toll like receptor 2


Summary: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.

Top Publications

  1. Wang S, Schmaderer C, Kiss E, Schmidt C, Bonrouhi M, Porubsky S, et al. Recipient Toll-like receptors contribute to chronic graft dysfunction by both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling. Dis Model Mech. 2010;3:92-103 pubmed publisher
    ..A TLR signaling blockade may be a therapeutic option for the prevention of CAD. ..
  2. Li M, Lin J, Wang Z, He S, Ma X, Li D. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced proinflammatory cytokine response in macrophages are suppressed by CD4CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells through downregulating toll like receptor 2-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;25:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells may exert its suppressive functions on pro-inflammatory properties of OxLDL induced-macrophages partly through TLR2-NF-kappaB signaling pathway. ..
  3. Barbalat R, Lau L, Locksley R, Barton G. Toll-like receptor 2 on inflammatory monocytes induces type I interferon in response to viral but not bacterial ligands. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the innate immune system can detect certain non-nucleic acid features of viruses and links this recognition to the induction of specific antiviral genes. ..
  4. He J, You X, Zeng Y, Yu M, Zuo L, Wu Y. Mycoplasma genitalium-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate NF-kappaB through toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 6 and CD14 in a MyD88-dependent pathway. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1750-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that M. genitalium-derived LAMPs activate NF-kappaB via TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and CD14 in a MyD88-dependent pathway...
  5. Kang J, Nan X, Jin M, Youn S, Ryu Y, Mah S, et al. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer. Immunity. 2009;31:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the TLR2-lipoteichoic acid and the TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes demonstrate that a precise interaction pattern of the head group is essential for a robust immune response by TLR2 heterodimers. ..
  6. Dong J, Vallejo J, Tzeng H, Thomas J, Mann D. Innate immunity mediates myocardial preconditioning through Toll-like receptor 2 and TIRAP-dependent signaling pathways. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H1079-87 pubmed publisher
  7. Rusai K, Sollinger D, Baumann M, Wagner B, Strobl M, Schmaderer C, et al. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:853-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a double genetic deletion of TLR2 and TLR4 confers a similar protection following renal I/R injury compared with single deletions of TLR2 and TLR4. ..
  8. Reed Geaghan E, Savage J, Hise A, Landreth G. CD14 and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are required for fibrillar A{beta}-stimulated microglial activation. J Neurosci. 2009;29:11982-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate these innate immune receptors function as members of the microglial fAbeta receptor complex and identify the signaling mechanisms whereby they contribute to microglial activation. ..
  9. Leichtle A, Hernandez M, Pak K, Yamasaki K, Cheng C, WEBSTER N, et al. TLR4-mediated induction of TLR2 signaling is critical in the pathogenesis and resolution of otitis media. Innate Immun. 2009;15:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..influenzae-induced otitis media. Toll-like receptor-4 signalling appears to induce TLR2 expression, and TLR2 activation is critical for bacterial clearance and timely resolution of otitis media...

More Information


  1. Arslan F, Smeets M, O Neill L, Keogh B, McGuirk P, Timmers L, et al. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by leukocytic toll-like receptor-2 and reduced by systemic administration of a novel anti-toll-like receptor-2 antibody. Circulation. 2010;121:80-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, monoclonal anti-TLR2 antibody is a potential candidate as an adjunctive for reperfusion therapy in patients with myocardial infarction. ..
  2. Burns E, Eliyahu T, Uematsu S, Akira S, Nussbaum G. TLR2-dependent inflammatory response to Porphyromonas gingivalis is MyD88 independent, whereas MyD88 is required to clear infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:1455-62 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis infection depend critically on MyD88, independent of TLR2. Thus, robust cytokine production and bacterial clearance are independent events mediated by distinct signaling pathways following infection with P. gingivalis...
  3. Robson M. Toll-like receptors and renal disease. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2009;113:e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..I also discuss evidence that they are important in other forms of glomerulonephritis, with evidence derived mainly from experimental models in which exogenous ligands have been administered. ..
