ricin

Summary

Summary: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.

Top Publications

  1. Dayan Kenigsberg J, Bertocchi A, Garber E. Rapid detection of ricin in cosmetics and elimination of artifacts associated with wheat lectin. J Immunol Methods. 2008;336:251-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin can be detected in cosmetics at 0.005 microg/mL in the analytical sample using lateral flow devices (LFDs). Wheat germ, an ingredient used in skin care products is also a potential source of wheat lectin...
  2. Neal L, McCarthy E, Morris C, Mantis N. Vaccine-induced intestinal immunity to ricin toxin in the absence of secretory IgA. Vaccine. 2011;29:681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..constitute a ubiquitous family of plant- and bacterium-derived toxins that includes the category B select agents ricin, abrin and shiga toxin...
  3. David J, Wilkinson L, Griffiths G. Inflammatory gene expression in response to sub-lethal ricin exposure in Balb/c mice. Toxicology. 2009;264:119-30 pubmed publisher
    The toxin ricin has been shown to cause inflammatory lung damage, leading to pulmonary oedema and, at higher doses, mortality...
  4. Tan Q, Dong D, Yin X, Sun J, Ren H, Li R. Comparative analysis of depurination catalyzed by ricin A-chain on synthetic 32mer and 25mer oligoribonucleotides mimicking the sarcin/ricin domain of the rat 28S rRNA and E. coli 23S rRNA. J Biotechnol. 2009;139:156-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin A-chain can inactivate eukaryotic ribosomes, but exhibits no N-glycosidase activity on intact E. coli ribosomes...
  5. Pratt T, Pincus S, Hale M, Moreira A, Roy C, Tchou Wong K. Oropharyngeal aspiration of ricin as a lung challenge model for evaluation of the therapeutic index of antibodies against ricin A-chain for post-exposure treatment. Exp Lung Res. 2007;33:459-81 pubmed
    To investigate the effectiveness of passive antibody treatment as post-exposure therapy for ricin, we had developed an oropharyngeal aspiration model for ricin lethal challenge and antibody administration...
  6. Skånland S, Walchli S, Utskarpen A, Wandinger Ness A, Sandvig K. Phosphoinositide-regulated retrograde transport of ricin: crosstalk between hVps34 and sorting nexins. Traffic. 2007;8:297-309 pubmed
    The plant toxin ricin is transported from the plasma membrane via early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. From this compartment, it enters the cytosol and inhibits protein synthesis...
  7. HERRERA L, Bostrom B, Gore L, Sandler E, Lew G, Schlegel P, et al. A phase 1 study of Combotox in pediatric patients with refractory B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;31:936-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Combotox can be safely administered to children with refractory leukemia. It has clinically important anticancer activity as a single agent. The recommended dose for future studies is 5 mg/m2/dose. ..
  8. Keener W, Rivera V, Young C, Poli M. An activity-dependent assay for ricin and related RNA N-glycosidases based on electrochemiluminescence. Anal Biochem. 2006;357:200-7 pubmed
    Synthetic biotinylated RNA substrates were cleaved by the combined actions of ricin holotoxin and a chemical agent, N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine...
  9. Zhao Z, WORTHYLAKE D, LeCour L, Maresh G, Pincus S. Crystal structure and computational modeling of the fab fragment from a protective anti-ricin monoclonal antibody. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52613 pubmed publisher
    ..We have solved the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of RAC18, a protective anti-ricin mAb, to 1.9 Å resolution...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Ho M, Sturm M, Almo S, Schramm V. Transition state analogues in structures of ricin and saporin ribosome-inactivating proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20276-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin A-chain (RTA) and saporin-L1 (SAP) catalyze adenosine depurination of 28S rRNA to inhibit protein synthesis and cause cell death. We present the crystal structures of RTA and SAP in complex with transition state analogue inhibitors...
  2. Utskarpen A, Slagsvold H, Iversen T, Walchli S, Sandvig K. Transport of ricin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is regulated by Rab6A and Rab6A'. Traffic. 2006;7:663-72 pubmed
    b>Ricin is transported from early endosomes and/or the recycling compartment to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and subsequently to the endoplasmic recticulum (ER) before it enters the cytosol and intoxicates cells...
  3. Schieltz D, McGrath S, McWilliams L, Rees J, Bowen M, Kools J, et al. Analysis of active ricin and castor bean proteins in a ricin preparation, castor bean extract, and surface swabs from a public health investigation. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;209:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of The Anarchist Cookbook, suspected castor beans and a "white powder" thought to be a preparation of ricin. Ricin is a deadly toxin from the seed of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis)...
