toll like receptor 3


Summary: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.

Top Publications

  1. Young S, Lyddon T, Jorgenson R, Misfeldt M. Expression of Toll-like receptors in human endometrial epithelial cells and cell lines. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2004;52:67-73 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first evidence of TLR expression in the endometrium of any species and suggest the usefulness of endometrial cell lines to study TLR function. ..
  2. Weber A, Kirejczyk Z, Besch R, Potthoff S, Leverkus M, Hacker G. Proapoptotic signalling through Toll-like receptor-3 involves TRIF-dependent activation of caspase-8 and is under the control of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in melanoma cells. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:942-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the proapoptotic activity of TLR3/TRIF/caspase-8 in melanoma cells is under the control of IAPs, and the use of novel Smac mimetics might be a feasible approach to target melanoma. ..
  3. Jorgenson R, Young S, Lesmeister M, Lyddon T, Misfeldt M. Human endometrial epithelial cells cyclically express Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and exhibit TLR3-dependent responses to dsRNA. Hum Immunol. 2005;66:469-82 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that TLR3 is involved in the immune responses of endometrial epithelial cells after exposure to dsRNA and has the potential to alter the cytokine milieu and influence the outcome and consequences of infection. ..
  4. Majde J, Kapas L, Bohnet S, De A, Krueger J. Attenuation of the influenza virus sickness behavior in mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 3. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:306-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Locomotor activity suppression was similar in both strains. Therefore virus-associated dsRNA detected by TLR3 appears to play a substantial role in mediating several aspects of the influenza syndrome in mice. ..
  5. Dewitte Orr S, Collins S, Bauer C, Bowdish D, Mossman K. An accessory to the 'Trinity': SR-As are essential pathogen sensors of extracellular dsRNA, mediating entry and leading to subsequent type I IFN responses. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000829 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the implications of a cell surface receptor capable of recognizing extracellular RNA may exceed beyond viral immunity to mediating other important innate immune functions. ..
  6. Koarai A, Sugiura H, Yanagisawa S, Ichikawa T, Minakata Y, Matsunaga K, et al. Oxidative stress enhances toll-like receptor 3 response to double-stranded RNA in airway epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:651-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of this pathway may be a therapeutic target for viral-induced exacerbations of COPD. ..
  7. Jasani B, Navabi H, Adams M. Ampligen: a potential toll-like 3 receptor adjuvant for immunotherapy of cancer. Vaccine. 2009;27:3401-4 pubmed publisher
  8. Astakhova N, Perelygin A, Zharkikh A, Lear T, Coleman S, MacLeod J, et al. Characterization of equine and other vertebrate TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 genes. Immunogenetics. 2009;61:529-39 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic analysis did not indicate that any significant exchanges had occurred between paralogous TLR7 and TLR8 genes in 20 vertebrate species analyzed...
  9. Barajon I, Serrao G, Arnaboldi F, Opizzi E, Ripamonti G, Balsari A, et al. Toll-like receptors 3, 4, and 7 are expressed in the enteric nervous system and dorsal root ganglia. J Histochem Cytochem. 2009;57:1013-23 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Gao Q, Ma L, Gao X, Yan W, Williams P, Yin D. TLR4 mediates early graft failure after intraportal islet transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2010;10:1588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of TLR4 activation represents a novel strategy to attenuate early graft failure following intraportal islet transplantation. ..
  2. Cicinnati V, Hou J, Lindemann M, Horn P, Sotiropoulos G, Paul A, et al. Mycophenolic acid impedes the antigen presenting and lymph node homing capacities of human blood myeloid dendritic cells. Transplantation. 2009;88:504-13 pubmed publisher
    ..MPA interferes with the initiation of acquired immunity and thus may promote allograft tolerance. ..
  3. Scarlett U, Cubillos Ruiz J, Nesbeth Y, Martinez D, Engle X, Gewirtz A, et al. In situ stimulation of CD40 and Toll-like receptor 3 transforms ovarian cancer-infiltrating dendritic cells from immunosuppressive to immunostimulatory cells. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined administration of synergistic CD40 and TLR3 agonists could enhance their individual therapeutic effects against ovarian and other lethal epithelial cancers. ..