  4. Santos Sierra S, Deshmukh S, Kalnitski J, Küenzi P, Wymann M, Golenbock D, et al. Mal connects TLR2 to PI3Kinase activation and phagocyte polarization. EMBO J. 2009;28:2018-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to TLR2/6, TLR2/1 does not require Mal or MyD88 for Akt phosphorylation. Hence, Mal specifically connects TLR2/6 to PI3K activation, PIP(3) generation and macrophage polarization. ..
  5. Salazar J, Duhnam Ems S, La Vake C, Cruz A, Moore M, Caimano M, et al. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000444 pubmed publisher
  6. Melkamu T, Squillace D, Kita H, O Grady S. Regulation of TLR2 expression and function in human airway epithelial cells. J Membr Biol. 2009;229:101-13 pubmed publisher
  7. Benakanakere M, Li Q, Eskan M, Singh A, Zhao J, Galicia J, et al. Modulation of TLR2 protein expression by miR-105 in human oral keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Further understanding of the role of miRNA in host responses may elucidate disease susceptibility and suggest new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. ..
  8. Hajishengallis G, Wang M, Liang S. Induction of distinct TLR2-mediated proinflammatory and proadhesive signaling pathways in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae. J Immunol. 2009;182:6690-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The delineation of these signaling pathways may provide appropriate targets for selectively inhibiting or enhancing specific activities, depending on whether they undermine or promote the host defense. ..
  9. Devaraj S, Dasu M, Park S, Jialal I. Increased levels of ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1665-8 pubmed publisher
  10. de Vos A, Pater J, van den Pangaart P, de Kruif M, Van T Veer C, van der Poll T. In vivo lipopolysaccharide exposure of human blood leukocytes induces cross-tolerance to multiple TLR ligands. J Immunol. 2009;183:533-42 pubmed publisher
  11. Chi X, Cai J, Luo C, Cheng N, Hei Z, Li S, et al. Relationship between the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in mononuclear cells and postoperative acute lung injury in orthotopic liver transplantation. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:895-9 pubmed
    ..013), with a relative risk of 16. The expression level of TLR2/4 in mononuclear cells increases significantly in the peri-operative period of OLT, and it may be a high risk factor for occurrence of postoperative ALI. ..
  12. Long E, Millen B, Kubes P, Robbins S. Lipoteichoic acid induces unique inflammatory responses when compared to other toll-like receptor 2 ligands. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5601 pubmed publisher
  13. Hreggvidsdottir H, Ostberg T, Wähämaa H, Schierbeck H, Aveberger A, Klevenvall L, et al. The alarmin HMGB1 acts in synergy with endogenous and exogenous danger signals to promote inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGB1 thus acts broadly with many but not all immunostimulatory molecules to amplify their activity in a synergistic manner. ..
  14. Erridge C. Endogenous ligands of TLR2 and TLR4: agonists or assistants?. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:989-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The relevance of this possibility to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, tumor surveillance, and autoimmunity is discussed. ..
  15. Jin X, Qin Q, Tu L, Qu J. Glucocorticoids inhibit the innate immune system of human corneal fibroblast through their suppression of toll-like receptors. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2435-41 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that topical glucocorticoids may affect the cornea's innate immunity through TLRs. ..
  16. Zeckey C, Tschernig T, Hildebrand F, Frink M, Frömke C, Dorsch M, et al. Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 exerts protective effects in a murine sepsis model. Shock. 2010;33:614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a beneficial effect of MALP-2 as a therapeutic agent in polymicrobial sepsis in the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model. ..
  17. Hong R, Agrawal S, Gollapudi S, Gupta S. Impaired pneumovax-23-induced monocyte-derived cytokine production in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Pneumovax-23-induced monocytes-derived cytokine production is impaired in CVID, which may play an important role in increased susceptibility of CVID patients to S. pneumoniae infection. ..
