Summary: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. Olofsson S, Boström P, Andersson L, Rutberg M, Perman J, Boren J. Lipid droplets as dynamic organelles connecting storage and efflux of lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:448-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In the liver and intestine, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and chylomicrons are secreted by using the secretory pathway of the cell...
  2. Dane Stewart C, Watts G, Barrett P, Stuckey B, Mamo J, Martins I, et al. Chylomicron remnant metabolism studied with a new breath test in postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003;58:415-20 pubmed
    ..Impairment in the catabolism of chylomicron remnants may contribute to increased risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  3. Gin P, Beigneux A, Davies B, Young M, Ryan R, Bensadoun A, et al. Normal binding of lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apo-AV to GPIHBP1 containing a G56R amino acid substitution. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:1464-8 pubmed
    ..A hallmark of GPIHBP1 is the ability to bind lipoprotein lipase, chylomicrons, and apolipoprotein (apo-) AV...
  4. Van Dyck F, Braem C, Chen Z, Declercq J, Deckers R, Kim B, et al. Loss of the PlagL2 transcription factor affects lacteal uptake of chylomicrons. Cell Metab. 2007;6:406-13 pubmed
    ..Although chylomicrons are known to assemble in part within membrane secretory pathways, the modifications required for efficient ..
  5. Drover V, Ajmal M, Nassir F, Davidson N, Nauli A, Sahoo D, et al. CD36 deficiency impairs intestinal lipid secretion and clearance of chylomicrons from the blood. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1290-7 pubmed
    ..CD36 deficiency results in hypertriglyceridemia both in the postprandial and fasting states and in humans may constitute a risk factor for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. ..
  6. Fan Z, Wu J, Fang X, Sha X. A new function of Vitamin E-TPGS in the intestinal lymphatic transport of lipophilic drugs: enhancing the secretion of chylomicrons. Int J Pharm. 2013;445:141-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to examine whether Vitamin E-TPGS had a function in promoting the secretion of chylomicrons in enterocytes...
  7. Yli Jokipii K, Schwab U, Tahvonen R, Kurvinen J, Mykkänen H, Kallio H. Chylomicron and VLDL TAG structures and postprandial lipid response induced by lard and modified lard. Lipids. 2003;38:693-703 pubmed
    ..were less TAG with palmitic acid in the sn-2 position and more TAG with oleic acid in the sn-2 position in chylomicrons than in fat ingested. From 1...
  8. Sauvant P, Mekki N, Charbonnier M, Portugal H, Lairon D, Borel P. Amounts and types of fatty acids in meals affect the pattern of retinoids secreted in human chylomicrons after a high-dose preformed vitamin A intake. Metabolism. 2003;52:514-9 pubmed
    ..Newly absorbed vitamin A is secreted mainly as retinyl esters in chylomicrons. The effect of changing types and amounts of fatty acids on fatty acid composition of chylomicron retinoid ..
  9. Ghoshal S, Witta J, Zhong J, de Villiers W, Eckhardt E. Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:90-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The Golgi complex also contains newly formed chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that transport dietary long-chain fat through mesenteric lymph and blood...

More Information


  1. Iqbal J, Dai K, Seimon T, Jungreis R, Oyadomari M, Kuriakose G, et al. IRE1beta inhibits chylomicron production by selectively degrading MTP mRNA. Cell Metab. 2008;7:445-55 pubmed publisher
    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is needed to assemble chylomicrons in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of enterocytes...
  2. Siddiqi S, Siddiqi S, Mansbach C. Sec24C is required for docking the prechylomicron transport vesicle with the Golgi. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1093-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the COPII proteins are present at docking of PCTV with the Golgi and that Sec24C is required for this event. Sec23 plays a less important role. ..
  3. Beigneux A, Davies B, Gin P, Weinstein M, Farber E, Qiao X, et al. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 plays a critical role in the lipolytic processing of chylomicrons. Cell Metab. 2007;5:279-91 pubmed
    The triglycerides in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) along the luminal surface of the capillaries. However, the endothelial cell molecule that facilitates chylomicron processing by LpL has not yet been defined...