  4. Furman R, Grossbard M, Johnson J, Pecora A, Cassileth P, Jung S, et al. A phase III study of anti-B4-blocked ricin as adjuvant therapy post-autologous bone marrow transplant: CALGB 9254. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011;52:587-96 pubmed publisher
    Anti-B4-blocked ricin (anti-B4-bR) is a potent immunotoxin directed against the CD19 antigen...
  5. Compton J, Legler P, Clingan B, Olson M, Millard C. Introduction of a disulfide bond leads to stabilization and crystallization of a ricin immunogen. Proteins. 2011;79:1048-60 pubmed publisher
    RTA1-33/44-198 is a catalytically inactive, single-domain derivative of the ricin toxin A-chain (RTA) engineered to serve as a stable protein scaffold for presentation of native immunogenic epitopes (Olson et al...
  6. Bharadwaj S, Rathore S, Ghosh P. Enhancement of the cytotoxicity of liposomal ricin by the carboxylic ionophore monensin and the lysosomotropic amine NH4Cl in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Int J Toxicol. 2006;25:349-59 pubmed
    b>Ricin was encapsulated in negatively charged liposomes and its effect on the cytotoxicity was compared with native ricin in Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells...
  7. Choi N, Estes M, Langridge W. Ricin toxin B subunit enhancement of rotavirus NSP4 immunogenicity in mice. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:54-63 pubmed
  8. Rasooly R, He X. Sensitive bioassay for detection of biologically active ricin in food. J Food Prot. 2012;75:951-4 pubmed publisher
    The potential use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare highlights the need to develop fast and effective methods to detect biologically active ricin...
  9. Gray J, Bae H, Li J, Lau A, Pestka J. Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase mediates induction of interleukin-8 expression by deoxynivalenol, Shiga toxin 1, and ricin in monocytes. Toxicol Sci. 2008;105:322-30 pubmed publisher
    ..PKR is essential for induction of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in monocytes by DON and two prototypical RIPs, ricin, and Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1)...
  10. Kumar O, Pradhan S, Sehgal P, Singh Y, Vijayaraghavan R. Denatured ricin can be detected as native ricin by immunological methods, but nontoxic in vivo. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:801-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin is a glycoprotein from Ricinus communis seeds. It is known to have diverse toxic effects on cells of different visceral organs...
  11. Marconescu P, Smallshaw J, Pop L, Ruback S, Vitetta E. Intradermal administration of RiVax protects mice from mucosal and systemic ricin intoxication. Vaccine. 2010;28:5315-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin toxin is a CDC level B biothreat. We have developed a ricin vaccine, RiVax, which is a recombinant mutant of ricin A chain. RiVax is safe, immunogenic and protective in mice when administered intramuscularly (IM)...
  12. Pruet J, Jasheway K, Manzano L, Bai Y, Anslyn E, Robertus J. 7-Substituted pterins provide a new direction for ricin A chain inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2011;46:3608-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin is a potent toxin found in castor seeds. The A chain, RTA, enzymaticlly depurinates a specific adenosine in ribosomal RNA, inhibiting protein synthesis. Ricin is a known chemical weapons threat having no effective antidote...
  13. Zhuang J, Cheng T, Gao L, Luo Y, Ren Q, Lu D, et al. Silica coating magnetic nanoparticle-based silver enhancement immunoassay for rapid electrical detection of ricin toxin. Toxicon. 2010;55:145-52 pubmed publisher
    We developed a novel silica coating magnetic nanoparticle-based silver enhancement immunoassay (SEIA) for ricin toxin (RT) rapid electrical detection using interdigitated array microelectrodes (IDAMs) as electrodes...
  14. Rao P, Jayaraj R, Bhaskar A, Kumar O, Bhattacharya R, Saxena P, et al. Mechanism of ricin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:855-65 pubmed
    The mechanism of ricin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa was studied...
  15. Garber E, O Brien T. Detection of ricin in food using electrochemiluminescence-based technology. J AOAC Int. 2008;91:376-82 pubmed
    b>Ricin is a toxic ribosome inactivating protein (RIP-II) present in beans of the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Its potential as a biodefense threat has made the rapid, sensitive detection of ricin in food important to the U.S...
