toll like receptor 1


Summary: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2.

Top Publications

  1. He J, You X, Zeng Y, Yu M, Zuo L, Wu Y. Mycoplasma genitalium-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins activate NF-kappaB through toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 6 and CD14 in a MyD88-dependent pathway. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1750-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that M. genitalium-derived LAMPs activate NF-kappaB via TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, and CD14 in a MyD88-dependent pathway...
  2. House A, Binns M, Gregory S, Catchpole B. Analysis of NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR9 genes in anal furunculosis of German shepherd dogs. Tissue Antigens. 2009;73:250-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly restricted PRR genotypes seen in GSD are likely to have resulted from selective breeding and might influence innate immune responses in this breed...
  3. Adams J, Ren S, Liu P, Chun R, Lagishetty V, Gombart A, et al. Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses. J Immunol. 2009;182:4289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that a key role of vitamin D in innate immunity is to maintain localized production of antibacterial hCAP following TLR activation of monocytes. ..
  4. Hreggvidsdottir H, Ostberg T, Wähämaa H, Schierbeck H, Aveberger A, Klevenvall L, et al. The alarmin HMGB1 acts in synergy with endogenous and exogenous danger signals to promote inflammation. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGB1 thus acts broadly with many but not all immunostimulatory molecules to amplify their activity in a synergistic manner. ..
  5. Poulain Godefroy O, Le Bacquer O, Plancq P, Lecoeur C, Pattou F, Fruhbeck G, et al. Inflammatory role of Toll-like receptors in human and murine adipose tissue. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:823486 pubmed publisher
  6. Maitra R, Clement C, Scharf B, Crisi G, Chitta S, Paget D, et al. Endosomal damage and TLR2 mediated inflammasome activation by alkane particles in the generation of aseptic osteolysis. Mol Immunol. 2009;47:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These two processes synergistically results in the initiation of a strong inflammatory response with consequent cellular necrosis and extracellular matrix degradation. ..
  7. Tukel C, Nishimori J, Wilson R, Winter M, Keestra A, van Putten J, et al. Toll-like receptors 1 and 2 cooperatively mediate immune responses to curli, a common amyloid from enterobacterial biofilms. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:1495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that curli amyloid fibrils from enterobacterial biofilms significantly contribute to TLR1/TLR2-mediated host responses against intact bacterial cells. ..
  8. Love W, Dobbs N, Tabor L, Simecka J. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays a major role in innate resistance in the lung against murine Mycoplasma. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10739 pubmed publisher
    ..pulmonis numbers in the lung, and it is likely that early after respiratory infection that TLR2 recognition of M. pulmonis triggers initial cytokine responses of host cells. ..
  9. Plain K, Purdie A, Begg D, de Silva K, Whittington R. Toll-like receptor (TLR)6 and TLR1 differentiation in gene expression studies of Johne's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;137:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A likely role for TLR6/TLR2 heterodimers in the pathogenesis of JD was identified. TLR6 may be a potential marker of exposure and could aid in the development of a gene signature for sheep resistant to MAP infection...