  4. Beigneux A, Franssen R, Bensadoun A, Gin P, Melford K, Peter J, et al. Chylomicronemia with a mutant GPIHBP1 (Q115P) that cannot bind lipoprotein lipase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:956-62 pubmed publisher
    GPIHBP1 is an endothelial cell protein that binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and chylomicrons. Because GPIHBP1 deficiency causes chylomicronemia in mice, we sought to determine whether some cases of chylomicronemia in humans could be ..
  5. Chung B, Liang P, Doran S, Cho B, Franklin F. Postprandial chylomicrons: potent vehicles for transporting cholesterol from endogenous LDL+HDL and cell membranes to the liver via LCAT and CETP. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1242-55 pubmed
    We examined whether postprandial (PP) chylomicrons (CMs) can serve as vehicles for transporting cholesterol from endogenous cholesterol-rich lipoprotein (LDL+HDL) fractions and cell membranes to the liver via lecithin:cholesterol ..
  6. Goldberg I, Eckel R, McPherson R. Triglycerides and heart disease: still a hypothesis?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The time is more than ripe for new and creative approaches to understanding the relationship of triglycerides and heart disease. ..
  7. Park Y, Grellner W, Harris W, Miles J. A new method for the study of chylomicron kinetics in vivo. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000;279:E1258-63 pubmed
    Our understanding of the metabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoprotein that transports dietary fat from the intestine to peripheral tissues, is incomplete...
  8. Fatma S, Yakubov R, Anwar K, Hussain M. Pluronic L81 enhances triacylglycerol accumulation in the cytosol and inhibits chylomicron secretion. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:2422-32 pubmed
    ..14C]PL81 inhibited the secretion of chylomicrons (CMs), lipoproteins essential for fat absorption, by differentiated Caco-2 cells similar to PL81...
  9. Adiels M, Matikainen N, Westerbacka J, Soderlund S, Larsson T, Olofsson S, et al. Postprandial accumulation of chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants is determined by the clearance capacity. Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that postprandial accumulation of the apoB48-carrying chylomicrons can be predicted from the clearance capacity of the lipolytic pathway, determined in the fasting state...
  10. Nguyen T, Sawyer J, Kelley K, Davis M, Rudel L. Cholesterol esterification by ACAT2 is essential for efficient intestinal cholesterol absorption: evidence from thoracic lymph duct cannulation. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..would increase cholesterol absorption efficiency by providing cholesteryl ester (CE) for incorporation into chylomicrons. The assumption was that absorption would be proportional to Acat2 gene dosage...
  11. Mansbach C, Siddiqi S. The biogenesis of chylomicrons. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:315-33 pubmed publisher
  12. Franssen R, Young S, Peelman F, Hertecant J, Sierts J, Schimmel A, et al. Chylomicronemia with low postheparin lipoprotein lipase levels in the setting of GPIHBP1 defects. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2010;3:169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that homozygosity for the C65Y or Q115P mutations is associated with low levels of LPL in the postheparin plasma, demonstrating that GPIHBP1 is important for plasma triglyceride metabolism in humans. ..
  13. Sun F, Stolinski M, Shojaee Moradie F, Lou S, Ma Y, Hovorka R, et al. A novel method for measuring intestinal and hepatic triacylglycerol kinetics. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E1041-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In fed study 2, 47% of the total TAG production rate (CM + VLDL1) was from CM. This methodology may be a useful tool for understanding the abnormalities in postprandial TAG kinetics in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. ..
  14. Robertson M, Parkes M, Warren B, Ferguson D, Jackson K, Jewell D, et al. Mobilisation of enterocyte fat stores by oral glucose in humans. Gut. 2003;52:834-9 pubmed
    ..After a fat load, fat is retained within the jejunal tissue and released into plasma following glucose ingestion, resulting in a peak in chylomicron-TG which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
  15. Kindel T, Lee D, Tso P. The mechanism of the formation and secretion of chylomicrons. Atheroscler Suppl. 2010;11:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..luminal digestion, followed by cellular uptake and processing, and subsequent extracellular transport of chylomicrons. We discuss the importance of acid and pancreatic lipase in lipid digestion...
  16. Gin P, Yin L, Davies B, Weinstein M, Ryan R, Bensadoun A, et al. The acidic domain of GPIHBP1 is important for the binding of lipoprotein lipase and chylomicrons. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..g. chylomicrons)...
