pattern recognition receptors


Summary: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.

Top Publications

  1. Häweker H, Rips S, Koiwa H, Salomon S, Saijo Y, Chinchilla D, et al. Pattern recognition receptors require N-glycosylation to mediate plant immunity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4629-36 pubmed publisher
    N-Glycans attached to the ectodomains of plasma membrane pattern recognition receptors constitute likely initial contact sites between plant cells and invading pathogens...
  2. Pal S, Wu L. Pattern recognition receptors in the fly: lessons we can learn from the Drosophila melanogaster immune system. Fly (Austin). 2009;3:121-9 pubmed
    ..At the front lines of these responses, are a diverse group of pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns...
  3. Everts B, Smits H, Hokke C, Yazdanbakhsh M. Helminths and dendritic cells: sensing and regulating via pattern recognition receptors, Th2 and Treg responses. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1525-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we will discuss these new insights and will link them to the origin and importance of Th2 and regulatory immune responses with respect to the survival of both parasite and host. ..
  4. Pei Z, Pang H, Qian L, Yang S, Wang T, Zhang W, et al. MAC1 mediates LPS-induced production of superoxide by microglia: the role of pattern recognition receptors in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Glia. 2007;55:1362-73 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that MAC1 is essential for LPS-induced superoxide from microglia, implicating MAC1 as a critical trigger of microglial-derived oxidative stress during inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. ..
  5. Kawai T, Akira S. The roles of TLRs, RLRs and NLRs in pathogen recognition. Int Immunol. 2009;21:317-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammalian innate immune system detects the presence of microbial infection through germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
  6. Wang Q, Nagarkar D, Bowman E, Schneider D, Gosangi B, Lei J, et al. Role of double-stranded RNA pattern recognition receptors in rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial cell responses. J Immunol. 2009;183:6989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral dsRNA produced during replication may be recognized by the host pattern recognition receptors TLR-3, retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene (MDA)-5...
  7. Rad R, Ballhorn W, Voland P, Eisenächer K, Mages J, Rad L, et al. Extracellular and intracellular pattern recognition receptors cooperate in the recognition of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:2247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide novel comprehensive insights into the mechanisms of H pylori recognition by DCs. Understanding these processes provides a basis for the rational design of new vaccination strategies. ..
  8. Mukhopadhyay S, Plüddemann A, Gordon S. Macrophage pattern recognition receptors in immunity, homeostasis and self tolerance. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:1-14 pubmed
    ..a major component of innate immune defence, express a large repertoire of different classes of pattern recognition receptors and other surface antigens which determine the immunologic and homeostatic potential of these ..
  9. Albert M, Jehle A, Lipschis M, Mueller K, Zeng Y, Felix G. Regulation of cell behaviour by plant receptor kinases: Pattern recognition receptors as prototypical models. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:200-7 pubmed publisher
    In this review we focus on pattern recognition receptors in plants that detect extracellular signals indicative for pathogen attack and injury...

More Information


  1. Boller T, Felix G. A renaissance of elicitors: perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns and danger signals by pattern-recognition receptors. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2009;60:379-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the diversity of MAMPs/DAMPs and on progress to identify the corresponding pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in plants...
  2. Scagnolari C, Midulla F, Pierangeli A, Moretti C, Bonci E, Berardi R, et al. Gene expression of nucleic acid-sensing pattern recognition receptors in children hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute bronchiolitis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:816-23 pubmed publisher
    Given the critical role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in acid nucleic recognition in the initiation of innate immunity and the orchestration of adaptive immunity, the aim of this study was to determine whether any heterogeneity ..
  3. Albert M, Jehle A, Mueller K, Eisele C, Lipschis M, Felix G. Arabidopsis thaliana pattern recognition receptors for bacterial elongation factor Tu and flagellin can be combined to form functional chimeric receptors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:19035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, chimeric receptors allow mapping of subdomains relevant for ligand binding and receptor activation. The results also show that modular assembly of chimeras from different receptors can be used to form functional receptors. ..
  4. Seya T, Shime H, Ebihara T, Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M. Pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity and their application to tumor immunotherapy. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we describe the mechanism by which DC-dependent natural killer activation is triggered for the induction of antitumor immunity. ..
  5. Salminen A, Ojala J, Kauppinen A, Kaarniranta K, Suuronen T. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease: amyloid-beta oligomers trigger innate immunity defence via pattern recognition receptors. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;87:181-94 pubmed
    ..Increased production of amyloid-beta peptide species can activate the innate immunity system via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and evoke Alzheimer's pathology...