  18. Baines K, Simpson J, Scott R, Gibson P. Immune responses of airway neutrophils are impaired in asthma. Exp Lung Res. 2009;35:554-69 pubmed
    ..Innate immune responses of airway neutrophil cells are impaired in asthmatic subjects on prophylactic therapy and may impact on susceptibility to, and severity of, airway infections. ..
  19. Into T, Inomata M, Shibata K, Murakami Y. Effect of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 on Toll-like receptors 2-, 3- and 4-triggered expression of IL-6, IL-8 and CXCL10 in human gingival fibroblasts. Cell Immunol. 2010;264:104-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Chaudhuri S, Lowen B, Chan G, Davey A, Riddell M, Guilbert L. Human cytomegalovirus interacts with toll-like receptor 2 and CD14 on syncytiotrophoblasts to stimulate expression of TNFalpha mRNA and apoptosis. Placenta. 2009;30:994-1001 pubmed publisher
  21. Quevedo Diaz M, Song C, Xiong Y, Chen H, Wahl L, Radulovic S, et al. Involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 in cell responses to Rickettsia akari. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:675-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that HK R. akari triggers cell activation via TLR2 or TLR4 and suggest use of additional TLRs and/or NLRs by live R. akari...
  22. Sturges N, Wikstrom M, Winfield K, Gard S, Brennan S, Sly P, et al. Monocytes from children with clinically stable cystic fibrosis show enhanced expression of Toll-like receptor 4. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010;45:883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..930). The increased surface expression of TLR4 seen in young children with CF appears to be related to having CF per se and not related to current pulmonary infection. ..
  23. Roger T, Casson N, Croxatto A, Entenza J, Pusztaszeri M, Akira S, et al. Role of MyD88 and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the sensing of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae. Infect Immun. 2010;78:5195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in contrast to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae weakly stimulates macrophages, potentially compensating for its low replication capacity in macrophages by escaping the innate immune surveillance. ..
  24. Naert G, Laflamme N, Rivest S. Toll-like receptor 2-independent and MyD88-dependent gene expression in the mouse brain. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:480-93 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, MyD88 pathway is essential for the endotoxin to induce expression of immune genes in the central nervous system. ..
  25. Zaman M, Abdel Aal A, Phillipps K, Fujita Y, Good M, Toth I. Structure-activity relationship of lipopeptide Group A streptococcus (GAS) vaccine candidates on toll-like receptor 2. Vaccine. 2010;28:2243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipopeptides containing different copies of LAA 3 were synthesized and the di-lipidated analogue was the most effective in NFkappaB activation. ..
  26. Siednienko J, Halle A, Nagpal K, Golenbock D, Miggin S. TLR3-mediated IFN-? gene induction is negatively regulated by the TLR adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:3150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Mal is essential in restricting TLR3 signalling thereby protecting the host from unwanted immunopathologies associated with excessive IFN-? production. ..
  27. Hennige A, Sartorius T, Lutz S, Tschritter O, Preissl H, Hopp S, et al. Insulin-mediated cortical activity in the slow frequency range is diminished in obese mice and promotes physical inactivity. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2416-2424 pubmed publisher
    ..There is evidence from mouse models and humans that alterations in insulin action in the brain are accompanied by an obese phenotype; however, the impact of insulin with regard to behavioural aspects such as locomotion is unknown...
  28. Zouboulis C. Propionibacterium acnes and sebaceous lipogenesis: a love-hate relationship?. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2093-6 pubmed publisher
    ..acnes with sebaceous lipogenesis, inflammation, and innate immunity, and points out the concurrent evidence that P. acnes-induced lipids may represent a recruitment of allies and/or enemies of the human skin...
  29. Konopka Ł, Wierzbicki M, Brzezińska Błaszczyk E. Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulates rat mast cells to cysteinyl leukotriene generation and upregulates Toll-like receptor -2 and -4 expression. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:803-10 pubmed
  30. Schmaler M, Jann N, Götz F, Landmann R. Staphylococcal lipoproteins and their role in bacterial survival in mice. Int J Med Microbiol. 2010;300:155-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the role of Lpp in iron acquisition and TLR2 recognition in the host and describe the consequences of Lpp maturation for survival of S. aureus in the host. ..