  4. Roponen M, Yerkovich S, Hollams E, Sly P, Holt P, Upham J. Toll-like receptor 7 function is reduced in adolescents with asthma. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-10 mRNA and IL-6 protein synthesis were similar in asthmatic and control subjects. In conclusion, TLR7 function is reduced in adolescents with asthma and this may contribute to susceptibility to respiratory viral infections. ..
  5. Aumeunier A, Grela F, Ramadan A, Pham Van L, Bardel E, Gomez Alcala A, et al. Systemic Toll-like receptor stimulation suppresses experimental allergic asthma and autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11484 pubmed publisher
    ..They provide a plausible explanation for the hygiene hypothesis. They also open new therapeutic perspectives for the prevention of these pathologies. ..
  6. Gibbons D, Haque S, Silberzahn T, Hamilton K, Langford C, Ellis P, et al. Neonates harbour highly active gammadelta T cells with selective impairments in preterm infants. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1794-806 pubmed publisher
  7. Hwang Y, Ro H, Choi I, Kim H, Oh K, Hwang J, et al. Impact of polymorphisms of TLR4/CD14 and TLR3 on acute rejection in kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2009;88:699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to TLR4, SNPs of TLR3 or CD14 had no influence on acute rejection. These findings suggest the importance of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of acute rejection in kidney transplantation. ..
  8. Coppo R, Camilla R, Amore A, Peruzzi L, Daprà V, Loiacono E, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 expression is increased in circulating mononuclear cells of patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;159:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows for the first time an up-regulation of TLR-4 in circulating mononuclear cells of patients with IgAN, particularly in association with proteinuria and heavy microscopic haematuria. ..
  9. Yoshizawa T, Hammaker D, Sweeney S, Boyle D, Firestein G. Synoviocyte innate immune responses: I. Differential regulation of interferon responses and the JNK pathway by MAPK kinases. J Immunol. 2008;181:3252-8 pubmed
    ..MKK7 is the primary activator of JNK in TNF, LPS, and PGN responses. However, TLR3 requires both MKK4 and MKK7, with the former activating c-Jun and the latter activating both c-Jun and IRF3 through JNK-dependent mechanisms. ..
  10. Okun E, Griffioen K, Barak B, Roberts N, Castro K, Pita M, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 inhibits memory retention and constrains adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal previously undescribed roles for TLR3 as a suppressor of hippocampal cellular plasticity and memory retention. ..
  11. Franchini M, Monnais E, Seboek D, Radimerski T, Zini E, Kaufmann K, et al. Insulin resistance and increased lipolysis in bone marrow derived adipocytes stimulated with agonists of Toll-like receptors. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:703-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since stimulation is followed by decreased insulin-induced glucose uptake and increased lipolysis we conclude that TLRs may be important linking molecules in the generation of insulin resistance in fat tissue. ..
  12. Spranger S, Javorovic M, Bürdek M, Wilde S, Mosetter B, Tippmer S, et al. Generation of Th1-polarizing dendritic cells using the TLR7/8 agonist CL075. J Immunol. 2010;185:738-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby, mature DCs prepared within 3 d using such maturation mixtures displayed optimal functions required for vaccine development. ..
  13. Jongbloed S, Kassianos A, McDonald K, Clark G, Ju X, Angel C, et al. Human CD141+ (BDCA-3)+ dendritic cells (DCs) represent a unique myeloid DC subset that cross-presents necrotic cell antigens. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1247-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate a role for CD141+ DCs in the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and suggest that they may be the most relevant targets for vaccination against cancers, viruses, and other pathogens...
  14. Taura M, Fukuda R, Suico M, Eguma A, Koga T, Shuto T, et al. TLR3 induction by anticancer drugs potentiates poly I:C-induced tumor cell apoptosis. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1610-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that the p53 status in malignant cells is heterogeneous, this combination approach may provide a highly effective tumor therapy. ..
  15. Tournadre A, Lenief V, Miossec P. Expression of Toll-like receptor 3 and Toll-like receptor 7 in muscle is characteristic of inflammatory myopathy and is differentially regulated by Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:2144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Necrotic muscle cells activate cytokine production, in part, through the TLR-3 pathway, with a differential regulatory effect of Th1 and Th17 cytokines. ..
  16. Gröschel S, Piggott K, Vaglio A, Ma Krupa W, Singh K, Goronzy J, et al. TLR-mediated induction of negative regulatory ligands on dendritic cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:443-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, TLR3 ligands may have therapeutic value in silencing pathogenic immune responses. ..