  17. Jaschke A, Chung B, Hesse D, Kluge R, Zahn C, Moser M, et al. The GTPase ARFRP1 controls the lipidation of chylomicrons in the Golgi of the intestinal epithelium. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:3128-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe the essential role of ARFRP1 and its interaction with Rab2 in the assembly and lipidation of chylomicrons in the intestinal epithelium...
  18. Bysted A, Hølmer G, Lund P, Sandstrom B, Tholstrup T. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:24-34 pubmed
    ..fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols (TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL...
  19. Siddiqi S, Mahan J, Siddiqi S, Gorelick F, Mansbach C. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 is expressed in intestinal ER. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that VAMP7 is enriched in intestinal ER and that it plays a functional role in the delivery of triacylglycerol from the ER to the Golgi...
  20. James A, Pal S, Gennat H, Vine D, Mamo J. The incorporation and metabolism of amyloid-beta into chylomicron-like lipid emulsions. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003;5:179-88 pubmed
    ..Chylomicron-like lipid emulsions, resembling chylomicrons in composition, size and metabolism were prepared in the presence of [125I]Abeta1-40...
  21. Peretti N, Roy C, Sassolas A, Deslandres C, Drouin E, Rasquin A, et al. Chylomicron retention disease: a long term study of two cohorts. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;97:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides new insights on the phenotypic expression of CRD over time and emphasizes the need to screen the lipid profile of infants with chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive. ..
  22. During A, Harrison E. Mechanisms of provitamin A (carotenoid) and vitamin A (retinol) transport into and out of intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Lipid Res. 2007;48:2283-94 pubmed
    ..efflux into basolateral medium (BM) increased linearly with time, ROL in the nonlipoprotein fraction and REs in chylomicrons (CMs). In contrast to carotenoids, ROL uptake was proportional to ROL concentration (0.5-110 microM)...
  23. Nassir F, Wilson B, Han X, Gross R, Abumrad N. CD36 is important for fatty acid and cholesterol uptake by the proximal but not distal intestine. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19493-501 pubmed
    ..The findings support the role of CD36 in proximal absorption of dietary fatty acid and cholesterol for optimal chylomicron formation, whereas CD36-independent mechanisms predominate in distal segments. ..
  24. Shahnaz G, Hartl M, Barthelmes J, Leithner K, Sarti F, Hintzen F, et al. Uptake of phenothiazines by the harvested chylomicrons ex vivo model: influence of self-nanoemulsifying formulation design. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2011;79:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The uptake of phenothiazines by isolated plasma derived chylomicrons was investigated with short chain triglyceride (SCT) SNEDDS, medium chain triglyceride (MCT) SNEDDS, and long ..
  25. Lu S, Yao Y, Cheng X, Mitchell S, Leng S, Meng S, et al. Overexpression of apolipoprotein A-IV enhances lipid secretion in IPEC-1 cells by increasing chylomicron size. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3473-83 pubmed
    ..The EQQQ-rich region may play an inhibitory or modulatory role in chylomicron packaging in humans. ..
  26. Niu Y, Evans R. Metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicrons by streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart: effects of diabetes and lipoprotein preference. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1106-16 pubmed publisher
    Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons (CM) are major sources of fatty acid supply to the heart, but little is known about their metabolism in diabetic myocardium...
  27. Wang J, Hegele R. Homozygous missense mutation (G56R) in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPI-HBP1) in two siblings with fasting chylomicronemia (MIM 144650). Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:23 pubmed
    ..G56R heterozygotes in the family had fasting mild hypertriglyceridemia. Thus, a very rare GPIHBP1 missense mutation appears to be associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia. ..
  28. Lally S, Owens D, Tomkin G. Genes that affect cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol absorption, and chylomicron assembly: the relationship between the liver and intestine in control and streptozotosin diabetic rats. Metabolism. 2007;56:430-8 pubmed
    b>Chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) are abnormal in diabetes...
  29. Ruge T, Hodson L, Cheeseman J, Dennis A, Fielding B, Humphreys S, et al. Fasted to fed trafficking of Fatty acids in human adipose tissue reveals a novel regulatory step for enhanced fat storage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1781-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The adaptation toward increasing fat storage may provide an explanation for the beneficial properties of normal amounts of adipose tissue. ..