  31. Spanedda M, Heurtault B, Weidner S, Baehr C, Boeglin E, Beyrath J, et al. Novel powerful water-soluble lipid immunoadjuvants inducing mouse dendritic cell maturation and B cell proliferation using TLR2 pathway. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:1869-72 pubmed publisher
    ..They all induce mouse dendritic cell maturation and B cell proliferation. We demonstrate that in spite of the chemical modification, the four compounds remain TLR2 agonists. ..
  32. Akazawa T, Inoue N, Shime H, Kodama K, Matsumoto M, Seya T. Adjuvant engineering for cancer immunotherapy: Development of a synthetic TLR2 ligand with increased cell adhesion. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1596-603 pubmed publisher
  33. Fernandez Jimenez N, Castellanos Rubio A, Plaza Izurieta L, Gutierrez G, Castano L, Vitoria J, et al. Analysis of beta-defensin and Toll-like receptor gene copy number variation in celiac disease. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:833-6 pubmed publisher
    ..023; odds ratio = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96), suggesting that increased copy numbers could protect from CD, possibly by impeding bacterial infiltration more efficiently and preserving gut epithelial integrity. ..
  34. Bergman I, Rosengren J, Edman K, Edfors I. European wild boars and domestic pigs display different polymorphic patterns in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR2, and TLR6 genes. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:49-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the codon usage pattern in the genes studied deviated from the general codon usage pattern in Sus scrofa. ..
  35. Dabek J, Swiderski R, Głogowska Ligus J, Kułach A, Gasior Z. [Expression of genes connected with nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) estimated by oligonucleotide microarray analysis HG-U133A in patients with acute myocardial infarction]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2009;27:265-72 pubmed
  36. Klekotka P, Yang L, Yokoyama W. Contrasting roles of the IL-1 and IL-18 receptors in MyD88-dependent contact hypersensitivity. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the IL-1R and IL-18R/MyD88 pathways are required in distinctly different cells during the sensitization phase of CHS. ..
  37. Hirao K, Yumoto H, Takahashi K, Mukai K, Nakanishi T, Matsuo T. Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in pulp fibroblasts. J Dent Res. 2009;88:762-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in HDPF are functional receptors, and NOD2 is a modulator of signals transmitted through TLR2 in pulpal immune responses, leading to progressive pulpitis. ..
  38. van Hoffen E, Korthagen N, de Kivit S, Schouten B, Bardoel B, Duivelshof A, et al. Exposure of intestinal epithelial cells to UV-killed Lactobacillus GG but not Bifidobacterium breve enhances the effector immune response in vitro. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-cultures combining IEC and PBMC may reveal differences between bacterial strains relevant for the in vivo situation. ..
  39. Leng C, Chen H, Chang L, Liu H, Liu H, Sher Y, et al. A recombinant lipoprotein containing an unsaturated fatty acid activates NF-kappaB through the TLR2 signaling pathway and induces a differential gene profile from a synthetic lipopeptide. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2015-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that different TLR2 ligands can promote various immune responses by inducing different levels of biological cytokines and chemokines. ..
  40. von Scheele I, Larsson K, Palmberg L. Budesonide enhances Toll-like receptor 2 expression in activated bronchial epithelial cells. Inhal Toxicol. 2010;22:493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to our understanding of the beneficial effects of glucocorticosteroids during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and asthma, which are frequently caused by microorganisms. ..
  41. Love W, Dobbs N, Tabor L, Simecka J. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a major role in innate resistance in the lung against murine Mycoplasma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10739 pubmed publisher
    ..pulmonis numbers in the lung, and it is likely that early after respiratory infection that TLR2 recognition of M. pulmonis triggers initial cytokine responses of host cells. ..
  42. Souza P, Palmqvist P, Lundgren I, Lie A, Costa Neto C, Lundberg P, et al. Stimulation of IL-6 cytokines in fibroblasts by toll-like receptors 2. J Dent Res. 2010;89:802-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of these data suggests that signaling through the innate immune system controls the expression of osteotropic cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts. ..