More Information


  1. Burger Kentischer A, Abele I, Finkelmeier D, Wiesmüller K, Rupp S. A new cell-based innate immune receptor assay for the examination of receptor activity, ligand specificity, signalling pathways and the detection of pyrogens. J Immunol Methods. 2010;358:93-103 pubmed publisher
  2. Nakamura A, Niimi R, Yanagawa Y. Protection from sepsis-induced acute renal failure by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer of beta2-adrenoceptor. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:730-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of the Adeno-beta(2)-AR gene has potential as a therapeutic agent against ARF following the onset of sepsis. ..
  3. Kang J, Nan X, Jin M, Youn S, Ryu Y, Mah S, et al. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer. Immunity. 2009;31:873-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the TLR2-lipoteichoic acid and the TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes demonstrate that a precise interaction pattern of the head group is essential for a robust immune response by TLR2 heterodimers. ..
  4. Mahanonda R, Sa Ard Iam N, Eksomtramate M, Rerkyen P, Phairat B, Schaecher K, et al. Cigarette smoke extract modulates human beta-defensin-2 and interleukin-8 expression in human gingival epithelial cells. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results represent the first demonstration that CSE can modulate HGEC function by suppressing hBD-2 and enhancing IL-8 production, and this may be, in part, a possible mechanism which promotes periodontal disease. ..
  5. Masoumi A, Goldenson B, Ghirmai S, Avagyan H, Zaghi J, Abel K, et al. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 interacts with curcuminoids to stimulate amyloid-beta clearance by macrophages of Alzheimer's disease patients. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17:703-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Human macrophages are a new paradigm for testing immune therapies for AD. ..
  6. Bergman I, Rosengren J, Edman K, Edfors I. European wild boars and domestic pigs display different polymorphic patterns in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR2, and TLR6 genes. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:49-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the codon usage pattern in the genes studied deviated from the general codon usage pattern in Sus scrofa. ..
  7. Schenk M, Belisle J, Modlin R. TLR2 looks at lipoproteins. Immunity. 2009;31:847-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Immunity, Kang et al. (2009) provide insight into the mechanisms by which TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers recognize diacylated liporoteins, whereas TLR2-TLR1 heterodimers recognize triacylated lipopeptides. ..
  8. De Luca K, Frances Duvert V, Asensio M, Ihsani R, Debien E, Taillardet M, et al. The TLR1/2 agonist PAM(3)CSK(4) instructs commitment of human hematopoietic stem cells to a myeloid cell fate. Leukemia. 2009;23:2063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that TLR agonists can bias the lineage commitment of human HSCs and shift the differentiation of lineage-committed progenitors to favor myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphoid B-cell development. ..
  9. Hamann L, Bedu Addo G, Eggelte T, Schumann R, Mockenhaupt F. The toll-like receptor 1 variant S248N influences placental malaria. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:785-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support that TLR-1 is involved in the recognition of P. falciparum and indicate its role in susceptibility to and manifestation of malaria in pregnancy. ..
  10. Akazawa T, Inoue N, Shime H, Kodama K, Matsumoto M, Seya T. Adjuvant engineering for cancer immunotherapy: Development of a synthetic TLR2 ligand with increased cell adhesion. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1596-603 pubmed publisher
  11. Kleinnijenhuis J, Joosten L, van de Veerdonk F, Savage N, van Crevel R, Kullberg B, et al. Transcriptional and inflammasome-mediated pathways for the induction of IL-1beta production by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms responsible for IL-1beta production by M. tuberculosis, and that may contribute to a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of cell activation by M. tuberculosis. ..
  12. Hawn T, Scholes D, Li S, Wang H, Yang Y, Roberts P, et al. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to urinary tract infections in adult women. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5990 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these data suggest that TLR polymorphisms are associated with adult susceptibility to UTIs, the statistical significance was modest and will require further study including validation with independent cohorts. ..
  13. Law H, Cheung C, Sia S, Chan Y, Peiris J, Lau Y. Toll-like receptors, chemokine receptors and death receptor ligands responses in SARS coronavirus infected human monocyte derived dendritic cells. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:35 pubmed publisher
    ..We also compared adult and cord blood (CB) DCs to find a possible explanation for the age-dependent severity of SARS...
  14. Wong S, Gochhait S, Malhotra D, Pettersson F, Teo Y, Khor C, et al. Leprosy and the adaptation of human toll-like receptor 1. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000979 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide insight into the long standing host-pathogen relationship between human and mycobacteria and highlight the key role of the TLR pathway in infectious diseases. ..
  15. Schuring R, Hamann L, Faber W, Pahan D, Richardus J, Schumann R, et al. Polymorphism N248S in the human Toll-like receptor 1 gene is related to leprosy and leprosy reactions. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1816-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Qi L, Wang Y, Gao F, Zhang C, Ding S, Ni M, et al. Enhanced stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice by combinatorial Toll-like receptor-1 and -2 gene silencing. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:739-50 pubmed publisher