  30. Beigneux A, Gin P, Davies B, Weinstein M, Bensadoun A, Ryan R, et al. Glycosylation of Asn-76 in mouse GPIHBP1 is critical for its appearance on the cell surface and the binding of chylomicrons and lipoprotein lipase. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..GPIHBP1 binds both LPL and chylomicrons and is expressed on the luminal face of microvascular endothelial cells...
  31. Xie Y, Newberry E, Young S, Robine S, Hamilton R, Wong J, et al. Compensatory increase in hepatic lipogenesis in mice with conditional intestine-specific Mttp deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4075-86 pubmed
    ..These findings establish distinctive features for MTTP involvement in intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion and suggest that hepatic lipogenesis undergoes compensatory induction in the face of defective intestinal TG secretion. ..
  32. Mamo J, Watts G, Barrett P, Smith D, James A, Pal S. Postprandial dyslipidemia in men with visceral obesity: an effect of reduced LDL receptor expression?. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E626-32 pubmed h; RP: 3,120 +/- 511 vs. 1,308 +/- 177 U. ml(-1). h, respectively). A delay in the conversion of chylomicrons to remnants probably contributed to postprandial dyslipidemia in viscerally obese subjects...
  33. Black D. Development and physiological regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. I. Development of intestinal lipid absorption: cellular events in chylomicron assembly and secretion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G519-24 pubmed
    The newborn mammal must efficiently absorb dietary fat, predominantly as triacylglycerol, and produce chylomicrons to deliver this lipid to peripheral tissues...
  34. Lally S, Owens D, Tomkin G. Sitosterol and cholesterol in chylomicrons of type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects: the relationship with ATP binding cassette proteins G5 and G8 and Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 mRNA. Diabetologia. 2007;50:217-9 pubmed
  35. Werner A, Havinga R, Perton F, Kuipers F, Verkade H. Lymphatic chylomicron size is inversely related to biliary phospholipid secretion in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G1177-85 pubmed
    ..Altered CM size may have physiological consequences for postprandial CM processing. ..
  36. Davies B, Waki H, Beigneux A, Farber E, Weinstein M, Wilpitz D, et al. The expression of GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell binding site for lipoprotein lipase and chylomicrons, is induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..GPIHBP1 binds lipoprotein lipase and chylomicrons and is expressed along the luminal surface of microvascular endothelial cells...
  37. Sanders T, Berry S, Miller G. Influence of triacylglycerol structure on the postprandial response of factor VII to stearic acid-rich fats. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:777-82 pubmed
  38. Olivecrona G, Ehrenborg E, Semb H, Makoveichuk E, Lindberg A, Hayden M, et al. Mutation of conserved cysteines in the Ly6 domain of GPIHBP1 in familial chylomicronemia. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the conserved cysteines in the Ly6 domain are crucial for GPIHBP1 function. ..
  39. Takechi R, Galloway S, Pallebage Gamarallage M, Johnsen R, Mamo J. Three-dimensional immunofluorescent double labelling using polyclonal antibodies derived from the same species: enterocytic colocalization of chylomicrons with Golgi apparatus. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;129:779-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Colocalization of apo B and Golgi apparatus (75.2 +/- 8.5%) is consistent with the purported mode of secretion of these macromolecules. ..
  40. Zoltowska M, Ziv E, Delvin E, Sinnett D, Kalman R, Garofalo C, et al. Cellular aspects of intestinal lipoprotein assembly in Psammomys obesus: a model of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:2539-45 pubmed
    ..exhibited high levels of triglycerides (TGs) in the plasma and intestine and postprandial plasma chylomicrons and apo B-48 compared with normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic animals...
  41. O Brien P, Alborn W, Sloan J, Ulmer M, Boodhoo A, Knierman M, et al. The novel apolipoprotein A5 is present in human serum, is associated with VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons, and circulates at very low concentrations compared with other apolipoproteins. Clin Chem. 2005;51:351-9 pubmed
    ..examined the lipoprotein particle distribution of ApoA5 and found that ApoA5 was detectable in VLDL, HDL, and chylomicrons, but not LDL...