  6. Jeworutzki E, Roelfsema M, Anschütz U, Krol E, Elzenga J, Felix G, et al. Early signaling through the Arabidopsis pattern recognition receptors FLS2 and EFR involves Ca-associated opening of plasma membrane anion channels. Plant J. 2010;62:367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis pattern recognition receptors FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) and EF-Tu receptor (EFR) represent genetically well studied paradigms that ..
  7. Court N, Vasseur V, Vacher R, Fremond C, Shebzukhov Y, Yeremeev V, et al. Partial redundancy of the pattern recognition receptors, scavenger receptors, and C-type lectins for the long-term control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2010;184:7057-70 pubmed publisher
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is recognized by multiple pattern recognition receptors involved in innate immune defense, but their direct role in tuberculosis pathogenesis remains unknown...
  8. Brennan K, Bowie A. Activation of host pattern recognition receptors by viruses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010;13:503-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Another novel mechanism of viral DNA recognition unveiled, leading to proinflammatory cytokine production, involves the PYHIN family member AIM2. ..
  9. Takeuchi O, Akira S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell. 2010;140:805-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The initial sensing of infection is mediated by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and C-type lectin ..
  10. Boller T, He S. Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens. Science. 2009;324:742-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It turns out that the important contribution of PTI to disease resistance is masked by pathogen virulence effectors that have evolved to suppress it. ..
  11. Guo M, Tian F, Wamboldt Y, Alfano J. The majority of the type III effector inventory of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 can suppress plant immunity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2009;22:1069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the construct pLN1965 will likely be a useful tool in determining whether other type III effectors or effectors from other types of pathogens can suppress either ETI, PTI, or both. ..
  12. Bertrand M, Doiron K, Labbe K, Korneluk R, Barker P, Saleh M. Cellular inhibitors of apoptosis cIAP1 and cIAP2 are required for innate immunity signaling by the pattern recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2. Immunity. 2009;30:789-801 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery provides therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of NOD-dependent immunologic and inflammatory diseases. ..
  13. Smith J, Chapman W, Redford J. Stages of category learning in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process. 2010;36:39-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This default strategy may have an adaptive resonance with the family resemblance organization of many natural-kind categories. ..
  14. Silipo A, Erbs G, Shinya T, Dow J, Parrilli M, Lanzetta R, et al. Glyco-conjugates as elicitors or suppressors of plant innate immunity. Glycobiology. 2010;20:406-19 pubmed publisher
    ..MAMPs are recognized by the plant innate immune system though the action of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
  15. Vazquez L, Alpuche J, Maldonado G, Agundis C, Pereyra Morales A, Zenteno E. Review: Immunity mechanisms in crustaceans. Innate Immun. 2009;15:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We review some basic aspects of crustacean effector defense processes, like agglutination, encapsulation, phagocytosis, clottable proteins, and bactericidal activity, induced by these carbohydrate-driven recognition patterns. ..
  16. Chaturvedi A, Pierce S. Autophagy in immune cell regulation and dysregulation. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2009;9:341-6 pubmed
    ..In this review, we focus on recent developments in the area of autophagy-mediated modulation of immune responses. ..
  17. Cooper A. Cell-mediated immune responses in tuberculosis. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:393-422 pubmed publisher
    ..We must also determine how to induce both known and novel immunoprotective responses without inducing immunopathologic consequences. ..
  18. Deretic V, Delgado M, Vergne I, Master S, de Haro S, Ponpuak M, et al. Autophagy in immunity against mycobacterium tuberculosis: a model system to dissect immunological roles of autophagy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;335:169-88 pubmed publisher an innate defense mechanism against intracellular microbes; (2) autophagy is under the control of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as Toll-like receptors (TLR), and it acts as one of the immunological output effectors of ..
  19. Gregersen P, Olsson L. Recent advances in the genetics of autoimmune disease. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:363-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The current review focuses on recent discoveries within functionally related groups of genes that provide clues to novel pathways of pathogenesis for human autoimmunity. ..
  20. Pal S, Wu L. Lessons from the fly: pattern recognition in Drosophila melanogaster. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:162-74 pubmed
    ..At the front lines of these responses, are a diverse group of pattern recognition receptors that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns...
  21. Hirao K, Yumoto H, Nakanishi T, Mukai K, Takahashi K, Takegawa D, et al. Tea catechins reduce inflammatory reactions via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in toll-like receptor 2 ligand-stimulated dental pulp cells. Life Sci. 2010;86:654-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that catechins might be useful therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory modulator of dental pulpal inflammation. ..