  16. Lubelli C, Chatgilialoglu A, Bolognesi A, Strocchi P, Colombatti M, Stirpe F. Detection of ricin and other ribosome-inactivating proteins by an immuno-polymerase chain reaction assay. Anal Biochem. 2006;355:102-9 pubmed
    ..2.2.22) and cause an irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. Among type 2 RIPs, there are potent toxins (ricin is the best known) that are considered as potential biological weapons...
  17. Roday S, Sturm M, Blakaj D, Schramm V. Detection of an abasic site in RNA with stem-loop DNA beacons: application to an activity assay for Ricin Toxin A-Chain. J Biochem Biophys Methods. 2008;70:945-53 pubmed publisher
    The catalytic ability of Ricin Toxin A-Chain (RTA) to create an abasic site in a 14-mer stem-tetraloop RNA is exploited for its detection...
  18. Notingher I, Green C, Dyer C, Perkins E, Hopkins N, Lindsay C, et al. Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. J R Soc Interface. 2004;1:79-90 pubmed
    ..we show that this technology can be used to distinguish between changes induced in A549 lung cells by the toxin ricin and the chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard...
  19. Slominska Wojewodzka M, Gregers T, Walchli S, Sandvig K. EDEM is involved in retrotranslocation of ricin from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1664-75 pubmed
    The plant toxin ricin is transported retrogradely from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from where the enzymatically active part is retrotranslocated to the cytosol, presumably by the same mechanism as used by misfolded ..
  20. Fulton R, Thompson H. Fluorogenic hand-held immunoassay for the identification of ricin: rapid analyte measurement platform. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2007;28:227-41 pubmed
    ..exclusivity/specificity, sample matrix effects, ruggedness/stability, and reproducibility in detection of ricin (RCA(60)), a potential biological threat agent...
  21. McCluskey A, Poon G, Bolewska Pedyczak E, Srikumar T, Jeram S, Raught B, et al. The catalytic subunit of shiga-like toxin 1 interacts with ribosomal stalk proteins and is inhibited by their conserved C-terminal domain. J Mol Biol. 2008;378:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..7, 11, and 17 terminal residues of P1 and P2 confirmed that the A(1) chain of SLT-1 as well as the A chain of ricin bind to this shared C-terminal peptide motif...
  22. Huelseweh B, Ehricht R, Marschall H. A simple and rapid protein array based method for the simultaneous detection of biowarfare agents. Proteomics. 2006;6:2972-81 pubmed
    ..Specific immunoassays for Staphylococcus enterotoxin B, ricin, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, St...
  23. Mansouri S, Nourollahzadeh E, Hudak K. Pokeweed antiviral protein depurinates the sarcin/ricin loop of the rRNA prior to binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal A-site. RNA. 2006;12:1683-92 pubmed
    ..proteins, such as the pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), inhibit translation by depurinating the conserved sarcin/ricin loop of the large ribosomal RNA...
  24. Schindler J, Gajavelli S, Ravandi F, Shen Y, Parekh S, Braunchweig I, et al. A phase I study of a combination of anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 immunotoxins (Combotox) in adult patients with refractory B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2011;154:471-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Combotox is a 1:1 mixture of two immunotoxins (ITs), prepared by coupling deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRTA) to monoclonal antibodies directed against CD22 (RFB4-dgRTA) and CD19 (HD37-dgRTA)...
  25. Saenz J, Doggett T, Haslam D. Identification and characterization of small molecules that inhibit intracellular toxin transport. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4552-61 pubmed
    Shiga toxin (Stx), cholera toxin (Ctx), and the plant toxin ricin are among several toxins that reach their intracellular destinations via a complex route...
  26. Alford S, Pearson J, Carette A, Ingham R, Howard P. Alpha-sarcin catalytic activity is not required for cytotoxicity. BMC Biochem. 2009;10:9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutants are unable to activate JNK, confirming that the sarcin-ricin loop remains intact and that the alpha-sarcin mutants are catalytically inactive...
  27. Kalb S, Barr J. Mass spectrometric detection of ricin and its activity in food and clinical samples. Anal Chem. 2009;81:2037-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin is a potent toxin capable of inhibiting protein synthesis and causing death or respiratory failure. Because of its high availability and lethality, ricin is considered a likely agent for bioterrorism...
  28. Guo J, Shen B, Feng J, Sun Y, Yu M, Hu M. A novel neutralizing monoclonal antibody against cell-binding polypeptide of ricin. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2005;24:263-6 pubmed
    One strain of neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) against cell-binding polypeptide of ricin, named 3E1, was generated efficiently...