  17. Loiarro M, Gallo G, Fantò N, De Santis R, Carminati P, Ruggiero V, et al. Identification of critical residues of the MyD88 death domain involved in the recruitment of downstream kinases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28093-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments identify novel residues of MyD88 that are crucially involved in the recruitment of IRAK1 and IRAK4 and in downstream propagation of MyD88 signaling. ..
  18. Mäkelä S, Strengell M, Pietila T, Osterlund P, Julkunen I. Multiple signaling pathways contribute to synergistic TLR ligand-dependent cytokine gene expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that TLR-dependent, synergistic cytokine gene expression results from enhanced activation and cooperation among NF-kappaB, IRF, MAPK, PI-3K, and STAT signaling pathways. ..
  19. Zhou L, Wang X, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Hu S, Ye L, et al. Activation of toll-like receptor-3 induces interferon-lambda expression in human neuronal cells. Neuroscience. 2009;159:629-37 pubmed publisher
  20. Wong J, Christopher M, Viswanathan S, Karpoff N, Dai X, Das D, et al. Activation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway for protection against influenza virus infection. Vaccine. 2009;27:3481-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results do support the potential role of TLR-3 and TLR-9 agonists such as Poly ICLC and LE Poly ICLC in protection against lethal seasonal and HPAI virus infection. ..
  21. Tzima S, Victoratos P, Kranidioti K, Alexiou M, Kollias G. Myeloid heme oxygenase-1 regulates innate immunity and autoimmunity by modulating IFN-beta production. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1167-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover a novel direct function for myeloid HO-1 in the regulation of IFN-beta production, establishing HO-1 as a critical early mediator of the innate immune response. ..
  22. Lau Y, Tang L, Ooi E, Subbarao K. Activation of the innate immune system provides broad-spectrum protection against influenza A viruses with pandemic potential in mice. Virology. 2010;406:80-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The broad-spectrum protection provided by PIKA makes it an attractive option for prophylaxis from infection with influenza A viruses. ..
  23. Berghaus L, Moore J, Hurley D, Vandenplas M, Fortes B, Wolfert M, et al. Innate immune responses of primary murine macrophage-lineage cells and RAW 264.7 cells to ligands of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cells to those of other primary macrophage-lineage cells, primarily because phenotype and function of the former cells may change with continuous culture. ..
  24. Cotter C, Nguyen M, Yount J, L pez C, Blaho J, Moran T. The virion host shut-off (vhs) protein blocks a TLR-independent pathway of herpes simplex virus type 1 recognition in human and mouse dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8684 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate for the first time that a viral protein contained in the tegument of HSV-1 can block the induction of DC activation by TLR-independent pathways of viral recognition...
  25. McCartney S, Vermi W, Gilfillan S, Cella M, Murphy T, Schreiber R, et al. Distinct and complementary functions of MDA5 and TLR3 in poly(I:C)-mediated activation of mouse NK cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate distinct yet complementary roles for MDA5 and TLR3 in poly(I:C)-mediated NK cell activation. ..
  26. Wang Q, Nagarkar D, Bowman E, Schneider D, Gosangi B, Lei J, et al. Role of double-stranded RNA pattern recognition receptors in rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial cell responses. J Immunol. 2009;183:6989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TLR3 and MDA5, but not RIG-I, are required for maximal sensing of RV dsRNA and that TLR3 and MDA5 signal through a common downstream signaling intermediate, IRF3. ..
  27. Teng F, Slavik V, Duffy K, San Mateo L, Goldschmidt R. Toll-like receptor 3 is involved in airway epithelial cell response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Cell Immunol. 2010;260:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that TLR3 is a key component in the response of human bronchial epithelial cells to NTHi, and suggest that cognate neutralizing mAbs might be a useful therapeutic tool to regulate the inflammatory response. ..
  28. Paone A, Galli R, Gabellini C, Lukashev D, Starace D, Gorlach A, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 regulates angiogenesis and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha. Neoplasia. 2010;12:539-49 pubmed
  29. Garcia M, Dogusan Z, Moore F, Sato S, Hartmann G, Eizirik D, et al. Regulation and function of the cytosolic viral RNA sensor RIG-I in pancreatic beta cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1793:1768-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the RIG-I pathway is present and active in beta cells and could contribute to the induction of insulitis by viral RNA intermediates. ..