  42. Bharadwaj K, Hiyama Y, Hu Y, Huggins L, Ramakrishnan R, Abumrad N, et al. Chylomicron- and VLDL-derived lipids enter the heart through different pathways: in vivo evidence for receptor- and non-receptor-mediated fatty acid uptake. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37976-86 pubmed publisher
    ..However, LpL but not CD36 deficiency decreased VLDL-cholesteryl ester uptake. Endogenously labeled mouse chylomicrons were produced by tamoxifen treatment of ?-actin-MerCreMer/LpL(flox/flox) mice...
  43. Lind M, Jacobsen J, Holm R, Mullertz A. Intestinal lymphatic transport of halofantrine in rats assessed using a chylomicron flow blocking approach: the influence of polysorbate 60 and 80. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2008;35:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, there was a good correlation between the halofantrine transport to blood and lymphatics in the chylomicron flow blocking model and published results from the mesenteric lymph-cannulated model...
  44. Shoulders C, Stephens D, Jones B. The intracellular transport of chylomicrons requires the small GTPase, Sar1b. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004;15:191-7 pubmed
    ..and structural evolution of COPII (coat protein) transport carriers that are essential for the transport of chylomicrons from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus...
  45. Out R, Hoekstra M, de Jager S, de Vos P, van der Westhuyzen D, Webb N, et al. Adenovirus-mediated hepatic overexpression of scavenger receptor class B type I accelerates chylomicron metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. J Lipid Res. 2005;46:1172-81 pubmed
  46. Wang Y, Ghoshal S, Ward M, de Villiers W, Woodward J, Eckhardt E. Chylomicrons promote intestinal absorption and systemic dissemination of dietary antigen (ovalbumin) in mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8442 pubmed publisher
    ..contain long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate mesenteric lymph flux and postprandial transport of chylomicrons through mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and blood...
  47. Hussain M, Fatma S, Pan X, Iqbal J. Intestinal lipoprotein assembly. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005;16:281-5 pubmed
    ..with the formation of primordial, phospholipid-rich particles in the membrane, and their conversion to large chylomicrons occurs in the lumen of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum...
  48. Bietrix F, Yan D, Nauze M, Rolland C, Bertrand Michel J, Comera C, et al. Accelerated lipid absorption in mice overexpressing intestinal SR-BI. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7214-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we described for the first time a functional role in vivo for SR-BI in cholesterol but also in triglyceride intestinal absorption. ..
  49. Nogueira J, Maraninchi M, Beliard S, Padilla N, Duvillard L, Mancini J, et al. Absence of acute inhibitory effect of insulin on chylomicron production in type 2 diabetes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1039-44 pubmed publisher
    Overproduction of intestinally derived apoB-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) (chylomicrons) has recently been described in type 2 diabetes, as is known for hepatic TRL-apoB-100 (very-low-density lipoprotein) production...
  50. Cefalù A, Calvo P, Noto D, Baldi M, Valenti V, Lerro P, et al. Variable phenotypic expression of chylomicron retention disease in a kindred carrying a mutation of the Sara2 gene. Metabolism. 2010;59:463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..More studies are needed to understand the reasons of the phenotypic variability of the same molecular defect in the same family. ..
  51. Fuhrman B, Volkova N, Aviram M. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is present in postprandial chylomicrons. Atherosclerosis. 2005;180:55-61 pubmed
    ..As diet affects serum PON1 activity, we questioned whether PON1 is also carried by postprandial chylomicrons. Chylomicrons were isolated by ultracentrifugation from plasma of 10 healthy men, 3h after the consumption of a ..
  52. Charcosset M, Sassolas A, Peretti N, Roy C, Deslandres C, Sinnett D, et al. Anderson or chylomicron retention disease: molecular impact of five mutations in the SAR1B gene on the structure and the functionality of Sar1b protein. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;93:74-84 pubmed
    ..A determination of the specific mutation in Anderson disease or CMRD is required to ensure diagnosis and allow prompt therapeutic intervention in these children. ..
  53. Vreugdenhil A, Rousseau C, Hartung T, Greve J, Van T Veer C, Buurman W. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein mediates LPS detoxification by chylomicrons. J Immunol. 2003;170:1399-405 pubmed
    b>Chylomicrons have been shown to protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. LPS-binding protein (LBP) is involved in the inactivation of bacterial toxin by lipoproteins...