  29. Chiou J, Li X, Remacha M, Ballesta J, Tumer N. The ribosomal stalk is required for ribosome binding, depurination of the rRNA and cytotoxicity of ricin A chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1441-52 pubmed publisher
    Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) like ricin, pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) and Shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) share the same substrate, the alpha-sarcin/ricin loop, but differ in their specificities towards prokaryotic ..
  30. Wahome P, Robertus J, Mantis N. Small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and Shiga toxins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:179-207 pubmed publisher
    ..the successes and continuing challenges associated with the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of ricin and Shiga toxins, members of the RNA N-glycosidase family of toxins that irreversibly inactivate eukaryotic ..
  31. Moreau D, Kumar P, Wang S, Chaumet A, Chew S, Chevalley H, et al. Genome-wide RNAi screens identify genes required for Ricin and PE intoxications. Dev Cell. 2011;21:231-44 pubmed publisher
    Protein toxins such as Ricin and Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) pose major public health challenges. Both toxins depend on host cell machinery for internalization, retrograde trafficking from endosomes to the ER, and translocation to cytosol...
  32. McGrath S, Schieltz D, McWilliams L, Pirkle J, Barr J. Detection and quantification of ricin in beverages using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2011;83:2897-905 pubmed publisher
    The toxic plant protein ricin has gained notoriety due to wide availability and potential use as a bioterrorism agent, with particular concern for food supply contamination...
  33. Dawson R, Alderton M, Wells D, Hartley P. Monovalent and polyvalent carbohydrate inhibitors of ricin binding to a model of the cell-surface receptor. J Appl Toxicol. 2006;26:247-52 pubmed
    A selection of galactose and lactose analogues was evaluated for their potency in inhibiting the binding of ricin to immobilised asialofetuin, which is a model of the cell-surface receptor for ricin...
  34. He X, McMahon S, Henderson T, Griffey S, Cheng L. Ricin toxicokinetics and its sensitive detection in mouse sera or feces using immuno-PCR. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12858 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin (also called RCA-II or RCA(60)), one of the most potent toxins and documented bioweapons, is derived from castor beans of Ricinus communis...
  35. Garber E, Eppley R, Stack M, McLaughlin M, Park D. Feasibility of immunodiagnostic devices for the detection of ricin, amanitin, and T-2 toxin in food. J Food Prot. 2005;68:1294-301 pubmed
    ..1 mg/kg of body weight. Ricin (oral LD50 > 1 mg/kg), amanitin (oral LD50 approximately 0...
  36. Worbs S, Köhler K, Pauly D, Avondet M, Schaer M, Dorner M, et al. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:1332-72 pubmed publisher
    ..centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil...
  37. Gupta P, Liu S, Batavia M, Leppla S. The diphthamide modification on elongation factor-2 renders mammalian cells resistant to ricin. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1687-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that diphthamide-deficient cultured cells were threefold more sensitive than their parental cells towards ricin, a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP)...
  38. Korcheva V, Wong J, Corless C, Iordanov M, Magun B. Administration of ricin induces a severe inflammatory response via nonredundant stimulation of ERK, JNK, and P38 MAPK and provides a mouse model of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:323-39 pubmed
    Recent interest in the health consequences of ricin as a weapon of terrorism has led us to investigate the effects of ricin on cells in vitro and in mice...
  39. Sandvig K, Torgersen M, Engedal N, Skotland T, Iversen T. Protein toxins from plants and bacteria: probes for intracellular transport and tools in medicine. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2626-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These toxins include the plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin, which we will focus on in this article...
  40. Ostin A, Bergstrom T, Fredriksson S, Nilsson C. Solvent-assisted trypsin digestion of ricin for forensic identification by LC-ESI MS/MS. Anal Chem. 2007;79:6271-8 pubmed
    ..However, the beans contain 1-3% of the highly toxic protein ricin, a type II ribosome-inactivating protein that is covered by the Chemical Weapons Convention, and there have been a ..
  41. Papaloucas M, Papaloucas C, Stergioulas A. Ricin and the assassination of Georgi Markov. Pak J Biol Sci. 2008;11:2370-1 pubmed
    ..On the 7th September 1978 Markov received a deadly dose of the poison ricin by injection to his thigh by a specially modified umbrella. He died without a final diagnosis a few days later...