  17. Liu X, Wetzler L, Nascimento L, Massari P. Human airway epithelial cell responses to Neisseria lactamica and purified porin via Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling. Infect Immun. 2010;78:5314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..lactamica would benefit from expressing a product that induces low TLR2-dependent local inflammation, likely delaying or avoiding clearance by the host...
  18. Yang H, Xie K, Deng J, Qin S. Expression of soluble Toll-like receptors in pleural effusions. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:2225-30 pubmed
    ..Determination of these pleural TLRs may improve the ability of clinicians to differentiate pleural effusion patients of bacterial origin from those with other etiologies. ..
  19. Farhat K, Riekenberg S, Jung G, Wiesmüller K, Jungi T, Ulmer A. Identification of full length bovine TLR1 and functional characterization of lipopeptide recognition by bovine TLR2/1 heterodimer. Vet Res. 2010;41:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data indicate that the additional N-terminal nucleotides belong to the full length and functionally active boTLR1 (boTLR1-fl) which participates in a species-specific recognition of bacterial lipopeptides. ..
  20. Fikrig E, Narasimhan S, Neelakanta G, Pal U, Chen M, Flavell R. Toll-like receptors 1 and 2 heterodimers alter Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression in mice and ticks. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1331-40 pubmed publisher
  21. Martin B, Hirota K, Cua D, Stockinger B, Veldhoen M. Interleukin-17-producing gammadelta T cells selectively expand in response to pathogen products and environmental signals. Immunity. 2009;31:321-30 pubmed publisher
  22. Drage M, Pecora N, Hise A, Febbraio M, Silverstein R, Golenbock D, et al. TLR2 and its co-receptors determine responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to lipoproteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell Immunol. 2009;258:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, lung APC subsets differ in TLR expression, which may determine differences in responses to Mtb. ..
  23. Guan Y, Ranoa D, Jiang S, Mutha S, Li X, Baudry J, et al. Human TLRs 10 and 1 share common mechanisms of innate immune sensing but not signaling. J Immunol. 2010;184:5094-103 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that human TLR10 cooperates with TLR2 in the sensing of microbes and fungi but possesses a signaling function distinct from that of other TLR2 subfamily members. ..
  24. Lim D, Narasimhan S, Michaylira C, Wang M. TLR3-mediated NF-{kappa}B signaling in human esophageal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1172-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time that TLR3 is highly functional in the human esophageal epithelium and that TLR3-mediated NF-kappaB signaling may play an important regulatory role in esophageal epithelial homeostasis. ..
  25. Biswas B, Narmadha G, Choudhary M, French F, Hall S, Yenugu S. Identification of Toll-like receptors in the rat (Rattus norvegicus): messenger RNA expression in the male reproductive tract under conditions of androgen variation. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:243-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Tlrs seem to be expressed during male reproductive tract development and under conditions of androgen ablation, suggesting the preparedness of the male reproductive tract to detect an infection under all conditions of androgen status. ..
  26. Liu P, Schenk M, Walker V, Dempsey P, Kanchanapoomi M, Wheelwright M, et al. Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5810 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these data identify a novel mechanism of host defense requiring the induction of IL-1beta in synergy with vitamin D activation, for the TLR-induced antimicrobial pathway against an intracellular pathogen. ..
  27. Ribes S, Ebert S, Regen T, Czesnik D, Scheffel J, Zeug A, et al. Fibronectin stimulates Escherichia coli phagocytosis by microglial cells. Glia. 2010;58:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, fibronectin increased proinflammatory and phagocytotic functions in microglia and partially synergized with microbial TLR agonists. ..
  28. Ben Yebdri F, Kukulski F, Tremblay A, Sevigny J. Concomitant activation of P2Y(2) and P2Y(6) receptors on monocytes is required for TLR1/2-induced neutrophil migration by regulating IL-8 secretion. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2885-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In line with our previous work on TLR4, this study further supports the importance of nucleotides in bacterial-induced neutrophil migration. ..
  29. Guo Y, Zhao G, Tanaka S, Yamaguchi T. Differential responses between monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages for lipopolysaccharide stimulation of calves. Cell Mol Immunol. 2009;6:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, no expression of TLR9 was found. As antigen presenting cells, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages respond differently to LPS, so they may have different functions in the innate immune system. ..
  30. Chambers M, Whelan A, Spallek R, Singh M, Coddeville B, Guerardel Y, et al. Non-acylated Mycobacterium bovis glycoprotein MPB83 binds to TLR1/2 and stimulates production of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct interaction of RecMPB83 with TLR2 was demonstrated by surface plasmon-resonance. MPB83 may act as a virulence factor through TLR2 mediated induction of MMP-9...
  31. Palti Y, Rodriguez M, Gahr S, Purcell M, Rexroad C, Wiens G. Identification, characterization and genetic mapping of TLR1 loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:918-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the identification of a TLR2 ortholog in rainbow trout and the development of assays to measure ligand binding and downstream signaling are critical for future elucidation of omTLR1 functions. ..
  32. Young S, Lyddon T, Jorgenson R, Misfeldt M. Expression of Toll-like receptors in human endometrial epithelial cells and cell lines. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2004;52:67-73 pubmed
    ..These studies provide the first evidence of TLR expression in the endometrium of any species and suggest the usefulness of endometrial cell lines to study TLR function. ..