  43. May L, Van Bodegom D, Frolich M, van Lieshout L, Slagboom P, Westendorp R, et al. Polymorphisms in TLR4 and TLR2 genes, cytokine production and survival in rural Ghana. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:490-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate that genetic variation within the TLR4 gene influences cytokine production capacity, but in an endemic area does not influence the susceptibility to malaria infection or mortality. ..
  44. Iwata A, Morgan Stevenson V, Schwartz B, Liu L, Tupper J, Zhu X, et al. Extracellular BCL2 proteins are danger-associated molecular patterns that reduce tissue damage in murine models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9103 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a novel extracellular cytoprotective activity of BCL2 BH4-domain proteins as potent cytoprotective DAMPs. ..
  45. Gollapudi P, Yoon J, Gollapudi S, Pahl M, Vaziri N. Leukocyte toll-like receptor expression in end-stage kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2010;31:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Monocyte TLR2 and TLR4 and neutrophil TLR4 expressions and TLR4 activity are increased hemodialysis patients, representing another dimension of ESRD-associated inflammation. ..
  46. Pène F, Courtine E, Ouaaz F, Zuber B, Sauneuf B, Sirgo G, et al. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 contribute to sepsis-induced depletion of spleen dendritic cells. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, although dispensable for the DC maturation process, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the mechanisms leading to depletion of spleen DC following polymicrobial sepsis. ..
  47. Umenai T, Hirai H, Shime N, Nakaya T, Asahara T, Nomoto K, et al. Eradication of the commensal intestinal microflora by oral antimicrobials interferes with the host response to lipopolysaccharide. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:633-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the oral administration of antimicrobials downregulates the expression of surface TLR on the peritoneal macrophages and modulates the host immune responses against LPS by modifying the intestinal environment. ..
  48. Kanazawa N, Mikita N, Li H, Nakatani Y, Ozaki M, Kosaka M, et al. [Genetic involvement of bacterial sensor molecules in Japanese leprosy]. Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2009;78:255-61 pubmed
    ..Especially, among those with a particular TLR2 -16934 genotype, frequency of the polymorphisms in DC-SIGN -336 showed significant difference between the patients and the controls, suggesting any cooperation of these SNPs. ..
  49. Mateo D, Greenwood S, Araya M, Berthe F, Johnson G, Siah A. Differential gene expression of gamma-actin, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) in Mya arenaria haemocytes induced by in vivo infections with two Vibrio splendidus strains. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:710-4 pubmed publisher
    ..LGP32-GFP induced marked responses which coincide with a similar trend previously found on phenotypic responses under our experimental model...
  50. Drage M, Tsai H, Pecora N, Cheng T, Arida A, Shukla S, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) binds triacylated glycolipid agonists of Toll-like receptor 2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1088-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate a glycolipid binding function of LprG that enhances recognition of triacylated MTB glycolipids by TLR2 and may affect glycolipid assembly or transport for bacterial cell wall biogenesis. ..
  51. BAILEY K, Sisson J, Romberger D, Robinson J, Wyatt T. Alcohol up-regulates TLR2 through a NO/cGMP dependent pathway. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important observation in the understanding how alcohol modulates airway inflammation. In addition, this is the first time that cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play a role in the regulation of TLR2. ..
  52. Oswald Richter K, Culver D, Hawkins C, Hajizadeh R, Abraham S, Shepherd B, et al. Cellular responses to mycobacterial antigens are present in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid used in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:3740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of immune recognition with monoclonal antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 suggests that induction of innate immunity by mycobacteria contributes to the polarized Th1 immune response. ..
  53. Silvestre R, Silva A, Cordeiro da Silva A, Ouaissi A. The contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 to the innate recognition of a Leishmania infantum silent information regulator 2 protein. Immunology. 2009;128:484-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that TLR2 signalling contributes to SIR2RP1 recognition by innate immune host cells. ..