  42. Chamberlain K, Marshall R, Jolliffe N, Frigerio L, Ceriotti A, Lord J, et al. Ricin B chain targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco protoplasts is degraded by a CDC48- and vacuole-independent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33276-86 pubmed publisher
    The B chain of ricin was expressed and delivered to the endoplasmic reticulum of tobacco protoplasts where it disappeared with time in a manner consistent with degradation. This turnover did not occur in the vacuoles or upon secretion...
  43. Guglielmo Viret V, Thullier P. Comparison of an electrochemiluminescence assay in plate format over a colorimetric ELISA, for the detection of ricin B chain (RCA-B). J Immunol Methods. 2007;328:70-8 pubmed
    An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay for the detection of the B chain of ricin (RCA-B) in a 96-well plate format was developed in parallel with a colorimetric ELISA utilizing the same pair of antibodies...
  44. O Hara J, Neal L, McCarthy E, Kasten Jolly J, Brey R, Mantis N. Folding domains within the ricin toxin A subunit as targets of protective antibodies. Vaccine. 2010;28:7035-46 pubmed publisher
    Efforts to develop an effective vaccine against ricin are focused on the engineering of attenuated and stable recombinant forms of the toxin's enzymatic A subunit (RTA)...
  45. Arfilli V, Carnicelli D, Rocchi L, Ricci F, Pagliaro P, Tazzari P, et al. Shiga toxin 1 and ricin A chain bind to human polymorphonuclear leucocytes through a common receptor. Biochem J. 2010;432:173-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we show that the A chain of ricin, the well-known plant RIP (ribosome-inactivating protein), interacts with PMN (Kd=10?? M; 2×10? binding sites) ..
  46. Carter J, Odumosu O, Langridge W. Expression of a ricin toxin B subunit: insulin fusion protein in edible plant tissues. Mol Biotechnol. 2010;44:90-100 pubmed publisher
    ..by lymphocytes that mediate the suppression of autoimmunity, the non-toxic B chain of the plant AB enterotoxin ricin (RTB), a castor bean lectin binding a variety of epidermal cell receptors, was genetically linked to the coding ..
  47. He X, Brandon D, Chen G, McKeon T, Carter J. Detection of castor contamination by real-time polymerase chain reaction. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:545-50 pubmed
    Due to the potential for intentional contamination of food with crude preparations containing ricin, a real-time PCR method was developed for the detection of castor plant material in ground beef...
  48. Chen G, He X, McKeon T. A simple and sensitive assay for distinguishing the expression of ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin genes in developing castor seed (R. communis L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2358-61 pubmed
    ..Among the factors limiting domestic production of castor oil is the presence of the toxin ricin and its less toxic homologue Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) in seeds...
  49. Wang W, Hale C, Goulding D, Haslam S, Tissot B, Lindsay C, et al. Mannosidase 2, alpha 1 deficiency is associated with ricin resistance in embryonic stem (ES) cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22993 pubmed publisher
    ..generated with a PiggyBac transposon in Blm-deficient embryonic stem cells were exposed to the plant toxin, ricin. Resistant clones were isolated and genetically characterised and one was found to be a homozygous mutant of the ..
  50. Yermakova A, Mantis N. Protective immunity to ricin toxin conferred by antibodies against the toxin's binding subunit (RTB). Vaccine. 2011;29:7925-35 pubmed publisher
    The B subunit (RTB) of ricin toxin is a galactose-/N-acetyl galactosamine-specific lectin that promotes attachment and entry of ricin into host cells...
  51. Schep L, Temple W, Butt G, Beasley M. Ricin as a weapon of mass terror--separating fact from fiction. Environ Int. 2009;35:1267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, there are concerns that ricin could be employed as such an agent...
  52. Kim I, Ahn J, Liu C, Tanabe K, Apodaca J, Suzuki T, et al. The Png1-Rad23 complex regulates glycoprotein turnover. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:211-9 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the efficient degradation of glycosylated ricin A chain requires the Png1-Rad23 complex, suggesting that this complex couples protein deglycosylation and ..
  53. He X, McMahon S, McKeon T, Brandon D. Development of a novel immuno-PCR assay for detection of ricin in ground beef, liquid chicken egg, and milk. J Food Prot. 2010;73:695-700 pubmed
    ..b>Ricin is a protein toxin that has been used for intentional contamination of foods in the past...
  54. Frawley D, Samaan M, Bull R, Robertson J, Mateczun A, Turnbull P. Recovery efficiencies of anthrax spores and ricin from nonporous or nonabsorbent and porous or absorbent surfaces by a variety of sampling methods*. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53:1102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..after the release of environmentally stable bioaggressive agents, as exemplified by anthrax spores and ricin. With anthrax spores, contact plates, with mean retrieval rates of 28-54%, performed better than other methods by ..