  22. Coban C, Yagi M, Ohata K, Igari Y, Tsukui T, Horii T, et al. The malarial metabolite hemozoin and its potential use as a vaccine adjuvant. Allergol Int. 2010;59:115-24 pubmed publisher
  23. Brutus A, Sicilia F, Macone A, Cervone F, De Lorenzo G. A domain swap approach reveals a role of the plant wall-associated kinase 1 (WAK1) as a receptor of oligogalacturonides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that transgenic plants overexpressing WAK1 are more resistant to Botrytis cinerea. ..
  24. Bauernfeind F, Horvath G, Stutz A, Alnemri E, MacDonald K, Speert D, et al. Cutting edge: NF-kappaB activating pattern recognition and cytokine receptors license NLRP3 inflammasome activation by regulating NLRP3 expression. J Immunol. 2009;183:787-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Signals provided by NF-kappaB activators are necessary but not sufficient for NLRP3 activation, and a second stimulus such as ATP or crystal-induced damage is required for NLRP3 activation. ..
  25. Christensen J, Thomsen A. Co-ordinating innate and adaptive immunity to viral infection: mobility is the key. APMIS. 2009;117:338-55 pubmed publisher
  26. Lapis K. [Role of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) and pattern recognition receptors (PRR) in the intestinal mucosa homeostasis]. Orv Hetil. 2009;150:2146-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Next line of defense is the pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which allows identifying conservative molecular patterns of different pathogens, and starts ..
  27. Dietrich J, Doherty T. Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the host: consequences for vaccine development. APMIS. 2009;117:440-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss what is presently known about the interaction of M. tuberculosis with the immune system, and how this knowledge is used in new and more advanced vaccine strategies. ..
  28. Sender L, Gibbert K, Suezer Y, Radeke H, Kalinke U, Waibler Z. CD40 ligand-triggered human dendritic cells mount interleukin-23 responses that are further enhanced by danger signals. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Data presented here might have an impact on DC-based cancer vaccination strategies and contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23. ..
  29. Srinoulprasert Y, Pongtanalert P, Chawengkirttikul R, Chaiyaroj S. Engagement of Penicillium marneffei conidia with multiple pattern recognition receptors on human monocytes. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:162-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that various PRR on human monocytes participate in the initial recognition of P. marneffei conidia, and the engagement of PRR could partly initiate proinflammatory cytokine production. ..
  30. Forsman H, Dahlgren C. The FPR2-induced rise in cytosolic calcium in human neutrophils relies on an emptying of intracellular calcium stores and is inhibited by a gelsolin-derived PIP2-binding peptide. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:52 pubmed publisher
    ..PBP10 inhibits selectively the signals generated by FPR2, both with respect to NADPH-oxidase activity and the transient rise in intracellular Ca2+ induced by agonist exposure. ..
  31. Williams A, Flavell R, Eisenbarth S. The role of NOD-like Receptors in shaping adaptive immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) detect the presence of invading pathogens and are paramount in innate instruction of the ..
  32. Garlatti V, Martin L, Lacroix M, Gout E, Arlaud G, Thielens N, et al. Structural insights into the recognition properties of human ficolins. J Innate Immun. 2010;2:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of M-ficolin, a structural transition at acidic pH disables the binding pocket, and thus likely participates in the functional cycle of this protein. ..
  33. Krol E, Mentzel T, Chinchilla D, Boller T, Felix G, Kemmerling B, et al. Perception of the Arabidopsis danger signal peptide 1 involves the pattern recognition receptor AtPEPR1 and its close homologue AtPEPR2. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13471-9 pubmed publisher
    Plasma membrane-borne pattern recognition receptors, which recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, provide the first line of defense in innate immunity...
  34. Hartvigsen K, Chou M, Hansen L, Shaw P, Tsimikas S, Binder C, et al. The role of innate immunity in atherogenesis. J Lipid Res. 2009;50 Suppl:S388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Because innate immune mechanisms use conserved germline pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are preformed and present at birth, it is not obvious why they should bind to such ..
  35. Hong M, Ryan K, Arkwright P, Gennery A, Costigan C, Dominguez M, et al. Pattern recognition receptor expression is not impaired in patients with chronic mucocutanous candidiasis with or without autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..CMC patients have dysregulated cytokine production, suggesting that defective expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may underlie disease pathogenesis...
  36. Robinson M, Osorio F, Rosas M, Freitas R, Schweighoffer E, Gross O, et al. Dectin-2 is a Syk-coupled pattern recognition receptor crucial for Th17 responses to fungal infection. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2037-51 pubmed publisher
    Innate immune cells detect pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which signal for initiation of immune responses to infection...