  30. Su J, Jang S, Yang C, Wang Y, Zhu Z. Genomic organization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;27:433-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These data implied that CiTLR3 is involved in antiviral defense, provide molecular and functional information for grass carp TLR3, and implicate their role in mediating immune protection against grass carp viral diseases. ..
  31. Uller L, Leino M, Bedke N, Sammut D, Green B, Lau L, et al. Double-stranded RNA induces disproportionate expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin versus interferon-beta in bronchial epithelial cells from donors with asthma. Thorax. 2010;65:626-32 pubmed publisher
  32. Balah A, Akool E, Bachmann M, Pfeilschifter J, Muhl H. The dsRNA-mimetic poly (I:C) and IL-18 synergize for IFNgamma and TNFalpha expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:628-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The stunning synergism inherent to IL-18/dsRNA-induced TNFalpha/IFNgamma detected herein may contribute to this pathological phenomenon. ..
  33. Peter M, Kubarenko A, Weber A, Dalpke A. Identification of an N-terminal recognition site in TLR9 that contributes to CpG-DNA-mediated receptor activation. J Immunol. 2009;182:7690-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction site mirrors findings previously shown for the structural recognition of dsRNA by TLR3 and hints toward a general principle of nucleic acid recognition by the respective TLR. ..
  34. Wulff S, Pries R, Wollenberg B. Cytokine release of human NK cells solely triggered with Poly I:C. Cell Immunol. 2010;263:135-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An incubation period of 48 h is necessary to induce cytokine release by Poly I:C. These data suggest Poly I:C as a competent direct activator and immunomodulator of NK cell functions. ..
  35. Cardenas I, Means R, Aldo P, Koga K, Lang S, Booth C, et al. Viral infection of the placenta leads to fetal inflammation and sensitization to bacterial products predisposing to preterm labor. J Immunol. 2010;185:1248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This is relevant for making decisions associated with treatment and prevention during pandemics. ..
  36. Punturieri A, Alviani R, Polak T, Copper P, Sonstein J, Curtis J. Specific engagement of TLR4 or TLR3 does not lead to IFN-beta-mediated innate signal amplification and STAT1 phosphorylation in resident murine alveolar macrophages. J Immunol. 2004;173:1033-42 pubmed
  37. Nicodemus C, Wang L, Lucas J, Varghese B, Berek J. Toll-like receptor-3 as a target to enhance bioactivity of cancer immunotherapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:608.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PolyI:C(12)U shows promise as a potential agent for selective enhancement of effect with currently available and future cancer immunotherapies. ..
  38. Manuse M, Parks G. TLR3-dependent upregulation of RIG-I leads to enhanced cytokine production from cells infected with the parainfluenza virus SV5. Virology. 2010;397:231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for crosstalk between different innate immunity pathways in mounting antiviral responses to paramyxoviruses are discussed. ..
  39. Breckpot K, Escors D, Arce F, Lopes L, Karwacz K, Van Lint S, et al. HIV-1 lentiviral vector immunogenicity is mediated by Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR7. J Virol. 2010;84:5627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated TLR-dependent DC activation by lentiviral vectors, explaining their immunogenicity. These data allow the rational development of strategies to manipulate the host's immune response to the transgene. ..
  40. Yu N, Zhang S, Zuo F, Kang K, Guan M, Xiang L. Cultured human melanocytes express functional toll-like receptors 2-4, 7 and 9. J Dermatol Sci. 2009;56:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study indicates human melanocytes express a panel of functional TLRs. The ligation of TLRs can turn these cells into active players of the skin innate immunity. ..
  41. Livengood A, Wu C, Carson D. Opposing roles of RNA receptors TLR3 and RIG-I in the inflammatory response to double-stranded RNA in a Kaposi's sarcoma cell line. Cell Immunol. 2007;249:55-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, exposure of KS cells to viral RNA ligands can result in a TLR3-mediated increase in the secretion of inflammatory proteins associated with KS cell growth that may contribute to disease. ..
