway. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:985-93, 993.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus and AD in the T(H)2-skewed sensitization process, exacerbation of the disease, or both. ..
  14. Stewart C, Stuart L, Wilkinson K, van Gils J, Deng J, Halle A, et al. CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:155-61 pubmed publisher
  15. Mahanonda R, Sa Ard Iam N, Eksomtramate M, Rerkyen P, Phairat B, Schaecher K, et al. Cigarette smoke extract modulates human beta-defensin-2 and interleukin-8 expression in human gingival epithelial cells. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results represent the first demonstration that CSE can modulate HGEC function by suppressing hBD-2 and enhancing IL-8 production, and this may be, in part, a possible mechanism which promotes periodontal disease. ..
  16. Fuchs B, Knothe S, Rochlitzer S, Nassimi M, Greweling M, Lauenstein H, et al. A Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist reduces allergic airway inflammation in chronic respiratory sensitisation to Timothy grass pollen antigens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the TLR2/6 agonist is a promising therapeutic approach in diseases with an imbalance in T cell responses, such as allergy and asthma. ..
  17. Bergman I, Rosengren J, Edman K, Edfors I. European wild boars and domestic pigs display different polymorphic patterns in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR2, and TLR6 genes. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:49-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the codon usage pattern in the genes studied deviated from the general codon usage pattern in Sus scrofa. ..
  18. Mao F, Xu W, Qian H, Zhu W, Yan Y, Gao S, et al. [The expression of Toll-like receptor 8 and cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis mice induced by chicken II collogen]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;25:312-4, 318 pubmed
    ..To explore the expression of Toll-like receptor 8(TLR8)in rheumatoid arthritis induced by chicken II collogen in mice and analyze the relation of TLR8 to IL-10, IL-17A and IL-1beta...
  19. Mattos K, D Avila H, Rodrigues L, Oliveira V, Sarno E, Atella G, et al. Lipid droplet formation in leprosy: Toll-like receptor-regulated organelles involved in eicosanoid formation and Mycobacterium leprae pathogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:371-84 pubmed publisher
  20. Chin A, Fournier B, Peatman E, Reaves T, Lee W, Parkos C. CD47 and TLR-2 cross-talk regulates neutrophil transmigration. J Immunol. 2009;183:5957-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that activation of CD47 signaling enhances PMN sensitivity toward TLR2 activation which, in turn, signals their arrival at a site of invasion and may facilitate antimicrobial function. ..
  21. Melkamu T, Squillace D, Kita H, O Grady S. Regulation of TLR2 expression and function in human airway epithelial cells. J Membr Biol. 2009;229:101-13 pubmed publisher
  22. Kleinnijenhuis J, Joosten L, van de Veerdonk F, Savage N, van Crevel R, Kullberg B, et al. Transcriptional and inflammasome-mediated pathways for the induction of IL-1beta production by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL-1beta production by M. tuberculosis, and that may contribute to a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of cell activation by M. tuberculosis. ..
  23. Jablonska E, Garley M. TLRs and Bcl-2 family proteins in neutrophils of oral cavity cancer patients. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:615-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired TLRs expression can lead to insufficient activation of p38PAPK, resulting in low expression of antiapoptotic Mcl-1 protein responsible for shortened lifespan of the examined PMNs. ..
  24. Arimilli S, Johnson J, Alexander Miller M, Parks G. TLR-4 and -6 agonists reverse apoptosis and promote maturation of simian virus 5-infected human dendritic cells through NFkB-dependent pathways. Virology. 2007;365:144-56 pubmed
  25. Drage M, Pecora N, Hise A, Febbraio M, Silverstein R, Golenbock D, et al. TLR2 and its co-receptors determine responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to lipoproteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell Immunol. 2009;258:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, lung APC subsets differ in TLR expression, which may determine differences in responses to Mtb. ..
  26. Xiao W, Gong Y, Liu Z, Wang J. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of TLR6 gene in Chinese Cantonese population. Int J Immunogenet. 2010;37:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..It may in part reflect the ethnic diversity of pathogen susceptibility and facilitate to develop the disease-association studies as well as population genetics and evolutionary research. ..
  27. Rose W, McGowin C, Pyles R. FSL-1, a bacterial-derived toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist, enhances resistance to experimental HSV-2 infection. Virol J. 2009;6:195 pubmed publisher
  28. Grote K, Schuett H, Salguero G, Grothusen C, Jagielska J, Drexler H, et al. Toll-like receptor 2/6 stimulation promotes angiogenesis via GM-CSF as a potential strategy for immune defense and tissue regeneration. Blood. 2010;115:2543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This might represent a general mechanism to enhance or restore blood flow and recruit immune cells for pathogen defense and tissue regeneration. ..
  29. Chen S, Yin D, Yao W, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Gao X. Macrophage receptors of polysaccharide isolated from a marine filamentous fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated that YCP-induced NO production occurs through the TLR4 and CR3 membrane receptors in a p38 kinase-dependent manner in macrophages.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1008-1014; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.93. ..
  30. Jung Y, Cho M, Lee S, Oh H, Park J, Park M, et al. Synergism of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and TLR6 ligation on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a spontaneous arthritis animal model of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice. Immunol Lett. 2009;123:138-43 pubmed publisher
  31. Hamoudi R, Appert A, Ye H, Ruskone Fourmestraux A, Streubel B, Chott A, et al. Differential expression of NF-kappaB target genes in MALT lymphoma with and without chromosome translocation: insights into molecular mechanism. Leukemia. 2010;24:1487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of MALT lymphomas with and without translocation, potentially explaining their different clinical behaviors. ..
  32. Fong D, Hogaboam C, Matsuno Y, Akira S, Uematsu S, Joshi A. Toll-like receptor 6 drives interleukin-17A expression during experimental hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Immunology. 2010;130:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that TLR6 plays a pivotal role in the development and severity of HP via its role in IL-17A production. ..
  33. Qian F, Zhang Q, Zhou L, Jin G, Bai J, Yin K. Polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor 2 subfamily and risk of asthma: a case-control analysis in a Chinese population. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20:340-6 pubmed
    ..49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95; P = .046). Our results indicate that a genetic variant in the TLR2 subfamily may play a role in susceptibility to asthma. ..