  37. Waters P, Vaid M, Kishore U, Madan T. Lung surfactant proteins A and D as pattern recognition proteins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;653:74-97 pubmed
    Lung surfactant proteins A and D belong to a group of soluble humoral pattern recognition receptors, called collectins, which modulate the immune response to microorganisms...
  38. Wang H, Ryu W. Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000986 pubmed publisher
    ..A therapeutic implication of this work is that a strategy to interfere with the HBV Pol-DDX3 interaction might lead to the resolution of life-long persistent infection...
  39. Gonçalves G, Zamboni D, Camara N. The role of innate immunity in septic acute kidney injuries. Shock. 2010;34 Suppl 1:22-6 pubmed publisher inflammatory response, whereby the pathogen is initially sensed by innate immune receptors (pattern recognition receptors [PRRs])...
  40. Foldes G, Liu A, Badiger R, Paul Clark M, Moreno L, Lendvai Z, et al. Innate immunity in human embryonic stem cells: comparison with adult human endothelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10501 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR5 levels were similar between differentiated hESC and HAEC, and siRNA knockdown of TLR5 abolished the response to flagellin. These findings have potential implications for survival and function of grafted hESC-derived cells. ..
  41. Perdiguero B, Esteban M. The interferon system and vaccinia virus evasion mechanisms. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:581-98 pubmed publisher
    ..type II IFNs, targeting cytokines and chemokines, and antagonizing intracellular signaling pathways (pattern recognition receptors [PRRs] signaling)...
  42. Thornton C, Morgan G. Innate and adaptive immune pathways to tolerance. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2009;64:45-57; discussion 57-61, 251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Innate immune pathways of current interest are those involving pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, particularly their expression by epithelial cells and dendritic cells at ..
  43. Liu Y, Chen G, Zheng P. CD24-Siglec G/10 discriminates danger- from pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Trends Immunol. 2009;30:557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..damage (or danger)- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (DAMP and PAMP, respectively) through pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR) and/or Nod-like receptors (NLR)...
  44. Lebeer S, Vanderleyden J, De Keersmaecker S. Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: comparison with commensals and pathogens. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:171-84 pubmed publisher
    ..are key factors in this beneficial microorganism-host crosstalk, as they can interact with host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the gastrointestinal mucosa...
  45. Rehwinkel J, Reis E Sousa C. RIGorous detection: exposing virus through RNA sensing. Science. 2010;327:284-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we highlight recent progress in understanding how RLRs discriminate between the RNA content of healthy versus virus-infected cells, functioning as accurate sensors of virus invasion. ..
  46. Thompson I, Oyston P, Williamson D. Potential of the beta-glucans to enhance innate resistance to biological agents. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the benefits of dietary supplementation with beta-glucans in order to enhance innate resistance to biological agents are evaluated. ..
  47. Craig A, Ewan R, Mesmar J, Gudipati V, Sadanandom A. E3 ubiquitin ligases and plant innate immunity. J Exp Bot. 2009;60:1123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in mediating plant defence signalling is reviewed and examples where pathogens impinge on the host's ubiquitination machinery acting as molecular mimics to undermine defence are also highlighted. ..
  48. Buschow S, Figdor C. Dendritic cell subsets digested: RNA sensing makes the difference!. Immunity. 2010;32:149-51 pubmed publisher
    ..2010) report a comprehensive quantitative proteome of in vivo mouse spleen dendritic cell (DC) subsets: a data set of encyclopedic value already revealing that DC subsets exploit different RNA sensors for virus recognition. ..
  49. Mozer Lisewska I, Sikora J, Kowala Piaskowska A, Kaczmarek M, Dworacki G, Zeromski J. The incidence and significance of pattern-recognition receptors in chronic viral hepatitis types B and C in man. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2010;58:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..PRRs may also act as potent adjuvants in HBV vaccines. Their baseline mRNA levels may have predictive value in the course of antiviral therapy. ..
  50. Wakefield D, Gray P, Chang J, Di Girolamo N, McCluskey P. The role of PAMPs and DAMPs in the pathogenesis of acute and recurrent anterior uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:271-4 pubmed publisher
  51. Opitz B, van Laak V, Eitel J, Suttorp N. Innate immune recognition in infectious and noninfectious diseases of the lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:1294-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing evidence points to a key role of the innate immune system with its pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both infectious and noninfectious lung diseases, which include pneumonia, chronic ..
  52. Ranjan P, Bowzard J, Schwerzmann J, Jeisy Scott V, Fujita T, Sambhara S. Cytoplasmic nucleic acid sensors in antiviral immunity. Trends Mol Med. 2009;15:359-68 pubmed publisher
    The innate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense invading microbes and initiate a rapid protective response...