  42. Conforti R, Ma Y, Morel Y, Paturel C, Terme M, Viaud S, et al. Opposing effects of toll-like receptor (TLR3) signaling in tumors can be therapeutically uncoupled to optimize the anticancer efficacy of TLR3 ligands. Cancer Res. 2010;70:490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Optimizing the anticancer effects of TLR3 agonists may require manipulating these chemokines or their receptors. ..
  43. Zhang M, Han Y, Han C, Xu S, Bao Y, Chen Z, et al. The beta2 integrin CD11b attenuates polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-induced hepatitis by negatively regulating natural killer cell functions. Hepatology. 2009;50:1606-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a new mechanistic explanation for maintenance of tolerance and control of inflammation by CD11b. ..
  44. Rydberg C, Mansson A, Uddman R, Riesbeck K, Cardell L. Toll-like receptor agonists induce inflammation and cell death in a model of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Immunology. 2009;128:e600-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar response was not seen in normal epithelial cells. Thus, the TLR system should be considered an important target in future antitumour immunotherapy. ..
  45. Kuka M, Baronio R, Valentini S, Monaci E, Muzzi A, Aprea S, et al. Src kinases are required for a balanced production of IL-12/IL-23 in human dendritic cells activated by Toll-like receptor agonists. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11491 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the pharmacological modulation of DC maturation has the potential to shape the quality of the adaptive immune response and could be exploited for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases. ..
  46. Jones L, Kreem S, Shweash M, Paul A, Alexander J, Roberts C. Differential modulation of TLR3- and TLR4-mediated dendritic cell maturation and function by progesterone. J Immunol. 2010;185:4525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these studies demonstrate that progesterone can differentially regulate the signaling pathways employed by TLR3 and TLR4 agonists to affect costimulatory molecule expression and cytokine production. ..
  47. Ahmed N, Hayashi T, Hasegawa A, Furukawa H, Okamura N, Chida T, et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in macrophages by commensal bacteria preferentially stimulating Toll-like receptor 4. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2804-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that certain commensal bacteria preferentially stimulating TLR4 potentially produce local environments resistant to HIV-1 infection. ..
  48. Chiron D, Pellat Deceunynck C, Amiot M, Bataille R, Jego G. TLR3 ligand induces NF-{kappa}B activation and various fates of multiple myeloma cells depending on IFN-{alpha} production. J Immunol. 2009;182:4471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results show that TLR3 ligand induces NF-kappaB pathway activation in MM and support a switching function of type I IFN in the functional outcome of TLR3 triggering in tumor cells. ..
  49. Zorde Khvalevsky E, Abramovitch R, Barash H, Spivak Pohis I, Rivkin L, Rachmilewitz J, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 signaling attenuates liver regeneration. Hepatology. 2009;50:198-206 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3 plays an inhibitory role in the priming of liver regeneration, thus reinforcing the role of the innate immune system in balancing tissue regeneration. ..
  50. Kenny E, Talbot S, Gong M, Golenbock D, Bryant C, O Neill L. MyD88 adaptor-like is not essential for TLR2 signaling and inhibits signaling by TLR3. J Immunol. 2009;183:3642-51 pubmed publisher
    ..An inhibitory role for Mal in TLR3 signaling to JNK was also demonstrated. ..
  51. Avril T, de Tayrac M, Leberre C, Quillien V. Not all polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acids (Poly I:C) are equivalent for inducing maturation of dendritic cells: implication for alpha-type-1 polarized DCs. J Immunother. 2009;32:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This should be taken into an account not only when they are used in cocktails for DC maturation but also when analyzing signaling pathways with synthetic double-stranded RNA analogs. ..
  52. Chen K, Huang J, Liu Y, Gong W, Cui Y, Wang J. Synergy of TRIF-dependent TLR3 and MyD88-dependent TLR7 in up-regulating expression of mouse FPR2, a promiscuous G-protein-coupled receptor, in microglial cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;213:69-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that RNA virus infection may actively participate in the pathogenic processes of brain inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases by TLR3- and TLR7-mediated TRIF-dependent and MyD88-dependent signaling pathways. ..
  53. Torres D, Dieudonné A, Ryffel B, Vilain E, Si Tahar M, Pichavant M, et al. Double-stranded RNA exacerbates pulmonary allergic reaction through TLR3: implication of airway epithelium and dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Th2 cytokines participate in this process by modulating the response of airway epithelium and DCs to dsRNA. ..