  55. Melchior W, Tolleson W. A functional quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for ricin, Shiga toxin, and related ribosome-inactivating proteins. Anal Biochem. 2010;396:204-11 pubmed publisher
    The potent toxins ricin, abrin, and other ribosome-inactivating proteins deadenylate a specific base in 28S ribosomal RNA that destroys ribosomes and leads to cell death...
  56. Tesh V. The induction of apoptosis by Shiga toxins and ricin. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2012;357:137-78 pubmed publisher
    Shiga toxins and ricin are ribosome-inactivating proteins which share the property of inhibiting protein synthesis by catalytic inactivation of eukaryotic ribosomes...
  57. Zou L, Zhan J. [Purification and anti-cancer activity of ricin]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;34:217-9 pubmed
    To extract and purify ricin from castor beans and to evaluate its anti-cancer activity. Ricin was purified from castor beans according the modified method of Nicolson and Blaustin. The lectins were extracted in 0...
  58. Coutts M, Kong L, Keirstead H. A model of motor neuron loss: selective deficits after ricin injection. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27:1333-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of the toxic lectin Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I or ricin) caused cellular deficit and loss of function by damaging the sciatic nerve...
  59. Pincus S, Smallshaw J, Song K, Berry J, Vitetta E. Passive and active vaccination strategies to prevent ricin poisoning. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:1163-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin toxin (RT) is derived from castor beans, produced by the plant Ricinus communis. RT and its toxic A chain (RTA) have been used therapeutically to arm ligands that target disease-causing cells...
  60. Yan Q, Li X, Tumer N. N-glycosylation does not affect the catalytic activity of ricin a chain but stimulates cytotoxicity by promoting its transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum. Traffic. 2012;13:1508-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Ricin A chain (RTA) depurinates the ?-sarcin/ricin loop after it undergoes retrograde trafficking to the cytosol. The structural features of RTA involved in intracellular transport are not known...
  61. Jandhyala D, Ahluwalia A, Obrig T, Thorpe C. ZAK: a MAP3Kinase that transduces Shiga toxin- and ricin-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:1468-77 pubmed publisher
    Shiga toxins (Stxs) and ricin initiate damage to host cells by cleaving a single adenine residue on the alpha-sarcin loop of the 28S ribosomal RNA...
  62. Gonzalez T, Farrant S, Mantis N. Ricin induces IL-8 secretion from human monocyte/macrophages by activating the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:1920-3 pubmed
    Polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) infiltration is a hallmark of ricin-induced mucosal inflammation, yet the cellular processes involved in initiating this reaction remain undefined...
  63. McLain D, Horn T, Detrisac C, Lindsey C, Smith L. Progress in biological threat agent vaccine development: a repeat-dose toxicity study of a recombinant ricin toxin A-chain (rRTA) 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc) in male and female New Zealand white rabbits. Int J Toxicol. 2011;30:143-52 pubmed publisher
    A recombinant ricin toxin A-chain 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc) was administered to male and female New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits (10/sex/group) in a repeat-dose toxicity study...
  64. Dyve A, Bergan J, Utskarpen A, Sandvig K. Sorting nexin 8 regulates endosome-to-Golgi transport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..the role of SNX8 in intracellular transport of the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin. After being endocytosed, these toxins are transported retrogradely from endosomes, via the Golgi apparatus and ..
  65. Spacková N, Sponer J. Molecular dynamics simulations of sarcin-ricin rRNA motif. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:697-708 pubmed
    Explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for sarcin-ricin domain (SRD) motifs from 23S (Escherichia coli) and 28S (rat) rRNAs...
  66. Nagatsuka T, Uzawa H, Ohsawa I, Seto Y, Nishida Y. Use of lactose against the deadly biological toxin ricin. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2010;2:1081-5 pubmed publisher
    Developing a technology for detecting and decontaminating biological toxins is needed. Ricin from Ricinus communis is a highly poisonous toxin; it was formerly used for an assassination in London and in postal attacks in the United ..
  67. Roels S, Coopman V, Vanhaelen P, Cordonnier J. Lethal ricin intoxication in two adult dogs: toxicologic and histopathologic findings. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:466-8 pubmed
    ..The 2 cases could be used to elucidate the lethal dose of ricin and the histopathologic lesions in dogs.